System Security Awareness for Transit Employees

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US Department of Transportation


National Transit Institute



Federal Transit Administration




Workplace Safety & Security Program

1

National Transit Institute

Workplace Safety and Security









System Security Awareness

for

Transit Employees




Student Guide
















US Department of Transportation


National Transit Institute



Federal Transit Administration




Workplace Safety & Security Program

2




























This course was developed by the National Transit Institute at Rutgers, The State Univ
ersity
of New Jersey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Transportation; Federal Transit
Administration Office of Safety and Security, the Volpe Transportation Research Center, and
the Federal Aviation Administration Office of Civil Aviation Securi
ty, Argonne National
Laboratories of the U.S. Department of Energy, the Amalgmated Transit Union, and the
Transport Workers Union. Several transit agencies have also contributed to the program.
These materials are provided for informational purposes only
and are intended for the use of
the transit industry. Use of the material in this program should first be reviewed for
compliance with local procedures and applicable state and local laws and regulations.





US Department of Transportation


National Transit Institute



Federal Transit Administration




Workplace Safety & Security Program

3

INTRODUCTION










You play a critical role in
system security. Your presence alone deters criminal acts and
reassures passengers. You can effectively monitor what is going on. You are often the first to
notice suspicious people, activities, packages, devices or substances. You are best positioned
to r
ecognize and diagnose trouble. You are truly the first responder to any incident and are
the most reliable source of information in the first moments of an incident. You must lead
passengers to safety, guide emergency responders to the problem and help to
restore
operations.


This course does not alter your primary responsibilities. It recognizes that a security role
automatically comes with your presence on the scene. It also stresses that your safety is of
primary importance. When station personnel in Tok
yo removed deadly Sarin
-
leaking bags
from subway cars, they were unaware that they were exposing themselves to illness and
death in the process. Training in awareness, surveillance, response procedures and self
-
protection is essential. As transit employees

we need to be vigilant in protecting our systems,
our community and ourselves.


COURSE GOAL


The goal of this course is to provide you with the skills and knowledge to:




Define your role and responsibility in system security



Recognize suspicious people, a
ctivities, packages, devices and substances



Observe and report relevant information



Minimize harm to yourself and others


COURSE OUTLINE




What is System Security?



What is Your Role in Reducing Vulnerability?



What do You Look For?



What About Anthrax and Oth
er Suspicious Substances?



What is Your Top Priority?










US Department of Transportation


National Transit Institute



Federal Transit Administration




Workplace Safety & Security Program

4

WHAT IS SYSTEM SECURITY?





TRANSIT SYSTEM SECURITY


A transit system is made up of four components: people, procedures, facilities and
equipment, and the environment. A System Security Plan is t
he use of operating principles
to reduce the security vulnerabilities of a transit system to the lowest practical level. The
plan emphasizes prevention of crime and vandalism, uses data collection and analysis and
focuses on customers, employees and prope
rty. The components of the plan are:




Risk:
The probability that a security incident will occur



Threat:
Any real or potential condition that can result in a security incident



Vulnerability:
Any condition or act that endangers human life and property


TE
RRORISM DEFINED


The Federal Bureau of Investigation defines terrorism as:


“The threat or use of force or violence to coerce a government or civilian population, in
pursuit of political or social objectives.”


According to the definition, the intent is to

coerce more than just an individual or small
group, and the motivation is for something larger than personal gain or revenge. This course
applies a broader concept of terrorism that includes groups and individuals, who also could
be acting out of revenge
, hatred or an emotional disorder, i.e., the Seattle bus hijacker or the
LIRR gunman.



THE EFFECTS OF TERRORISM ON TRANSIT




Injuries and casualties



Interruption of operations



Panic and confusion



Evacuations



Loss of riders


Service disruptions, delays, can
cellations and safety concerns related to terrorist threats and
incidents will quickly begin to erode the public’s confidence in the system. Efficient and
effective response to these situations is critical to maintaining the economic stability of the
syst
em and its employees.





US Department of Transportation


National Transit Institute



Federal Transit Administration




Workplace Safety & Security Program

5

TERRORIST WEAPONS







IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES


Improvised explosive devices (pipe bomb, car bomb, shoe bomb) are designed to conceal and
deliver quantities of explosives to a target. Explosives have been the most widely used
terrorist devices against transit systems for more than 80 years. Explosives by themselves
may be less catastrophic than chemical, biological or radiological weapons. They are also
easier to build or acquire, plant and detonate than more sophisticated we
apons, and they
accomplish the terrorist’s primary goal: to cause death and damage and instill fear to
terrorize society.


