EIO-LCA Case Studies

spyfleaUrban and Civil

Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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EIO
-
LCA Case Studies


Scott Matthews


Civil and Environmental Engineering

Carnegie Mellon University

Illustrative Example


To make your life easier, you focus on
your processes’ top 10 ‘direct inputs’


Could get this from product manager,
accounting, other departments


Assume that your primary inputs are the
primary sources of impacts for LCA


This is a common boundary assumption

Top ‘Direct’ Inputs for Drugs


Chemicals


Plastics


Electricity


Paperboard/

Boxes


Paper


Trucking


Printing


Computer Services


Telephone Services


Refined Petroleum
(e.g. gas/diesel)


Overall View of Drug
Manufacturing Business GWP

Top Ten Locally Used
Inputs
49%
Other Locally Used
Inputs
16%
Rest of Supply Chain
35%
There are significant emissions

From the support services within

the firm and also across supply chain

Your initial boundary

would have missed 50+%

of greenhouse gases

306

219

Lessons Learned


Your perception of ‘what matters’ is biased by
local factors


Overestimates dependence on these items


Underestimates supply chain effects


Our perceptions of ‘process inputs’ usually are
goods

not services


Services are not environmentally benign!


Use EIO
-
LCA to help you frame your LCA
problems and set your boundaries (
screening
)


Potentially as a starting point for conventional LCA

Reinforced Concrete Product

Aggregates mining

Cement production

Iron ore mining

Reinforcing steel
production

Reinforced
concrete product

End
-
of
-
life

Landfilling

Recycling

Recycling

Concrete production

Electricity

Chemical additives

Coal mining

Lime

Transportation involved

Simplified Process Model Input Requirements for a
$2 Reinforced Concrete Product ($1 concrete and
$1 steel)

Inputs
Transpor-
tation
1
Aggregates
mining
2
Iron and
ferroalloy
ores
mining
Lime
Electricity
Coal
mining
Chemical
additives
3
Cement
production
Iron and
steel
production
Concrete
production
Transportation
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.03
0.10
Aggregates
mining
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.12
Iron and
ferroalloy ores
mining
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.04
0
Lime
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
0
Electricity
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.07
0.04
Coal mining
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.05
0.02
Chemical
additives
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.05
0.03
Cement
production
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.20
Iron and steel
production
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Concrete
production
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Sector used: Motor freight transportation and warehousing
2
Sector used: Sand and gravel
3
Sector used: Industrial inorganic and organic chemicals
Rows represent inputs into the sectors named at column heads.
Total Requirements Table from EIO
-
LCA for Inputs
of a Reinforced Concrete Product

Rows represent inputs into the sectors named at column heads.
Inputs
Transpor-
tation
1
Aggregates
mining
2
Iron and
ferroalloy
ores
mining
Lime
Electricity
Coal
mining
Chemical
additives
3
Cement
production
Iron and
steel
production
Concrete
production
Transportation
1
1.19700
0.02556
0.02408
0.05055
0.00984
0.01426
0.02865
0.05523
0.03322
0.10076
Aggregates
mining
2
0.00010
1.04037
0.00062
0.00124
0.00059
0.00178
0.00022
0.00168
0.00070
0.12402
Iron and
ferroalloy ores
mining
0.00013
0.00046
1.00745
0.00035
0.00021
0.00052
0.00139
0.00215
0.04099
0.00063
Lime
0.00005
0.00008
0.00056
1.00332
0.00013
0.00032
0.00082
0.00017
0.00488
0.00009
Electricity
0.01683
0.05801
0.20138
0.08399
1.00861
0.03367
0.05604
0.12515
0.07199
0.04477
Coal mining
0.00212
0.00889
0.02507
0.07788
0.11145
1.12447
0.01201
0.10313
0.04676
0.02265
Chemical
additives
3
0.00583
0.00892
0.02152
0.01837
0.00582
0.00830
1.25858
0.01621
0.04903
0.03182
Cement
production
0.00026
0.01429
0.00052
0.00208
0.00074
0.00046
0.00059
1.03467
0.00049
0.19756
Iron and steel
production
0.00323
0.00963
0.01261
0.00540
0.00491
0.01154
0.00936
0.00601
1.16573
0.00464
Concrete
production
0.00029
0.00122
0.00071
0.00077
0.00160
0.00057
0.00047
0.00091
0.00092
1.01104
1
Sector used: Motor freight transportation and warehousing
2
Sector used: Sand and gravel
3
Sector used: Industrial inorganic and organic chemicals
Inputs for a $2 Reinforced Concrete
Product


steel


$1.17


concrete


$1.01


cement


$0.20


electricity


$0.15


trucking services

$0.13


sand and gravel

$0.12


chemicals


$0.08


coal mining


$0.07


iron ore mining

$0.04


lime



$0.005





wholesale trade

$0.10


banking


$0.02


advertising


$0.02


maintenance


$0.02


computer services

$0.01


eating places


$0.008


air transportation

$0.008


hotels


$0.007


construction machines $0.004


paper


$0.004


aluminum



$0.003


plastics


$0.003


postal services

$0.003


fertilizers


$0.001


meat


$0.0003

RCRA Hazardous Waste Generators for $150,000
of Reinforced Concrete Using the Simplified
Process Model

Sector
RCRA hazardous
waste generated [kg]
% of total
Blast furnaces and steel mills
1,953
71
Industrial inorganic and organic chemicals
471
17
Cement, hydraulic
291
11
Motor freight transportation
25
1
Electric services (utilities)
19
1
Iron and ferroalloy ores mining
0.3
0.01
Coal mining
0.1
0.004
Sand and gravel
0.03
0.001
Ready-mixed concrete
0.02
0.001
Lime
0.005
0.0002
Total
2,759
100
Numbers may not add up due to rounding.
Top 10 RCRA Hazardous Waste Generators for a
$150,000 of Reinforced Concrete Using EIO
-
LCA

Sector
RCRA hazardous
waste generated [kg]
% of total
*Chemicals and chemical preparations,
n.e.c.
2,312
27
Blast furnaces and steel mills
2,297
27
*Petroleum refining
2,053
24
Industrial inorganic and organic chemicals
524
6
Cement, hydraulic
285
3
*Primary nonferrous metals,
n.e.c.
215
3
*Sanitary services, steam supply and irrigation
147
2
*Small arms ammunition
144
2
*Plastics materials and resins
94
1
*Semiconductors and related devices
50
1
All other 509 sectors
307
4
Total
8,428
100
*Not included in the simplified process model.
Numbers may not add up due to rounding.
Group Exercise: Simulating
Life Cycles


We have discussed how we need economic
inputs to EIO
-
LCA to get results


We have talked about how running it gives us
“production impacts only”


How can we simulate the whole life cycle of a
car using only EIO
-
LCA?


Spend 5
-
10 minutes thinking about this, then
we will run it live on EIO
-
LCA