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MANAV BHARTI UNIVERSITY





SYLLABUS OF

M. PHARMA

(PHARMACOGNOSY)

COURSE STRUCTURE

2010
-
11






































SUBMITTED BY:

YOGENDER MALHOTRA








MANAV BHARTI UNIVERSITY

SYL
LABUS OF M.PHARMA (PHARMACOGNOSY
)

Semester I

No.

Subjects

1

Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis
-
І

2


Phytochemistry and Biogenesis of Natural Products
-
I

3.

Plant
Biotechnology

4

Cultivation of Medicinal Plants

5


Pharmacognosy Laboratory
-

I


Semester II

No.

Subjects

1

Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis
-

II

2


Phytochemistry and Biogenesis of Natural Products
-
II

3.

Evaluation of Drugs

4

Advances in Pharmacognosy

5.


Pharmacognosy Laboratory

II


Semester III & IV

Project and Dissertation work

Every student for the degree of Master of Pharmacy shall be required to undertake a
project
involing methodical research under the supervision of an guide and submit copies of thesis.








SEMESTER


I




BRANCH


III






PAPER


I



COG 301

:

ADVANCED PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS
-
І

THEORY

75 Hours(3 hrs./week)



1. ULTRAVIOLET AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY :

Brief review of electromagnetic spectrum, UV
-
Visible range, Interaction of electro
-
magnetic
radiation (UV
-
Vis) and matter and its effects, Chromophor
e and their interaction with EMR,
Woodward
-
Fieser rule. Beer
-
Lambert’s Law, Multicomponent analysis, derivative spectroscopy,
spectral correlation with structure.


Fluorescence, Phosphorescence
-

Theory, instrumentation and applications
.

2. INFRA
-
RED
SPECTROSCOPY:

Nature of Infra
-
red radiation, Interaction of IR radiation with organic molecule and effects on
bonds. Brief outline of IR instrumentation
and interpretation of spectra, including sample
preparation for spectroscopy, Influence of substituents
, ring size, hydrogen bonding, vibrational
coupling and field effect on frequency, Quantitative methods, FT
-
IR and applications,
spectral
interpretation with example.

3. RADIO IMMUNO ASSAY AND ELISA

Introduction, principle, instrumentation and a
pplicati
ons

4. ELECTROPHORESIS

Principle, tecmhniques, instrumentation including detecti
on strategies and applications.

5. HYPHENATED TECHNIQUES

Introduction and applications
-

GCMS, LCMS, OPLC, MPLC, LC
-
NMR.

Books Recommended:

1. Willard, H.H., Merrit, L.L., Dean, J.A., Settle P.A., Instrumental Methods of Analysis,
Van Nostrand.

2. Skoog, D.A., Heller, F.J., Nieman, T.A., Principles of Instrumental Analysis, WB
Saunders.

3. Hunson, J.W., ed. Pharmaceutical Analysis, Modern Me
thods, part A & B, Marcel Dekker.

4. Schirmer, R.E., ed. Modern Methods of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Vols 1, 2. Boca Raton
F.L., CRC Press.

5. Mann, C.K., et al., Instrumental Analysis Harper & Row.

6. Jaffe, H.H., Orchin M., Theory & Applications of Ult
raviolet Spectroscopy, Willy.

7. Silverstein, Spectrometric identification of Organic Compounds, Willy.

8. Bovey, F., Jelinski, L., Miran, P., Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Sau: Diego
Academic.

9. Stothers, J.B., Carbon
-
13 NMR.Spectroscopy, A
cademic.

10. Gordy, W., Theory & Applications of Electron Spin Resonance, Willy.

11. Haswell, S.J., ed. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Elsevier.

12. Ardrey, R.E., Pharmaceutical Mass Spectra, Pharmaceutical Press, London.

13. Budzikiewicz, et al., Int
erpretation of Mass Spectra of Organic Compounds, Holden
-
Day
San Francisco.

14. Beckett and Stenlake, Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, CBS.

15. Stahl, E., Thin Layer Chromatography
-

A laboratory Handbook, Springer
-
Verlag

16. Giddings, J.C., Principle
s and Theory
-

Dynamics of Chromatography, Marcel Dekker.