CHEMICAL AGENTS


Chemical agents are used to poison victims. Toxic and incapacitating chemical substances
are intended to kill, ser
iously injure or incapacitate humans through physiological effects.
These agents, if properly dispersed, can cause immediate or short
-
term mass casualties and
fatalities. Non
-
fatal agents such as pepper spray can still cause panic and hysteria in a crowd

because of their inherent irritant properties.


BIOLOGICAL AGENTS


Biological agents are germs that will cause disease in people. Some of these are deadly to
animals as well, though they are not the primary targets. Unlike chemical agents, biological
a
gents may not produce visible symptoms in victims for hours or days after exposure.


RADIOLOGICAL AGENTS


Radiological materials can pose both an acute and long
-
term hazard to humans. In many
ways, they behave like some chemical agents in that they cause c
ell damage. A major
difference is that the radiological agents do not necessarily have to be inhaled or come in
contact with the skin to do damage. Some types of radiation, like X
-
rays, can penetrate
several layers of protective material.






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Workplace Safety & Security Program

6

THE THREAT










INTERNATIONAL TRANSIT TARGETS 1920
-
2000




*Note: Internationally bus service is the most predominant form of public transportation.

Source:
Protecting Public Surface Transportation Against Terrorism and Serious Crime
: An Executive
Overview
, Mineta Transportation Institute, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA, October 2001.


ATTACK METHODS 1920
-
2000



Source:
Protecting Public Surface Transportation Against Terrorism and Serious Crime:

An Executive
Overview
, Mineta Transportation Institute, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA, October 2001.





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Federal Transit Administration




Workplace Safety & Security Program

7

SECURITY MEASURES







OBSERVE AND REPORT SYSTEM SECURITY WEAKNESSES


You are the eyes and ears of your organization. Cultivate a sense about

what is ordinary and
extraordinary in your operating environment. Many communities throughout the country
have implemented a Neighborhood Watch program. The concept is that residents in the
neighborhood are much more familiar with the area than anyone e
lse. This effort does not
replace traditional police departments, it simply extends their reach through the eyes and ears
of the residents. This program extends that concept to be used in the work environment by
recognizing the critical role employees pl
ay in enhancing but NOT replacing other security
efforts. You know your environment, you know your surroundings; therefore, you know best
when something just does not seem right.


Aside being the eyes and ears (observing), you need to be the mouth (report
ing) as well.
Noticing something without follow
-
up or reporting will not help avoid or prevent an incident.
YOU need to report these observations to your supervisor, Security or other appropriate
personnel.


FOLLOW PROCEDURES


Policies and procedures are

established and enforced for a reason. The use of uniforms,
identification tags or badges and other systems is to reduce the likelihood that someone
unauthorized will gain access to restricted areas or operations. Many times, agencies become
very vulner
able by relaxing the enforcement of their policies. This enforcement
responsibility lies with all employees. If an unidentified or unfamiliar person is observed in
or around the facilities and vehicles, that person should be questioned or reported. Simi
larly,
if unattended objects or packages are out of place, they should be identified or reported.


PRACTICE GOOD HOUSEKEEPING


Good housekeeping means keeping a clean and organized environment where materials and
items are stored appropriately. It enhances

the overall security and safety of a system by:



Making it easier to locate unusual objects or items that are out of place



Making it tougher for a terrorist to hide something



Aiding First Responders by making it easier to search for suspected devices



Enabl
ing quicker rescue efforts



Facilitating recovery from an incident


SECURITY SWEEPS


Incorporate into your daily routine spot checks of vehicles and facilities for suspicious
packages, devices and substances. These sweeps will enable you to monitor potenti
ally
vulnerable areas and help prevent threats and incidents.





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Federal Transit Administration




Workplace Safety & Security Program

8

BUS SYSTEMS









BUS OPERATIONS


Be alert to things that are suspicious or out of place at garages, depots, transfer stations and
shelters. Also be observant of activity, people and vehicle
s along bus routes.


BUS OPERATORS


Make quick and efficient vehicle inspections part of your normal routine. The few minutes
you spend doing it may save lives. During pre
-
trip inspections, layovers or when your bus
has been unattended, look for suspicio
us packages, devices, wires, substances and signs of
tampering.


BUS MAINTENANCE


When receiving or releasing vehicles look for suspicious packages, devices, wires,
substances and signs of tampering. Quite often, if something is intentionally “planted” on

a
vehicle or in a facility, the mechanic or maintenance person will be the first to notice. If
something seems out of the ordinary during an inspection, report it to your supervisor. In
particular, check the engine compartment for foreign objects or a f
alse compartment in the air
filter area, additional wires from the battery and unusually clean components and devices.
Inspect the fuel and air tanks for inconsistent and missing connections.


