BIOMETRICS MAKES ITS MARK - Safran

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Origins,
markets and
technologies
maga
z
ine
safran
NOVEMBER 2007



No.2
The safran group magazine
10

TOMORROw: Silence(R), Reducing aiRcRaft noiSe
/
29
MaRkETs: a bRand-new wiRing SyStem foR the boeing 787
BIOMETRICS
MAKES
ITS MARK
sPECIaL REPORT
T

he Safran Supervisory Board named me Chief Execu
-
tive Officer of the Group in September. I am fully aware
of the responsibility this entails in relation to our em
-
ployees, of course, but also our customers, partners and
shareholders – in short, everyone who has a stake in
the Safran Group.
My predecessor Jean-Paul Béchat and the people who built the Group
have left a considerable legacy. I fully intend to capitalize on this legacy,
supported by my team. Our Group is still young, and we are pursuing our
development on very solid foundations. We deliver brands that embody
quality and trust, products that are often leaders in their market segments,
and technologies that bring us a
decisive edge in contract bids.
These are the assets that have
made Safran a world-class cor
-
poration and a benchmark in

advanced technologies.
The year is not yet over, but
we already know that our results
for 2007 will be good. To take
just one example, we are logging

orders for commercial aircraft

engines at an unprecedented
pace. Safran continues to sow other seeds as well, establishing our current

position of strength and constructing solid foundations for tomorrow.
Building on these achievements, we can look ahead with confidence.
Technological excellence is at the core of our strategy and our corporate
culture, and is focused on our customers. This excellence has always been,
and will continue to be the key to Safran’s development. We are aiming for
ambitious, yet balanced growth that meets the expectations of customers
and shareholders alike, and allows us to meet our social and environmental
commitments as an exemplary corporate citizen.
"We are
looking

ahead with

confidence
"
Technological
Excellence
editorial
essentials
4
A quick look at
Safran Group news
.
insight
8
Career startup
help
for the disabled.
t omor r ow

10
Reducing aircraft noise
through the

European research program SIlEnCE(R)
.
specialreport
12
Biometrics makes its mark

The most reliable defense against identity fraud

is biometrics, and Sagem Sécurité is a global
leader in this field.
panorama
20
CFM56


The world’s best-selling aircraft engine under test.
markets
24
24 Safran, the power behind Ariane 5
26 Tech Insertion: eternal youth

for the CFM56
28 M51, the key to French deterrence
29 A new wiring system for the 787
32
Félin, for tomorrow’s soldiers
34
A mobile phone by Porsche Design
35
The antistress printer
f ace-to-f ace
36
Tarmac, a pioneer in aircraft recycling
Interview with Jean-Marc Thomas,

Senior Vice President and General Manager

of Airbus France.
JEAn-PAul HERTEMAn
Chief exeCutive OffiCer, Safran GrOup
In September 2007 Sukhoi rolled out
the new Superjet 100 regional jet at its
plant in eastern Russia, in front of an
international crowd. Safran is a partner
in this exciting new program.
SUPERJET 100

EN ROUTE
4

essentials
Check out the lastest Safran news on
www.le-webmag.com
November 2007 _ Safran
magazine Safran
magazine
_ November 2007
02-03
contents
© Philip Jacob-Snecma
04-05
essentials
On September 26, the runway at the
Sukhoi plant in Komsomolsk-on-Amur,
far eastern Russia, was much busier
than usual, with more than 500 guests
invited to witness the rollout of the new
Superjet 100 regional jet. This is the first
Russian commercial jetliner program
designed to receive international
certification. The Superjet 100 is

a twin-engine regional jet carrying 70 to

100 passengers and featuring state-of-
the-art technologies. The maiden flight
is planned by the end of 2007, and the
Superjet 100 should enter service with
Aeroflot towards the end of 2008. Out of
an estimated total market in this
category of 5,500 aircraft over the next
20 years, Sukhoi Civil Aircraft projects
sales of 800 to 1,000 Superjet 100s.
Safran is one of the leading Western
partners in this program, since Group
company Snecma teams up with NPO
Saturn of Russia to produce the SaM146
engine, while Messier-Dowty supplies
the landing gear. Several other Safran
Group companies also contribute to this
new regional jet.
K