17. Sethi, P.D., Quantitative Analysis of Pharmaceutical formulations, CBS Publishers, New
Delhi.

18. Kemp William, Organic spectroscopy, Pal grave, New York.

19. Kalsi, P.S., Spectroscopy of orga
nic compounds, New age publishers, New Delhi.

20. Gross
-

Mass Spectrometry

21. WHO
-

Quality Assurance of Pharmaceuticals, Vol. I, II.

22. Sethi, P.D., HPLC, Quantitative Analysis of Pharmaceutical Formulations, CBS


Publishers, Delhi.

23. Sethi, P.D., HPTLC, Quantitative Analysis of Pharmaceutical Formulations, CBS
Publishers, Delhi.

24. Haffmann, Chromatography.

25. Sethi and Charcgankar, Identification of Drugs in Pharmaceutical Formulations by TLC.

26. Robert D. Braun, Introductio
n to Instrumental Analysis.

27. Wilfried, M.A. Niessen
-

Liquid Chromatography
-
Mass Spectrometry.

28. Harry G. Brittain, Spectroscopy of Pharmaceutical Solids.

29. George, S., Steroid Analysis in Pharmaceutical Industry.


30. Higuchi, Pharmaceutic
al Analysis.

31. Bidingmeyer, Practical HPLC Methodology and Applications.

32. Hoffmann, Mass Spectrometry: Principle and Application.

33. Scott, Techniques and Practice of Chromatography.

34. Wilkins, Identification of Microorganism by Mass Spectromet
ry.

35. Wu, Handbook for Size Exclusion Chromatography and related Techniques.







PAPER


II


COG 302: BIOGENESIS & CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS
-
I

THEORY

75 Hours (3 hrs./week)


1)

Detailed study of plant physiology a
nd plant Biochemistry, Study of
techniques

employed in the elucidation of Biosynthetic pathways and the study of

important


Biosynthetic pathways of plants like photosynthesis, Carbohydrate utilization,


Aromatic Biosynthesis, Isoprenoid Biosynthesis with special importance to active

principles.




2)

A


detailed

study

of

the

following

c
lasses

of

Natural

product

with

special

importance

to



occurrence, chemistry, Biosynthesis, isolation, purification and

estimation by Physical,
Chemical and Biological methods.





a) Polypeptide


Proteins


Preparation of insulin, Vasopreesin and Oxyt
ocin.

b) Alkaloids
-

Atropine, Ergometrine, Reserpine and Vinblastine, morphine and

its synthetic analogues. Hypercin, Ginkobiloba, Forskolin.

c) Steroids


Chemistry and stereochemistry of Cholesterol, Preparation and

Chemistry of corticosteroids.

d)
Glycosides


Cardiac glycosides like Digoxin, Scillaren
-
A, Ovabain and

Peruvoside.

e) Antibiotics


Penicillin, semisynthetic penicillins and Tetracylclines.

f) Vitamins


Vitamin A, Folic acid, Vitamin
-
B12 and Vitamin C.

3)
Phytochemistry :


Introductio
n and general methods of phytochemical plant analysis, methods of

extraction, isolation, separation, identification and analysis of results.


Recommended Books:


1. Pharmacognosy by G.E. Trease, W.C. Evans, ELBS.

2. Text Book of Pharmacognosy by T.E.
Wallis, CBS Pub. Delhi.

3. Chromatography of Alkaloids by Vapoorte, Swendson.

4. Elements of chromatography by P.K.Lala.

5. Introduction to chromatography theory & Practicals by V.K. Srivastava, K.Kishore.

6. Principles of Biotechnology by Leininger.

7. Je
nkins Quantitative Pharmacuetical Chemistry by A.N.Knevell.

8. Handbook of vitamins by L.J.Machlein.

9. Clerk’s Isolation & Identification of drugs by A.C.Mottal.

10. Selected Topics in Exp
-
Pharmacology by Seth.V.K.

11. Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry by wolf
f.M.I.

12. Wilson & Gisvolds Text Book of organic Medicinal and Pharmacuetical Chemistr by

Deorge.R.F.