SIGNS OF VEHICLE TAMPERING




Scratches or marks made by tools



U
nusually clean or dirty compartments



Items attached to vehicles or objects with magnets or duct tape



Open or disturbed compartments and cabinets


SECURITY SWEEP CHECK LIST


INTERIOR








Floors








Above, on and below seats





Operator’s area






Steps








Internal lift mechanism





Compartments







Lights







On commuter buses, also check interior and exterior luggage compartments and lavatories.


EXTERIOR







Wheel wells



Engine compartme
nts



Bus frame and underbody



Exhaust system



External lift mechanism



Fuel and air tanks



Rooftop area of CNG buses





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Workplace Safety & Security Program

9

LIGHT RAIL SYSTEMS








LIGHT RAIL OPERATIONS


Be alert and proactive in looking for suspicious people, ve
hicles, activities, packages, devices
and conditions along the right
-
of
-
way, in stations and facilities, and on the trains. Check
around and in open and idle spaces and along walls.



STATIONS








Light posts and fixtures






Trash containers






Benches








Stairs/escalators







Information booths






Electrical cabinets






Lights







MAINTENANCE YARDS/SHOPS



Perimeter fences and walls



Light fixtures



Service platforms and bays



Storage areas and sheds



Electrical cabinets



Between and under rails



Aro
und cars and vehicles



LIGHT RAIL VEHICLES


Make quick and efficient vehicle inspections part of your normal routine. Check rail cars for
suspicious packages, devices, wires, substances, and signs of tampering. If something seems
out of the ordinary dur
ing an inspection, report it to your supervisor.


INTERIOR








Floors and seats







Operator’s area







Stairs and wheelchair ramps






Above, on and below seats





Articulation shroud/baffle






Compartments and lights


*Note: The roof of a LR
V is a High Voltage area. Do not contact roof components.


RIGHT
-
OF
-
WAY






Between and under rails and switches



Fences and retaining walls



Electrical system components



Signal cabinets, poles and lines



Communication lines and equipment



Bridge supports and beam



Tunnels



EXTERIOR








Undercar equipment area



Truck and truck frame



All equipment around the coupler area



Articulation joint



Electrical and other compartments



Pantograph and rooftop cabling*





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10


HEAVY RAIL SYSTEMS







HEAVY RAIL OPERATIONS


Be alert and proactive in looking for suspicious people, vehicles, activities, packages, devices
and conditions along the right
-
of
-
way, in stations

and facilities and on the trains. Check
around and in open and idle spaces and along walls.


STATIONS








Vending machines






Trash containers







Turnstiles








Kiosks/information booths






Stairs/escalators







Phone booths








Benches








Lights and signs






RIGHT
-
OF
-
WAY







Between and under rails and switches






Fences and retaining walls






Electrical system components






Signal cabinets, poles and lines





Communication lines and equipment






Perimeter fences and re
taining walls





Culverts/overpasses







RAIL CAR








Floors and floor compartments





Space between cars







Operator’s area







Undercar equipment area






Above, on and below seats






Truck and truck frame







Interior compartmen
ts and lights


TUNNELS








Cable and pipe chases and ductwork



Exits
stairs and shafts



Behind and beneath cables and pipes



Signal cabinets and lines



Electrical system components



Communication lines and equipment



Passage ways and services rooms



Between and under rails


MAINTENANCE YARDS/SHOPS




Perimeter fences and walls



Lig
ht fixtures



Service platforms and bays



Storage areas and sheds



Electrical cabinets



Between and under rails



Around cars and locomotives



ELEVATED STRUCTURES/BRIDGES




Footings, piers and abutments



Hidden areas of supports and beams



Stairwells and walkways



S
ervice rooms and cabinets



Between and under rails



Decking and railings






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Workplace Safety & Security Program

11

SUSPICIOUS PEOPLE







Keep an eye out for people in the wrong place and wandering aimlessly around agency
property. Remember that terrorists shadow their targets before they attack. Be leery of
individuals expressing an unusual level of
interest in aspects of agency operations. Quite
often people casing an area are looking for system vulnerabilities that they could exploit.
Often times these suspicious individuals pose as newspaper reporters. Never submit to
interviews or photographs.


A SUSPICIOUS PERSON IS SOMEONE WHO IS:




In an unauthorized area



In the wrong place or appears lost



Overdressed for the weather conditions



Loitering and/or watching customers and employees



Pacing, nervous or jumpy



Acting in a disorderly manner that alarms
or disturbs others



A repair, utility or delivery person or other “trusted employee” who is out of place



Expressing an unusual level of interest in operations, personnel, equipment or facilities



On agency property without proper identification, uniform or s
afety gear


If you see people wandering around and you are not sure who they are, call security or the
police if you think they look dangerous. If they don’t look particularly dangerous, simply
approach them and offer help. Avoid profiling and observe wh
ere people are, when they are
there and what they are doing.