More
www.parisairshow-2007.com, "Stories"
France’s future Barracuda class nuclear
attack submarines will be fitted with the
surface detection system (DAS) designed

by Sagem Défense Sécurité. The system
comprises a radar mast and two optronic
masts, one integrating a passive
electromagnetic detection sensor. It will
provide day/night detection, tracking and
sighting functions. The contract with French
naval shipyards DCNS includes a firm order
for the first submarine in the series, to be
delivered in 2010, and conditional orders for
the following units.
maga
z
ine
safran
The Safran Group magazine
2, boulevard du Général Martial-Valin
75724 Paris Cedex 15 – France
Fax: 33 (0)1 40 60 84 87
email: safran.magazine@safran.fr
Publication Director
Françoise Descheemaeker
Editorial Director
Olivier Lapy
Executive Editor in Chief
Florent Vilbert
Editor in Chief
Aurélien Coustillac
Translation
Don Siegel, ID Communications
Production
Printed by
Imprimerie Vincent, certified

imprim

vert
,
on PEFC accredited paper
ISSN: pending
The articles and illustrations published
in this magazine may not be reproduced
without prior authorization.
Cover photo
© Nadia Rabhi
SucceSSful Superjet 100 rollout
Sagem Défense Sécurité to provide detection

system for Barracuda submarines
© Philip Jacob-Snecma
© F.Van Malleghem/DPPI/SAFRAN
Weaving linkS
With art
During the Paris
Air Show last
June, Safran
Group com
-
pany Labinal
displayed
an artwork
made entirely
from the dif
-
ferent wiring
assemblies it
produces. The artist, Elodie Givaudan,
won a contest organized by aircraft
wiring specialist Labinal for students
at the Decorative Arts school in Paris,
addressing the theme: “Weaving
links with art”. Labinal’s main

objectives were to spotlight its

business and products in the eyes

of customers, and to foster company-
wide unity around a technology-

related art project.
K

More
www.le-webmag.com
November 2007 _ SafraN
magazine
SafraN
magazine
_ November 2007
Safran’S open 60 racing
boat launched
The Safran Group kicked off a major racing
boat sponsorship initiative in December
2005, choosing skipper Marc Guillemot to
take the helm. The program has shifted into
high gear, with the launch of the new Safran
Open 60 monohull racing boat, incorporating
technologies from several Group companies.
The new boat starts its racing career in
November 2007 with the Transat Jacques
Vabre transatlantic race, from Le Havre

in France to Salvador de Bahia in Brazil.

Next will come the Vendée Globe around-
the-world solo race, starting in November
2008. Safran has created a special website
for all ocean racing aficionados:

www.safransixty.com
K

More
www.le-webmag.com, "3 questions to..."
© Illustration DCNS
© Studio-Pons
Safran aWardS 2007 prize
to chineSe reSearcherS
Awarded for the last five years at the Beijing air show, the annual Safran Prize
for research in China went to Li Zhiping and Lu Xingen this year. The first

prize was awarded to Dr. Li for his work on improving unsteady flows in

a compressor stage. The second prize was awarded to Dr. Lu for

the development of strategies to increase surge margins in axial-flow
compressors. The two prizewinners will travel to France to meet Group
specialists in their fields and perhaps kick off future joint projects.
K

More
www.le-webmag.com
© Safran
06-07
essentials
ardiden
engine
flying

high in
india
MeSSier ServiceS
aSia addS 1,500
Square MeterS
Messier Services Asia’s Singapore
plant has increased its floorspace
to 12,000 square meters,
enhancing its support capabilities.
This facility can now handle a
larger number of landing gear
from Boeing 777, 737NG and
Airbus A320, A330 and A340
aircraft, and will add support
capability for the Airbus A350

and A380, plus the Boeing 787.