13. Phytochemical methods of chemical analysis by Harbone.

14. Organic chemistry vol.II by I.L.Finar.

15. The Essential oil by Gunther.E.

16. The use of

Pharmacological techniques for the evaluation of natural products by

B.N.DhavanR.C.Srimal. CDRI, Lucknow.

17. Practical Pharmacognosy by Dr.C.K. Kokate.

18. Practical Pharmacognosy by Dr.P.K.Lala.

19. Herbal medicines


Janne Barnes, Linda. A.Anderson.

20
. Chinese materia medica


Yaru


PingZhu.

21. Natural products from plants


Peter.B.Kanfman.

22. Selection, Preparation and pharmacological evaluation of plant material

M.Williamson,
David T.Okpako, J.Evans
.



PAPER


II
I


COG 303: Plant Biotechnology

THEORY

75 Hours (3 hrs./week)


1.
Plant Biotechnology

i. Introduction and brief history

ii. Tools of Biotechnology

iii. Impact of Biotechnology on pharmaceutical industry.

iv. Biotechnology in drug discovery.

2
.

Plant Tissue Culture


A detailed study of plant
tissue culture and its application in pharmacognosy :


a. Introduction, History and development of plant tissue culture.


b. Laboratory requirements and general techniques.


c. Tissue culture media, nutrients and mineral supplements.



d. Callus culture.


e. Isolated culture and genetic manipulation of plant protoplasts.


f. Secondary product formation by cell suspension cultures.


g. Hairy root culture and its applications.


h. Biotransformation.

3
.
Seconda
ry metabolites in tissue culture:
Production of medicinal

agents in tissue culture, screening and selection of high yielding cell lines. Effect

of environmental factors, precursors and elicitors on production of biomedicinals

4. Secondary plant metabolism

a. Primary and secondary metabolism.

b. The function of secondary metabolites.

c. The usefulness of secondary metabolites.

d. Secondary metabolites in chemosystematics.

e. Plant tissue culture as a medium of study of secondary plant metabolism.


5. Microchemical Analysis

A study of the elements of optical crystallography, using ordinary light

microscope, the polarizing microscope, the polarizing microscope and various

microtechniques useful in the identification of crude drugs and their constitue
nts.

Recommended Books:

1. Pharmacognosy by G. E.Trease, W.C.Evans, ELBS.

2
. Introduction to Biotechnology by Bullock, John.

3
. Biotechnology of Higher plants by Gorden E. Russel

4
. Modern Biotechnology by S.B. Primrose.

5
. Plant cell culture


A practica
l approach by R.A. Dixon.

6
. Plant cell culture technology by M.M. Yeoman.

7
. Plant tissue culture by Dennis N.Butcher, David. S.Ingram.

8
. Plant tissue culture by Pitman.

9
. Plant tissue culture


theory & practice by S.S.Bhajwani, M.K.Razdan.

10
. A Labor
atory guide to Organic Natural Products by R.Ikan

11
. Biotechnology of Industrial antibiotics by E.J.Vardamme.

12
. Principles of Biotechnology by Leininge

13
. Industrial Microbiology by L.E.Cassida.

14
. Microbial Technology by Peppler, Perlman

15
. Phyto
chemical methods of chemical analysis by Harbone.

16
. Secondary plant metabolism by Margaret L.Vikery, Brian Vikery.

17
. Practical Pharmacognosy by Dr.C.K.Kokate.

18
. Practical Pharmacognosy by Dr.P.K.Lala.

19
. The review of Natural products


Ara Dermarde
rosia.

20
. Phytochemical Dictionary


Jestorey. B.Harbone.FRS.

21
. PDR for Herbal medicines.

22
. Methods in plant tissue culture


U.Kumar.

23
. Plant cell and tissue culture


Angela Stafford and Grahamwarren.

24
. Modern methods of plant analysis

High
performance Liquid chromatography in

plant science

H.F.Linskens and J.F.Jacksons.

25
. Indian Herbal Pharmacopiea
-
Regional Research Laboratory..

26. A.N. Kalia, Textbook of Industrial Pharmacognosy, CBS Publishers, New Delhi
.




PAPER


IV



COG 304:

Cultivation of Medicinal Plants


THEORY 75
Hours (3 hrs./week)


1.

General aspects of sources of natural medicinal products
.

