NTUT Writing Week 12

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Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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NTUT Writing Week 12

“Method”

General Elements in the Method Section


**The elements included and the order in which they
are presented are not fixed.



--
Overview of the Experiment;


--
Population/Sample;


--
Location;


--
Restrictions/Limiting Conditions;


--
Sampling Technique;


--
Procedures (always included);


--
Materials (always included);


--
Variables;


--
Statistical Treatment.

Before Reading an Sample Passage


Consider the following:


1. What elements other than procedures and materials did the
author include in this passage?


2. Does the author include all the elements from the previous
list?


3. Did you find this procedural description clear and easy to
understand?

Sample Passage


In
-
Class Drill: Rearrange The Procedures in the Conventional Order


What Elements Are Used in the Following Sentences?


Fill in Appropriate Words and Tenses


**Correct Verb Tense in Procedural Descriptions


1. Should usually be described in the
simple past tense
: sentences
not written in the past tense usually do not refer to the procedures
used in the study. Instead they may describe standard procedures that
are commonly used by others.


Examples:


--
Surveys
were

sent to student health services at 180 colleges.


--
The study
was

carried out on a marine laboratory research vessel.


--
The generators
supplied

about 14,000 amps when fully operational.



**In a few fields of study, procedural descriptions can sometimes be
written in the simple present tense. You should check journals in your
field or ask your advisors to determine which convention to use.

Choosing the Appropriate Verb Voice
--

Active or Passive


1.
The passive voice

is used to describe the procedure in order to
depersonalize

the information. It also allows you to omit the agent (I
or we), placing the emphasis on the procedure and how it was done.


--
For reasons related to personal safety, the test facility
was
constructed

(by us) in a remote area 4 miles from the main road.


--
Tests
were conducted

(by me) with four different types of reactors.


(**You might be advised not to use the passive voice: some professors
or editors might prefer a more personal style using “I” or “we.”)



2. As for style, your choice of either voices should place
old
information

near the beginning of the sentence and
new
information at the end.


--
The four reactors we tested in the work reported here all contained a
platinum catalyst.


--
Each reactor
-
catalyst configuration will be described separately.


--
The quartz reactors were manufactured by the Wm. A. Sales
Company of Wheeling, Illinois.

**Structures of the Active and Passive Voices


Changing the Voice


1. We started construction of the reinforced concrete
structure in July, 1976, and completed it by May,
1977.


2. We built standard sections of forms for the casting
of the concrete.


3. We used concrete of the B225 type, in accordance
with government regulations. At the two ends of the
structure we constructed
wingwalls
, and we installed
three side openings on the downhill side to provide
enough daylight to render the use of electric lights
unnecessary.

Using 3 Types of Short Passive Forms to Describe Procedure


(I).
The 1st Type:

compound sentence with 2 identical subjects & two
or more verbs in the passive. To shorten this kind of sentence, omit the
subject

and the
be auxiliary

in the second part of the sentence.


Example:



(II).
The 2nd Type:

also a compound. In this case there are two
different subjects, each with different verbs in the passive voice. To
shorten this type of sentence, omit the be auxiliary before the second
verb.


Example:



(III).
The 3rd Type:

has a
which clause

containing a passive verb
form. In this case, you can shorten the clause by dropping “which” and
the
be auxiliary
.


Example:



Guidelines for the Following Exercise


Indicate if the passive voice is used in a compound sentence or a which
clause. Then rewrite each sentence in short form. (Some of the
sentences may not be converted to short form.)


Fill in With Appropriate Be Auxiliary or Past Participle