Not only does this engine
develop greater power,
especially in hot/high
climates, it also offers
longer endurance, of up
to 6,000 hours between
overhauls.”
PhiliPPe Couteaux
director of aircraft turbine

engines at turbomeca
SageM avionicS
expandS in dallaS
The Sagem Avionics plant in

Grand Prairie, Texas (near Dallas)
is moving to a larger building that
offers some 6,300 square meters
of floorspace. It supplies avionics
systems for both helicopters and
airplanes, along with support
services. In particular, this

plant makes avionics systems

for the UH-72A helicopters
recently chosen by the U.S. Army.
Sagem Avionics is a subsidiary

of Sagem Défense Sécurité
(Safran Group).
K

More
www.safran-na.com
(Safran website for North America)
On October 8, Messier-Dowty, a Safran Group company,
officially inaugurated its new test facility in Vélizy, near
Paris, dedicated to the landing system for the Airbus A400M
military transport. The first landing system shipset had
already been delivered to the final assembly line at the
EADS CASA plant in Seville, Spain.
Launched in mid-2006 in collaboration with Messier-
Bugatti, the new A400M landing system test facility covers
some 1,200 square meters. The main test rig is designed to
carry out operational and endurance tests of the landing
gear kneeling, extension/retraction and steering systems.

It represents the A400M’s own hydraulic, avionics and
electrical systems. Selected as landing system supplier

in 2004, Messier-Dowty is in charge of the design,
development, manufacture, integration and support of

the complete landing system for this new military airlifter.
The test facility itself will be operated in conjunction with the
company’s other test centers in Gloucester (UK) and Toronto
(Canada), as well as the French government’s Toulouse
Aeronautical Test Center.
K

More
www.le-webmag.com
Messier-Dowty inaugurates
A400M test facility in Vélizy
On August 16, the Turbomeca Ardiden turbo
-
shaft engine made its first test flight on the
Dhruv (Hindi for “pole star”) helicopter made
by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL).
The French engine-maker started teaming
up with the Indian aircraft manufacturer
in the 1960s, first on the Artouste, then on
the TM333-2B2. Since the power output of
the latter engine (1,100 shp) no longer met
Dhruv requirements, Turbomeca proposed
that HAL participate in the development of a
new 1,200-shp engine. This led to the

Ardiden 1H, at the time still called “Shakti”,
the Hindi word for power. In addition to the
initial Indian market, spanning some 200 new
Dhruv helicopters currently fitted with the
TM333-2B2, the Ardiden engine is targeting
a global market, as powerplant for twin-

engine helicopters in the 5 to 7-ton class.
K

More
www.le-webmag.com
© DR
November 2007 _ SafraN
magazine
SafraN
magazine
_ November 2007
chipS in
Morocco
By 2014, some 12 million drivers’ licenses and registration papers will be

fitted with electronic chips in Morocco. The Moroccan Ministry of Equipment
and Transportation issued the first documents of this type in August. These
cards are fitted with chips to ensure the security of data updates. The cards
are supplied by Sagem Orga GmbH as part of a secure document system
contract awarded by the Ministry of the Interior to Sagem Sécurité, part of the
Safran Group, and its partners, the industrial firm M2M and the bank Attijari
Capital Risque. With this project, Morocco becomes a pioneer in the
introduction of electronic ID cards.
K

More
www.le-webmag.com
© Alain Ernoult
© Studio-Pons
tWo Million

Mpeg4

decoderS!
Sagem Communications (Safran
Group) delivered its 2,000,000th
MPEG4 digital TV decoder in early
October, solidifying its dominant
position in the sector with a
complete range of terminals

for the four current broadcast
technologies: IP, satellite,

DTTV and cable. At September 30,
16 telecom operators had

chosen Sagem Communications
equipment for their IP television
services.
delivery of

firSt a380
Airbus has delivered the first of 19 A380 super-jumbo jets ordered by Singapore
Airlines, in a three-class layout for 471 passengers. Other deliveries will follow,
to Singapore Airlines as well as Emirates and Qantas. Ten Safran Group
companies contribute to the A380.
K