2.

General cultivation of medicinal plants, their merits and Demerits.


a. General aspects.


b. Factors involved.


c. Methods used to improve the Quality.


d. Pest control.


3.
Cultivation of Rauwolfia, Digitalis, Senna, Clove, Cardamom, Plantago,Artemisia annua,
Coleus forskoli, Aloe,
Belladonna, Cinchona, Digitalis, Dioscorea, Datura, Ginseng
,
Glycyrrhiza, Periwinkle, Plantago, Podophyllum, Rauwolfia, Senna and Withania.


4 .
Commerce and Quality control of natural medicine products including

organoleptic, microscopical, physical, chemical and biological

evaluation of crude drugs as per WHO gu
idelines.


5.
An overview of poisonous plants and their mode of toxicity with special

emphasis to indigenous poisonous plants.


6.

Good agricultural and harvesting practice.


Books Recommended:


1. W.C.Evans, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 15th
edition, W.B. Sounders &

Co., London, 2002.

2. Tyler, V.E., Brady, L.R. and Robbers, J.E., Pharmacognosy, 9th Edn., Lea and

Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988.

3. J. Reinert and Y.P.S Bajaj, Applied and Fundamental Aspects of Plant Cell,

Tissue and Organ Culture,

Narora Publishing House, New Delhi, 1998.

4. S. S. Purohit and S. B. Vyas, Medicinal plant cultivation (A Scientific approach),

Agrobios, Jodhpur, 2004

5. N.J.Walton and D.E.Brown, Chemicals from Plants, Imperial College Press,

Londo



PAPER


V




COG 305:

Pharmacognosy Laboratory

I

PRACTICAL


16 Hrs/Week



1.
Qualitative and Quantitative Microscopic Examination
: Microscopic

evaluation of powdered
drugs and their mixtures with adulterants.

2.
Spectral Workshop
: Worksho
p involving interpretation of IR, NMR and MassSpectra of
organic compounds to elucidate their chemical structure.

3.



Exercises based on standardization and quality control of plant drugs.

4.
Quantitative Estimation of Phytoconstituents

: Determination of

phytoconstituents in crude
drugs and commercial herbal formulations.

Pharmacopoeial evaluation of natural products.

5. Determination of ash values, extractive values, swelling index and foaming index

of crude
drugs as per WHO Geneva Guidelines.


6. Quanti
tative estimation of phytoconstituents based on theory by chemical and

spectrophotometric method.


7. Preparation of detailed monograph of atleast one medicinal plant covering

Taxonomy, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological investigation with its use in

tradi
tional system of medicine.


8. Some basic experiments on plant tissue culture

.


9
. Extraction and isolation of volatile oils.






SEMESTER


I
I




BRANCH


III






PAPER


I


























COG 306

: ADVANCED PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS
-

II


THEORY 75 Hours(3 hrs./wee
k)

1. NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY

Introduction of NMR, magnetic nuclear, chemical shift, shielding, relaxation proce
ss, chemical
& magnetic non equivalence, local diamagnetic shielding and magnetic anisotropy, spin splitting,
Pascal triangle, coupling constant, mechanism of coupling. Effect of stereochemistry on the
spectrum, shift reagent, application of H
1
NMR with
some examples. C
13

NMR introductions and
its structural applications.

2. MASS SPECTROSCOPY

Introduction of mass, Essential components of a mass spectrometer, types of ions, molecular ion,
fragment ion, rearrangement ion, metastable ion, Isotopic ions and
their corresponding peaks,
rules of fragmentation, Mc Lafferty rearrangement, Retro Diels Alder and other fragmentation
patterns. Chemicals ionization mass spectroscopy (CIMS) , field ionization mass spectroscopy
(FIMS) , Fast atom bombardment mass spectro
scopy ( MFABMS).

3. CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES

a) Classification of chromatographic methods based on mechanism of separation: paper
chromatography, thin layer chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, column
chromatography and affinity chromatography


techniques and applications.

b) Theory, Principal and applications of following chromatographic techniques


Gas
Chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), RP


HPLC, high
performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)


Books Recom
mended:

1. Willard, H.H., Merrit, L.L., Dean, J.A., Settle P.A., Instrumental Methods of Analysis,
Van Nostrand.

2. Skoog, D.A., Heller, F.J., Nieman, T.A., Principles of Instrumental Analysis, WB
Saunders.

3. Silverstein, Spectrometric identification
of Organic Compounds, Willy.

4. Sethi, P.D., Quantitative Analysis of Pharmaceutical formulations, CBS Publishers, New
Delhi.

5. Kemp William, Organic spectroscopy, Pal grave, New York.

6. Kalsi, P.S., Spectroscopy of organic compounds, New age publisher
s, New Delhi.

7. Gross
-

Mass Spectrometry

8. WHO
-

Quality Assurance of Pharmaceuticals, Vol. I, II.

9. Sethi, P.D., HPLC, Quantitative Analysis of Pharmaceutical Formulations, CBS


Publishers, Delhi.

10. Sethi, P.D., HPTLC, Quantitative Anal
ysis of Pharmaceutical Formulations, CBS
Publishers, Delhi.

11. Haffmann, Chromatography.

12. Sethi and Charcgankar, Identification of Drugs in Pharmaceutical Formulations by TLC.

13. Robert D. Braun, Introduction to Instrumental Analysis.

14. Wilfried
, M.A. Niessen
-

Liquid Chromatography
-
Mass Spectrometry.

15. Harry G. Brittain, Spectroscopy of Pharmaceutical Solids.

16. George, S., Steroid Analysis in Pharmaceutical Industry.


17. Higuchi, Pharmaceutical Analysis.

18. Bidingmeyer, Practical
HPLC Methodology and Applications.

19. Hoffmann, Mass Spectrometry: Principle and Application.

20. Scott, Techniques and Practice of Chromatography.

21. Wilkins, Identification of Microorganism by Mass Spectrometry.

22. Wu, Handbook for Size Exclusion
Chromatography and related Techniques.




PAPER


II


COG 307
: BIOGENESIS & CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS
-
I
I


THEORY

75 Hours (3 hrs./week)


1.

Industrial methods of isolation and estimation of the following natural


products


a) Digoxin


b) Sennosides


c) Diosgenin


d) Hesperidin



e) Tannic acid


f) Pectin


g) Atropine


h) Quinine


i) Emetin


j) Hydroxycitric acid


k) Forskolin


2.


General methods of screening natural products for the following Biological


a
ctivities and their structural activity


a) Anti
-
inflamatory Activity.


b) Hypoglyceimic.


c) Diuretic.


d) Cardiac Activity.


e) Antiviral & Antibacterial Activity.


f) Antineoplastic Activity.


g) Psychopharmacological Activity.


h) Antifertility Activity.


i) Screening of Invitro Antioxidant Activity.


j) Antiulcer Activity.


k) Hepato protective Acti
vity.


Recommended Books:

1. Pharmacognosy by G.E. Trease, W.C. Evans, ELBS.

2. Pharmacognosy by Varro E.Tyler, Lynn. R.Brady, James E.Robbers.

3. Text Book of Pharmacognosy by T.E. Wallis, CBS Pub. Delhi.
















































.
4. Supplement to cultivation and utilization of medicinal plants, S.S. Handa and M.L. Kaul.

5. Phyto chemical methods of chemical analysis by Harbone.

6. Practical Pharmacognosy by Dr.C.K.Kokate.

7. Practical Pharmacognosy by Dr.P.K.Lala.

8. The rev
iew of Natural products


Ara Dermarderosia.

9. Phytochemical Dictionary


Jestorey. B.Harbone.FRS.

10. PDR for Herbal medicines.

11. Methods in plant tissue culture


U.Kumar.

12. Plant cell and tissue culture


Angela Stafford and Grahamwarren.

13. Phyto
chemicals


R.Bidlack, Tomaye, s.Meskin.

14. Propagating plants


Alan toogood.

15. Modern methods of plant analysis

High performance Liquid chromatography in

plant
science

H.F.Linskens and J.F.Jacksons.

16. Indian Herbal Pharmacopiea
-
Regional Research
Laboratory.

17. Principles and practice of phytotherapy
-

Simon Mills & Kerry Bone.





