Chapter 8 Selecting a Biometric

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Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Chapter 8

Selecting a Biometric

Presentation by

Phani Dogiparthi

Contents:

Biometric Attributes

Properties of Applications

Evaluating Biometric Options

Cost and Affordability of Biometric

Pros and Cons of Various Biometrics

Myths and Misrepresentations

Factors Associated with choosing a Biometric

Comparison of the Various Attributes

Application Requisites


What is the protected asset;

Who are the authorized users and operators;

Who are the adversaries of the application;

What can be the costs of security violations;

What is the actual cost of the security; and

What is the added cost of inconvenience?

Categories of Applications

Cooperative and Non
-
cooperative

Overt and Covert

Habituated and Non
-
habituated

Attended and Non
-
attended

Standard Environment

Public and Private

Open and Closed

Importance Weightings

Drawbacks of various Biometrics

Mismatch Calculation

Zephyr Charts

Characteristics Weighting

Effortless

Iris > Face > Finger > voice

Non
-
intrusive

Iris > Voice > Face > Finger


Accurate

Iris > Finger > Face ~ Voice

Inexpensive

Voice > Finger > Face > Iris

Affordability and Cost


Total Cost of ownership

Verification versus Identification

Single and Multiple Authentication protocols

Training


-
> System Training


-
> Enrollment

Continued Enrollment

Failure to Enroll

User Education

Supervisory Labor

Maintenance Labor




Positives and Negatives of the Biometrics

Fingerprint
-

Pros

Long Tradition of usage of fingerprint as immutable
identification in law enforcement

Existing of large databases of fingerprints comprising
largely of criminals

Forensic investigation uses fingerprint

Sampling of the fingerprint is easy

Conversion of fingerprints into digital images is getting
easier, better and cheaper

Various state departments of motor vehicles are working
to establish a fingerprint biometric system for driver’s
license and record data



Fingerprint
-
Cons

Finger print suffer from poor public reputation

Social stigma such that it is related to illiterate

Variation occurs due to age, cut or due to working
conditions

Sampling variations due to improper usage of the
apparatus

Rare situations like people without fingers.


Face
-

Pros

Photos are widely used and usage is public accepted

Face recognition systems are least intrusive.

In theory this biometric works with image sources

In theory can be applied to identify criminals in crowd

It is good biometric for small scale verification purpose


Face
-

Cons

Face authentication requires images taken in a good
controlled lighted environment

Presently it is a poor biometric for usage in pure
identification protocol

Disguise
-

a major obstacle

Usage may hamper due to social stigma

Voice
-

Pros

Like face voice is natural biometric

Voice sampling can also be obtained unobtrusively

Great public acceptance of this biometric

Voice uses inexpensive hardware and can be
established on current communications systems

Voice allows incremental protocols

Voice may achieve high accuracy and flexibility when
combined with knowledge verification

Voice allows continuous identity checking

Voice
-

Cons

Imitation by possible in voice

Possibility of creating nonexistent identities with text
-
to
-
speech technology

Depends on high quality capturing of audio signal

Possibility in rare cases where voice is lost

Iris
-

pros

Widely believed to be the most accurate biometric

Sample acquisition is unobtrusive


no physical contact

Received only little negative press

Present claim is that iris does not involve high training
costs


Iris
-

Cons

There are no or few legacy iris databases

Sampling the iris patterns requires much user
cooperation or complex, expensive input devices

Iris authentication is hampered by vision aid

This biometric is not left as an evidence in the scene of
crime, so not used for forensic applications


Cases like missing eye

Hand
-

Pros

Certain amount of public acceptance

Termed as “do
-
it
-
yourself” operation

Existing of
at least one
scenario evaluation of hand
geometry

Can be used in place in stronger biometric where
stronger might induce public fear

Hand
-

Cons

Physical contact induces public hygiene

Not very distinctive

Existence of only one scenario application rises doubts
about Hand as Biometric

Mutation


Signature
-

Pros

Man
-
made biometric
-

extensive study in forgery

Used to identify impersonation even at enrollment stage

Training is fast

Has fast response and low storage requirements

Independent of the native language of speaker

Combination of information and biometric

Unaffected by high compression rates

Signature
-

Cons

Excessive usage of signature rises perception that it is
not secure enough for protection

Scaling properties and identifier standards are hard to
set

A five
-
dimensional pen is needed to get desired
accuracy which makes hardware costly

Medical conditions prevent people from writing
consistently

Myths and Misrepresentations

Biometric “X” is best for all applications

Biometric “X” is unique for each individual

A single number quantifies system accuracy

System is “ plug and play “

Real accuracy performance can be predicted

The vendors reporting best FAR and FRR has the “most
accurate system”

Multiple biometrics outperform single biometrics

“Our biometric system does not use a decision
threshold”




“Our feature extractor can be used with any match
engine”

Large templates mean better accuracy

Face recognition prevents terrorism

Biometrics means 100 percent security

Biometric systems invade our privacy

Biometric sensors are unhygienic or otherwise harmful

Thank you