APPROACHING PEOPLE


Avoid approaching people who are threatening or dangerous. Do not become
confrontational, abusive or offensive. Do not try to detain or hold a person by any means. If
you
have observed an unfamiliar person in a restricted or unauthorized area or engaged in
suspicious activity, check the areas in which they were seen for signs of tampering or
suspicious packages, devices or substances.


When approaching an unfamiliar person
in a restricted area, calmly ask if you can help.
Request identification, ask what the person’s business is or whom he or she is there to see,
and offer to escort the person out of the area. Notify security, police or your supervisor if
there is no expla
nation for the person’s presence. While doing so try to keep the person in
sight at all times and observe and report his or her location, activity, behavior and physical
characteristics.





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Federal Transit Administration




Workplace Safety & Security Program

12

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS




When you observe someone who is suspici
ous, based upon his or her location and/or activity,
you need to make a mental note of certain characteristics. These characteristics will help
security or police officers identify the person should he or she leave the area. Aside from this
list also note

the person’s gender and speech or accent.


Eyes:
Color, shape, eyelashes and eyebrows


Ears:
Size, shape


Mouth/Nose:
Size of lips, shape and nostrils


Hair/Facial Hair:

Color, length, texture, hairline, clean
-
shaven, bearded or mustache


Forehead:

S
kin texture, height


Cheeks/Chin:

Flesh texture, bone structure, shape, type (cleft, dimpled)


Neck:

Adam’s apple, hanging jowls, length, width


Complexion:

Skin, color, texture, pores, pockmarks, acne,
rashes, scars, birthmarks, bumps


Body Shape/Size
:

Height, weight, build


Hat:

Color, style, how it is worn


Jewelry:

Rings, watches, bracelets, earrings, necklaces, body
piercing


Shirt/Blouse/Dress:

Color, pattern, design, sleeves, collar


Coat:

Color, style, length


Pants/Skirt:

Color, pattern,
design, length, cuffs


Socks/Shoes:

Color, pattern, style, clean/dirty


Oddities/Tattoos:

Shape, size, color, location on body


General Appearance:

Neat, sloppy, clean, dirty


Accessories:

Purses, briefcases, backpacks, packages





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Workplace Safety & Security Program

13

SUSPICIOUS ACTIVITIES






Suspicious activities include any activity that seems strange, wrong or out of place. You
know your operating environment and will know a suspicious activity when you see it.

Some clues may include trucks, vans, cars or bicycles parked in strange loc
ations or which
are out of place in the surroundings; people abandoning packages; or people photographing
transit equipment and facilities. Do not be afraid to report something even if you are not 100
percent sure there is a problem. Better safe than sor
ry.


SUSPICIOUS PACKAGES






Transit systems deal with thousands of items left unattended or left in stations and on trains
and buses each year. These unattended packages impose a tremendous burden on security.
Although unattended packages are rarely li
nked to explosive devices, they all represent a
potential threat and need to be examined systematically. To minimize potential confusion,
threats and incidents, do not allow anyone to leave any unattended parcels, packages or bags
with you or in your work

area. Continually remind passengers and employees to take their
belongings with them.


AN UNATTENDED PACKAGE IS ONE THAT IS LEFT…




On or next to a seat in a vehicle or waiting area



Next to a phone booth or vending machine



In a rest room



On a station plat
form



A SUSPICIOUS PACKAGE IS AN UNATTENDED PACKAGE
THAT…




Is left or placed in an out
-
of
-
the
-
way area (under or behind a seat or trash container)



Is an out
-
of
-
place or abandoned container (fire extinguisher, propane canister, Thermos)



Matches something d
escribed in a threat



Has a threatening message attached





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Workplace Safety & Security Program

14

SUSPICIOUS DEVICES







Although these devices come in all shapes and sizes, common characteristics include:




Unusual wires and batteries



Some sort of visible tank, bottle or bag



A clock or timer a
ttached to the object


IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES (IEDs)


These are common devices used by terrorists. Most bombs assembled by terrorists and other
disgruntled or mentally ill individuals are improvised. The raw material required for the
explosives is s
tolen or misappropriated from military or commercial blasting supplies or is
made from fertilizer and other readily available household ingredients.


Almost all IEDs, no matter how big or small, consist of four basic components: a power
supply, some type o
f switch or timer, a detonator/initiator and the main explosive charge.
The effects of an IED are sometimes worsened by the addition of material, such as scrap iron
or ball bearings. Sometimes the switch/timer is not the only component that activates the
detonator; there is also an anti
-
handling device that triggers the device when the IED is
handled or moved. The purpose of most IEDs is to kill or maim. Some IEDs, known as
incendiaries, are intended to cause damage or destruction by fire.