PAPER


III



COG 308
:
Evaluation of Drugs


THEORY

75 Hours (3 hrs./week)



1.

Concept of standardization of plant drugs
.



2.
Organoleptic evaluation
of drugs including Gross morphology, sampling, Preliminary


examination and foreign matter.



3.
Microscopic evaluation of plant drugs:
Quantitative microscopy, vein islet number,


vein termination number, stomatal number, stomatal index, palisade ratio and number of


sclerenchyma. Micrometry, measurement of fibers, trichomes, starch grains and calcium


oxalate crystals. Lycopodium spore analysis. Fluorescence analysis.



4.
Physical evaluation of plant drug:
Determination of moisture content, f
oreign


organic matter, ash values, extractive values and swelling index. Refractive index,


optical rotation and their applications in standardization of plant drugs.



5. Phytochemical evaluation of plant drug:
General methods of

assays for alkaloids,


steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins and coumarins.



6. Fingerprint profiling of crude drugs and single and multicomponent herbal preparation.


Stability testing of natural products
.



7.

Analysis of Ayurvedic Formulations and crude drugs with references to: Identity, purity
and quality of crude drugs. Determination of pesticide residues, determination of arsenic and
heavy metals, determination of microorganisms, determination
of microbial load in crude drugs.
Identification of aflatoxins in crude drugs. Quality assurance in herbal drug industry, concept of
GMP and ISO
-
9000.



Books Recommended:



1. Vogel, Drug Discovery and Evaluation.

2. Dhawan, B.N., Shrimal, R.C., Use of
Pharmalogical Techniques for the Evaluation of
Natural Products, CDRI, Lucknow.

3. Ayurvedic Formulary of India.

4. Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.

5. Indian herbal Pharmacopoeia.

6. Ashutosh Kar, Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology, New Age International
Publishers.

7. Indian Pharmacopoeia 2007.

8. European Pharmacopoeia 6
th
Edn. 2008.

9. Pulok K. Mukherjee, Quality Control of Herbal drugs. An Approach to Evaluation of
Botanicals.

10. Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant Material, WHO Headquarters, Geneva.

11. Standardization of Botanicals by V. Rajpal, Vol. I & II, Eastern Publ
ishers, New Delhi.

12. Evans, W.C., Trease & Evans Pharmacognosy, W.B. Saunders & Co. London.

13. WHO guidelines, Methodologies on Research for Drug Development and Evaluation of
Traditional Medicines.

14. Willard, H.H., Merrit, L.L., Dean, J.A., Settle

P.A., Instrumental Methods of Analysis,
Van Nostrand.

15. Skoog, D.A., Heller, F.J., Nieman, T.A., Principles of Instrumental Analysis, W.B
Saunders.

16. Hunson, J.W., Pharmaceutical Analysis
-

Modern Methods, part A & B, Marcel Dekker.

17. Schirmer, R
.E., Modern Methods of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Vol. 1, 2, Boca Raton F.L:
CRC Press.


18. Mann, C.K. et al., Instrumental Analysis, Harper & Row.

19. Jaffe, H.H., Orchin, M., Theory & Applications of Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, Willy.

20. Silverstei
n, R.M., et al., Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, Willy.

21. Bovey, F., Jelinski, L, Miran, P., Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Sau: Diego
Academic.

22. Stothers, J.B., Carbon
-
13 NMR.Spectroscopy, Academic.

23. Gordy, W., Theo
ry & Applications of Electron Spin Resonance, Willy.

24. Haswell, S.J., Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Elsevier.

25. Ardrey, R.E., Pharmaceutical Mass Spectra, Pharmaceutical press, London.


26. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Vol. I
& II.

27. WHO Quality Control Methods of Medicinal Plant Materials.

28. WHO, International Pharmacopoeia, Vol. I
-
V.

29. Wilfried, M.A., Niessen, Liquid Chromatography
-
Mass Spectrometry.

30. Harry, G. Brittain, Spectroscopy of Pharmaceutical Solids.

31. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia,Vol. 1 & 2.

32. Wallis, T.E., Practical Pharmacognosy.

33. Gorag, Steroid Analysis in Pharmaceutical Industry.

34. Wagner’s, Plant Drug Analysis, A Thin layer Chromatography, Atlas.

35. Bogers, Medicinal and Aromatic pla
nts, Agricultural, Commercial, Ecological, Legal,
Pharmacological and Social Aspects.