More
www.le-webmag.com
© Airbus SAS
© DR
November 2007 _
safran
magazine
safran
magazine
_ November 2007
08-09
Insight
A
longside Safran’s corporate
sponsorships in sports and
culture, the Group is actively
involved in helping the dis
-
abled. To this end it has set up a
Foundation intended to provide aid for
young adults in difficulty. One of its
projects, named Elan and launched in
2005, is working with all Safran compa
-
nies to facilitate the long-term employ
-
ment of young disabled people, regard
-
less of their disability (motor, sensory,
mental or degenerative pathology).
Group-wide participation
“We noticed that the number of disabled
people obtaining diplomas or qualifica
-
tions declines as the academic level
rises,” explains Christian Mari, chair
-
man and CEO of Teuchos (an engi
-
neering company in the Safran Group)
and the initiator of the Elan project.
“Unfortunately we can’t reverse this
trend all by ourselves, but in our own
companies we can try to help those with
a vocational training certificate earn
a vocational high school diploma, or
someone with a technician’s certificate
become an engineer, and so on.”
From this starting point, the human
resources departments at Safran Group
companies were called on to define jobs
that would be accessible to disabled indi
-
viduals and also compatible with work-
study training. Within a few months the
HR staff had identified some 38 available
Elan in an iT dEparTmEnT
An example of the Elan project in action can be seen in the Safran Group
company Teuchos, where Pierre-André Charlery is serving an apprenticeship in
the company’s IT department. His impaired hearing does not prevent him from
working on maintenance and providing assistance to users, helping to install
software and user accounts. “The people I work with are patient and take care
to speak clearly. So everything goes well without any need for special
arrangements at my workstation,” explains the young man who completed the
first part of his Management IT diploma in September 2007.
workplace.
Since 2006, twenty-five disabled
young adults in a work-study degree program
have been offered internships by Safran
Group companies. This is a flagship initiative
of the Safran Foundation, dubbed “Elan”.
Career

startup help
for the

disabled
positions, representing all professions in
the Group.
The Safran Foundation is supporting

the Elan project with a grant of 200,000
euros over two years. This has made it pos
-
sible to join the
Tremplin
(Springboard)
association – an organization that spe
-
cializes in the recruitment of disabled
individuals – and to finance the training
of tutors for the future apprentices, as well
as any necessary modifications to work
-
stations. “The program has a unifying
effect internally because it spurs active
© Jean-Michel Sicot
FurThEr supporT
For ThE disablEd
by ThE saFran
FoundaTion
In addition to the Elan project,

the Foundation helps disabled
individuals in other ways.

One example is the support it gives
to Arlette Racineux, a highly
accomplished tennis player and
member of the French disabled
sports federation “Handisport”,

who is on the staff at Famat

(a Safran Group company). To help
her prepare for the Beijing 2008
Paralympic Games, the Safran
Foundation has given a 15,000 euro
grant to the Atlantis Tennis Club at
Saint-Herblain (West France),
where the champion trains.
Ranked third in France, and 22nd
worldwide, Arlette Racineux has
already won two bronze medals in
ladies’ doubles, at Barcelona in
1992 and Atlanta in 1996.
disabled persons can easily be part of a team.
pierre-andré Charlery (left) during
his apprenticeship at the Teuchos

(safran Group) iT department.
© Jean-Michel Sicot
participation by all companies in the
Group. It is also a good example of the
sort of initiative the Foundation hopes
to support,” says Louis Le Portz, chair
-
man of the Safran Foundation. Over
a period of nine months the Group’s
human resources departments received
72 applications from all over France.
encouraging a change

of attitude
While adhering to traditional inter
-
viewing methods, the recruiters paid
particular attention to specific param
-
eters, such as the candidate’s determi
-
nation to study for an examination and
pass it, and the convenient location of
their homes in relation to the work
-
place and school. In September 2006,
25 apprentices joined Safran Group
companies. Their fixed-term contracts
run 18 months to three years, until final
ratification of their diplomas. “This
project is first and foremost an educa
-
tional operation intended to change the
way people see the disabled, by demon
-
strating their aptitudes and their ability
to fit into a professional workplace like
anybody else,” Christian Mari explains.
“A few months before the end of their
internships, Safran’s human resources
managers will start advising our soon-
to-be-qualified interns in their search
for employment, both inside the Group
and elsewhere. With Elan, our aim is to
make sure that this first experience will
inspire companies to keep the momen
-
tum going.”