PIPE BOMB


Th
is is the most common type of terrorist bomb and usually consists of low
-
velocity
explosives inside a tightly capped piece of pipe. Pipe bombs are very easily made using
gunpowder and iron, steel, PVC, aluminum or copper pipes. They are sometimes wrapped

with nails to cause even more harm.


MOLOTOV COCKTAIL


This improvised weapon


first used by the Russian resistance against German tanks in
World War II


is used by terrorists worldwide. Molotov cocktails are extremely simple to
make and can cause cons
iderable damage. They are usually made from materials like
gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, ethyl or methyl alcohol, lighter fluid and turpentine, all of
which are easily obtained. The explosive material is placed in a glass bottle, which breaks
upon imp
act. A piece of cotton serves as a fuse, which is ignited before the bottle is thrown
at the target.






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Federal Transit Administration




Workplace Safety & Security Program

15


SUSPICIOUS SUBSTANCES





CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL AGENTS


The psychological impact of CBR weapons will extend far beyond their actual eff
ect. The
mere thought of imminent exposure to a chemical or biological agent, or radiation, causes
fear in people. The most important things to remember regarding CBR weapons are the
symptoms of an attack that will be displayed in victims.




Chemical agen
t symptoms are generally immediate and widespread.




Biological and radiological agent effects are generally delayed.


Quite often the observation of two or more people with the same symptoms will be the first
indication of an attack or exposure. ALWAYS re
member to protect yourself. If you become
a victim, you cannot help others, and you add to the problem.


CBR AGENTS CAN…




Be difficult to identify



Have a tremendous effect in small quantities



Be spread throughout large areas by natural convection or air
-
c
urrents



Remain in the air as vapor or aerosols or settle on surfaces. In many cases, a hazard can
remain for hours, days or weeks if untreated. This requires that facilities be monitored
and decontaminated before being returned to service.



Be ingested, i
nhaled, injected or absorbed into the body


SIGNS OF CBR AGENT RELEASES




An unexplainable pungent odor



A suspicious package emitting a vapor or odor



Abandoned, out
-
of
-
place aerosol or manual spray devices, i.e., fire extinguisher or garden
sprayer



A cloud,

mist, fine powder, dust, liquid or fog with no identifiable or suspected source


SYMPTOMS OF CBR AGENT EXPOSURES


You observe two or more people suddenly…




Experience difficulty breathing or cough uncontrollably



Suffer a collapse or seizure



Complain of n
ausea



Complain of blurred vision





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Workplace Safety & Security Program

16

CBR EXPOSURE PROTECTION






















The severity of CBR agent exposure depends on three factors: time, distance and shielding.


TIME


How long you are exposed to the agent will often determine the ext
ent of your injuries and
long
-
term adverse health effects. In most cases the faster you can get away from an agent
once you are exposed, the better your chances of survival.


DISTANCE


The farther you are from a source, the better. In many cases, unless
you are inhaling or
coming in direct contact with an agent, you will not be exposed to it. By avoiding contact or
moving away from the suspicious package or substance, you will greatly limit your chances
of exposure.


SHIELDING


Many CBR agents can be blo
cked or partially blocked by various materials depending on the
type of agent being emitted. A sheet of paper or layer of skin stops some agents, some are
inhibited by clothing, and others require special protective clothing and respiratory apparatus.
In

some cases, if there is a release in a station, it may be best to shelter people in
-
place within
a train and shut down the ventilation system instead of allowing people out into the
contaminated area.

Routes of exposure for CBR agents



INGESTION

INHALATION

INJECTION

ABSORPTION

ABSORBTION

INJECTION





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Workplace Safety & Security Program

17

CBR DISPERSAL METHODS





The ability to identify a p
otential threat by recognizing the tools of a CBR terrorist is key to
the prevention or mitigation of an attack. Dissemination devices are one such tool and can be
categorized based on how they disseminate the agent or material.


BREAKING/IMPACT DEVICES


These are weapons that encapsulate the agent and release it when broken. They are optimally
constructed from common items, such as light bulbs, balloons or insulated bottles, by
inserting the agent and sealing the device. Some of the devices are deploy
ed by throwing
them at the intended victims. Others can be placed in a light socket and will break when the
light is turned on. The device used in the Tokyo subway attack was a breaking device that
was intentionally punctured by an umbrella, thereby rele
asing the agent


Sarin gas.


EXPLOSIVE DISPERSAL


This method uses an explosive to break the container and disseminate the agent. The device
will look similar to an IED with the addition of a bottle, bag or other form of container.
These weapons are usua
lly configured with the explosive at one end of a tube so the
explosion forces the agent out the other end, or with the explosive surrounded by the agent.