PAPER


IV


COG 309
:

Advances in Pharmacognosy


THEORY 75 Hours (3 hrs./we
ek)




1.


Drug discovery and development from natural products with special emphasis on


drugs derived from the following Plants:
Digitalis, Artemesia, Atropa belladonna,


Catharanthus roseus, Podophyllum
and
Taxus species.


2.


Comparative study of British herbal pharmacopeia Ayurvedic pharmacopeia of India,


Chinese, Japanese herbal pharmacopoeias, European pharmacopoeia, US


Formulary, W.H.O guidelines for herbal medicinal products.


3.


Pharmacognostic characterstics, chemical constituents and pharmacological basis of


therap
eutic uses of the following plants



3.1
Hepatoprotective plants:
Andrographis paniculata, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Picrorrhiza,


Silybum marianum
and
Swertia chirata.



3.2
Anti inflammatory plants:
Aesculus hippocastanum, Boswellia s
errata,


Commiphora mukul, Curcuma longa, Pluchea lanceolata and Vitex negundo.



3.3
Antidiabitic plants:
Allium cepa,Azadirachta indica, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus,


Gymnema sylvestris, Momordica charantia, Pterocarpus marsupi
um, Syzygium


cuminii and Trigonella foenum graecum
.



3.4
Plants used in cardiovascular disorders
:
Digitalis
,
Coleus forskohli, Garcinia


cambogia, Terminalia arjuna, Thevetia nerrifolia, Viscum album and Veratrum

.


3.5

Antiviral plants:
Echinaceae purpurea, Sambucus nigra, Saponaria officinalis,


Rhizophora species and Thuja occidentalis
.



3.6
Plants used as adaptogens and immunomodulators:
Allium sativum,


Asparagus racemosus, Ganoderma
species, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng,


Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia and Withania somnifera.



3.7
Anticancer drugs:
Camptotheca acuminata, Catharanthus roseus, Podophyllum


species and Taxus species


4.

Nutraceutical:
A biochemical background of use of herbal products, anthocyanins,
proanthocyanidins, flavanones and resveratrol.


5.

Marine Pharmacognosy: Definition, present status, classification of important bioactive
agents, their general methods of isolation and purific
ation (where reported), study of
important bioactive agents including their chemistry and uses.


Books Recommended:


1. Evans, W.C., Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy W.B., Saunders & Co. London.

2. Plant Drug Analysis by Wagner.

3.Rajdan, M., Introduction

to Plant Tissue Culture, Oxford IBH Publishing Co.
Pvt.

Ltd.,New Delhi.



4. Martin Dean F, Gorge Padilla, Marine Pharmacognosy.

5. Human Medicinal Agents from Plants Manual F. Balandrin, American Chemical
Society.

6. Natural Products, Drug
Discovery and Therapeutic Medicines, Human press.

7. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry by Mohammad Ali, CBS Publishers &
Distribution,New Delhi.


8. Kalia, A.N., Text Book of Industrial Pharmacognosy.

9. Vyas, S.P., Dixit, V.K., Pharmaceutical Biotechnology.

10. Tyler, Brady and Robbers, Pharmacognosy.

11. Jarald, Text Book of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry.

12. PDR for Nutritional Supplements.








PAPER


V



COG 310:

Pharmacognosy Laboratory

II

PRACTICAL


16 Hrs/Week



1.


Isolation
and Chemical Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents:

Isolation of


various phytoconstituents like curcumin, piperine, caffeine, hesperidin, berberine,


vasicine, glycyrrhizin and sennosides.


2.


Physico
-
chemical evaluation and TLC pro
files of various isolated phytochemical


constituents.


3.


Chromatographic Techniques:

Exercises based on paper, thin layer, column


chromatography and HPLC.




4.

Separation of solanaceous alkaloids from Datura/Belladonna by
column using


Alumina as adsorbent and identification by TLC


5.

Formulation of herbal cosmetics (Shampoo and Cream)
.


6.

Estimation of Total phenolic compounds from plant drugs.