SPRAYING DEVICES


These devices also contain an agent reservoir, but rather than an explosive charge
, they
employ pressure to disseminate the agent. They can be point
-
dissemination weapons, such as
an aerosol can, or a line source
-
generating weapon, such as a device incorporated into an
automobile exhaust system. Examples of spraying devices include ae
rosol spray containers,
garden sprayers or any kind of spray bottle.


RADIOLOGICAL AGENT DISPERSAL


Weapons are often developed to involve whole
-
body exposure to radioactive material
(inhalation, ingestion) or contamination by radioactive material. This ca
n be achieved by
placing into a public place a radioactive metallic object that is emitting harmful radiation.
Incidents involving either an explosion or fire will elevate the potential for the ingestion or
contamination by spreading the radioactive materi
al in the form of small fragments (dust) or
smoke. “Dirty bombs”

are intended to release radioactive material in this way.





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National Transit Institute



Federal Transit Administration




Workplace Safety & Security Program

18

THREAT AND INCIDENT PRIORITIES



1.

LIFE SAFETY



Protect yourself and others against exposure and injury



Think! Don’t just react


2.

INCID
ENT STABILIZATION



Gather and report information



Await further direction


3.

PROPERTY CONSERVATION



Primarily a role for emergency responders



Conducted under the direction of the Incident Commander


THREAT AND INCIDENT MANAGEMENT




Remain calm



Do not touch, cove
r or move a suspicious package, device or substance



At incidents involving IEDs, If possible, refrain from using cellular phones or radios
closer than 300 feet from the area



Don’t take risks that could harm yourself or others



Implement agency protocols



Gat
her and report information



Await direction from supervisor or controller



Maintain communications with customers, Dispatch/Control Center, other employees and
First Responders



Be aware of secondary attacks or devices


EVACUATION PROCEDURES FOR EXPLOSIVE OR
CBR THREATS




Stay calm



If in a vehicle, find a safe location and park



Evacuate people from the vehicle or facility, ensuring that they remove ALL of their
possessions




In a CBR incident, direct people to move upwind, away from the hazard



When dealing with
an IED, move away the appropriate distance, notify Dispatch/Control
Center of your location and status





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Federal Transit Administration




Workplace Safety & Security Program

19

IED EVACUATION RANGES





























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Workplace Safety & Security Program

20

INCIDENT MANAGEMENT





INFORMATION GATHERING


Aside from protecting yourself and others from danger, y
our most important activity is to
accurately gather information. The more detail regarding victims, circumstances and
indicators, the more effective ALL response actions will be. Important information includes:




Your exact location and condition



Type of
injuries and/or symptoms



Victim locations and positions



Indicators of suspicious people, activities, packages, devices and substances



Wind direction and weather on scene



Witness statements or observations



Safe access route


INFORMATION REPORTING


Staying c
alm and clearly communicating information is CRITICAL to the safety of everyone
and the eventual outcome of the situation. Follow procedures and answer questions as they
are asked. At the conclusion of the conversation, be sure to verify that help is on
the way.


TRANSIT/EMERGENCY SERVICES INTERFACE


In many cases a supervisor will either be en route or on
-
scene at an emergency. Prior to
his/her arrival, you may need to take appropriate actions. The primary mission is to protect
yourself and your custom
ers. If the situation appears imminently dangerous to life,
evacuation should be conducted quickly. Following a safe evacuation, you should find a
means to notify Dispatch or the Control Center (cell phone, pay phone).


If there is not an immediate threa
t to life safety, notify Dispatch or the Control Center and
await further direction.


In either case, your primary objective is to protect human life. Avoid contamination
whenever possible, and limit exposure to the greatest extent. If a supervisor does
not arrive
prior to local emergency responders, you should identify yourself to the responders and
provide a brief summary of the situation. Let the responders know where you will be in case
they need further information. Police, fire and Emergency Medica
l Services (EMS) all have
distinct roles at an emergency, and the lead response agency will often be determined by the
nature of the incident.





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INCIDENT COMMAND
























The primary duties of emergency responders at an incident are to gain c
ontrol of the situation
by gathering information, assessing the conditions and activities and developing a plan. This
is done through the Incident Management System. As the chart above illustrates, transit
representatives should work within the system to

assist in the overall efforts of controlling
and mitigating the incident. Emergency responders have specific responsibilities at a scene.
Depending upon the local structure of the response agencies, these responsibilities may vary.
In most cases they a
re:


LAW ENFORCEMENT




Interview you


your actions and observations are very important



Evidence preservation


credible threats and incidents are crime scenes



Crowd and scene control



Seek out passengers or witnesses who may have critical information


FIRE
DEPARTMENT




Rescue any victims who are contaminated or trapped



Decontaminate anyone who may have been exposed to an agent



Detect and monitor the CBR agent


EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES




Treat those with best chance of survival


Triage



Record condition and
destination of all victims who are transported





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ALWAYS REMEMBER



























DON’T BECOME A VICTIM YOURSELF


There will be too many victims already if an IED or CBR incident occurs.


DON’T ASSUME ANYTHING


Given that this is a terrorist even
t, booby traps, secondary devices and perpetrators may also
be present.


DON’T TEST


Taste, eat, smell, and touch nothing. Any one of these actions may make you a casualty.


DON’T RUSH IN


Always assess the situation before doing anything. Avoid contamin
ation. People and
equipment that do not get contaminated do not have to be decontaminated. This minimizes
risk, saves time and saves resources. Always minimize exposure. Move away from the
hazard and relocate upwind. Establish an outer perimeter early

in the incident. Control
crowds, and do not let people pass by or through the affected area.


Don’t assume


anything

Don’t
become a
victim


Don’t ru
sh in

Don’t TEST
(Taste, Eat,
Smell, Touch)

The 4
Don’ts





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APPENDIX A











What is Your Perception?







24

Suspicious People, Behavior and Activities



25

Suspicious Packages and Devices





26


Suspicious Substa
nces







27

What do You Report?







28






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System Security Awareness for Transit Employees

Exercise: What is Your Perception?


Form small groups of four to six people. After introducing yourself, work together to respond
to the questions below.


Select a

reporter for your group.



1.

Have you ever been in an incident involving the potential (threat)
or presence of an improvised explosive device or a hazardous
material?












2.

What concerns or questions do you have about suspicious
packages, explosives or

other terrorist methods relative to your
specific job duties?









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System Security Awareness for Transit Employees

Exercise: Suspicious People, Behavior and Activities


Read the short descriptions below. Using the information we just covered, work in your

group to determine if each item is suspicious or explainable and
WHY
.


Description

Suspicious

Explainable

1. As you are operating your train, you notice two men on
the side of the tracks near an electrical box without any
kind of uniform or safety equi
pment on.





2. It is a hot summer day. As you approach a bus stop,
you notice a young man wearing a bulky leather jacket
waiting to board your bus.





3. As you are standing outside your light rail vehicle
waiting to pull out, you notice two people

observing
operations. They are taking pictures and talking to one
another.



4. Three teens in the back of the bus are getting rowdy and
starting to use foul language.





5. You return to your bus after a short layover at a turn
-
around point and not
ice that the engine compartment door
has been opened. The handle is clean and the door is not
closed.





6. As you return from lunch, you notice an unfamiliar man
with no uniform walking quickly away from a bus that was
undergoing a brake repair.



7.

When pulling into the Transit Center, you notice an
unattended, non
-
agency car parked at the back of the line
of buses.





8. While walking through the bus yard, you notice a
woman in street clothes standing by the fence taking notes.





9. It i
s mid
-
afternoon just prior to the start of rush hour.
You are passing the computer room that houses the
equipment supporting the Control Center, and you notice a
man in a UPS uniform coming out.



10. As you are approaching the bus stop in front of the
Federal Building, you notice someone dumping a box in
the garbage and quickly exiting the area.










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System Security Awareness for Transit Employees

Exercise: Suspicious Packages and Devices


Read the short descriptions below. Using the information we ju
st covered, work in your
group to determine if each item is suspicious or explainable and
WHY
.


Description

Suspicious

Explainable

1. A briefcase is left on the third row seat on your bus.
There are NO wires or other strange components to the
briefcase.

Another passenger brings it to your attention.





2. Dispatch calls and reports of having received a threat of
a “package” left on your bus. They describe it as a red
扡c歰kc欮⁙潵 fin搠 潮eⰠ扵t a⁳tu摥nt claims it is his.





㌮†Ps y潵 are⁣潮摵ctin
g a 煵ic欠swee瀠潦 y潵r 扵sⰠy潵
fin搠 an 潤o
-
l潯歩ng 灡c歡ge un摥r 潮e 潦 the seats with a
n潴e attache搮d⁉t is har搠t漠oea搠the n潴eⰠ扵t it says
s潭ethi湧 a扯bt the c潲ru灴 city g潶ernme湴⸠



㐮†Qhile y潵 are chec歩ng a 扵s in the garageⰠy潵 n潴ice

small 扬ac欠扯b ta灥搠t漠ohe insi摥 潦 the wheel well.





㔮⁁ cust潭er re灯pts that aan wh漠exite搠the 扵s at⁴he
last st潰oleft his qherm潳 潮 a⁳eat in the mi摤de 潦 the 扵s.





㘮†6hile getti湧 rea摹 t漠leave at the en搠潦 y潵r runⰠy潵
fin搠 a

扡g jamme搠 扥tween a⁳eat an搠the 扡c欠kall⸠⁔here
is an 潩ly li煵i搠 摲i灰png 潵t an搠潮t漠the fl潯o.



㜮†⁁s aan is 煵ic歬y exiti湧 the 扵sⰠy潵 hear 潴hers 潮
扯br搠delli湧 潵t that he left his 扡c歰kc欮†khe man 摯ds
n潴 turn ar潵n搠潲⁡c歮潷le摧
e the c潭ments⸠ ⁙潵 try t漠
call t漠him 扵t arei步wise ign潲e搬d an搠he starts runni湧
away.





㠮†⁗hile cleani湧 潵t the insi摥 潦 a⁢ sⰠsh潶e搠扥tween
tw漠seats y潵 n潴ice a⁧lass 扯btle fille搠 with yell潷ish
li煵i搠 with a⁰ ece 潦 material stic歩n
g 潵t 潦 the t潰o





㤮†⁁s y潵 a⁷al歩ng thr潵gh the qransit Center t漠oeturn t漠
y潵r 扵sⰠy潵 n潴ice an 潬搠green 扡c歰kc欠kh潶e搠un摥r
潮e 潦 the 扥nches⸠



㄰⸠⁙潵 fin搠a⁢ g 潮 y潵r 扵s⸠fnsi摥 is a⁢潴tle 潦
sham灯漠with wires un摥rneath it.










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System Security Awareness for Transit Employees

Exercise: Suspicious Substances


Read the short descriptions below. Using the information we just covered, work in your
group to determine if each item is suspicious or explainable and
WHY
.


Descriptio
n

Suspicious

Explainable

1. A customer comes up to you as you are driving and
complains of an offensive odor coming from the back of the
bus. You look back and no one is sitting around the area.





2. As you are walking through your light rail vehicle

at the
end of the line, you notice two plastic bags that look like
they are leaking in the back corner of one of the cars.





3. A pile of white material the consistency and color of
sugar is found all over one of the seats in your bus.



4. It is a
humid evening. Your bus is filled with people
returning from a baseball game. There is a commotion on
the bus, and a customer yells that two people on the bus have
just collapsed.





5. As you are driving your route, a passenger approaches you
and says
that several passengers in the back of the bus are
complaining of headaches and showing signs of distress.





6. You are leaving the station after your tour of duty and
stop by a garbage can to throw out a paper coffee cup. As
you glance down into the
trash can, you notice two used
garden sprayers. It appears that at least one of the sprayers
still contains some liquid.



7. It is a hot summer day. The air conditioning on your bus
is working poorly. You notice a woman who looked
overheated when she

boarded the bus has collapsed in her
seat.





8. A homeless person with a very distinct smell boards the
bus at his usual stop. Several stops later, a customer
approaches you about a pungent odor permeating throughout
the bus.





9. At a stop, you

hear a commotion on the bus, see a person
running out the rear door, and notice a haze or fog in the
back.



10. While using the bathroom facilities at the Transit
Center, you notice a white powder all over the countertop.









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System Security Awaren
ess for Transit Employees

Exercise: Information Gathering


Directions:
Read the short scenario below. Then, using the information we just covered,
work in your group to list the items that you would report to your dispatcher or supervisor.


Scenario

It i
s 6 p.m. on a Monday. While on a run, Dispatch contacts you about a threat they received.
The threat is related to a bomb being on a bus in a location that is on your route. You are
asked to proceed to the next stop and conduct a quick sweep of your veh
icle. The “package”
is described as a small brown box, about the size of a loaf of bread.


While sweeping the bus, you see two gentlemen get off the bus and move quickly down the
block.


There are three elderly women sitting together talking loudly. You
notice bags under their
seats.


A homeless man is trying to board the bus but keeps slipping on the steps saying that they are
icy.


You are across the street from the library, and there is a strong smell of garlic.


You notice a white van parked behind yo
u.


You are asked not to alert the passengers of the situation at this time.


Next to the library is the YMCA.


There are three high school kids sitting in the rear of the bus.


Two fire engines pass your area with their lights and sirens on.


A bearded ma
n in a suit, holding a briefcase is looking out the window nervously.


Next to the YMCA is Tony’s Pizza, and there are about 20 kids in front of the pizza place.


You find a loaf of bread on the floor next to an unattended bag of groceries.


You see a bro
wn box on a seat, but the women next to it says it is hers.


Passengers are asking you what you are looking for.









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NOTES