A. Dohy
November 2007 _
safran
magazine
safran
magazine
_ November 2007
10-11
tomorrow
©xxxxx
Viewpoint
Michel laroche
Senior Vice PreSident, AeroSPAce
technologieS, SAfrAn grouP.
“Both snecma

and the safran
Group rose to

the occasion”
on aeronautics research in europe, or
acare, has issued a very ambitious noise
reduction objective of 10 decibels from
2000 to 2020. Silence(r) should help us
achieve 5 decibels of this reduction.”
noise is a highly complex phenomenon,
as shown by the number and diversity of
participants in Silence(r): a total of
51 companies and organizations, coor
-
dinated by Snecma. research focused
on four main areas: engines, nacelles,
active noise control and aerodynamic
noise.
Beyond engines
Snecma worked on engine and nacelle
noise research, ranging from fan noise
to air inlets, as well as new nozzle
shapes. two other Safran Group com
-
panies, Messier-Dowty and Messier-
Bugatti, focused on reducing landing
gear noise (from the structure, wheels,
brakes and equipment) during the

landing approach phase. “Silence(r)

is the first major noise reduction

program in which we took an active
role,” says patrick Monclar, head of
research & technology for the two
companies.
r&D efforts over the last few decades
on reducing engine noise have been
so successful that noise from today’s
engines no longer cloaks the aerody
-
namic noise from landing gear and other
parts of the plane. “we worked on short-
term solutions,” adds Monclar, “such as
adding fairings to our current landing
gear, and these were flight-tested on an
airbus a340. looking further ahead
we studied landing gear designs that
integrate noise reduction. wind-tunnel
tests of a scale model demonstrated the
potential benefits of this work.”
Fellow Group company aircelle was
equally successful, with the develop
-
ment of a prototype for a low-frequency
plug (the central part of the nozzle), a
primary nozzle specifically designed to
reduce combustion and hot jet noise.
according to christophe thorel, head
of r&t at aircelle, “Ground tests of
the plug and flight tests of the nozzle
validated these concepts, developed in
collaboration with Snecma.”
aircraft manufacturers are now tak
-
ing a very close look at these areas
of research, and the most promising
concepts could quickly lead to practi
-
cal applications. with Silence(r)
now completed, research is continu
-
ing through other programs*, and the

magic number is still 10 decibels!

f. lert
* See the article “Clean Sky” on
www.le-webmag.com
Europe helped fund the sILEnCE(r)
program. What are the European
Commission’s objectives for the
aviation industry?
In addition to considerable government
support in each country, such as
provided by the DPAC (civil aviation
program directorate) in France, the
European Commission is fully
committed to helping the aviation
industry in member countries bolster
their competitiveness. It’s now clear
that this industry creates wealth and
brings a host of benefits to Europe.

At the same time, these countries

are very concerned about the
environmental impact of air transport,
and want to make sure that this impact
is significantly reduced as

the industry grows. The European
Commission has therefore supported
a “Strategic Agenda” setting out these
goals, and industry has responded
with very concrete research proposals.
sILEnCE(r) had some very
concrete goals, but wasn’t it also
an opportunity to enhance the
recognition of snecma and

the safran Group?
Absolutely! Snecma is bolstering its
image as a major European engine-
maker, comparable to Rolls-Royce.
Safran, the leading supplier of
aircraft equipment in Europe, has
the same objective. SILENCE(R) had
to meet some major challenges, and
both Snecma and the Safran Group
rose to the occasion. The European
Commission took note of our excellent
results, and our partners have
expressed their satisfaction as well.
In short, this major research program
has helped us further burnish our
image.
Will there be a follow-on to the
sILEnCE(r) program?
Certainly, since European programs
are generally geared to the long haul.
SILENCE(R) was launched as part of
the 5th PCRD framework research &
development program. Then came the
6th, and today we are starting on the
7th PCRD – it’s an ongoing research
effort! The aim is not only to meet
increasingly stringent environmental
regulations, but also to anticipate
them, if possible. Through a new
program called Open Air, we will be
working on technologies even further
upstream.
And don’t forget the national
research programs. In France,

after Maia and Inca, we are now
participating in the Iroqua network for
basic research in acoustics. Another
major program has been launched

by the French Ministry of Industry,
concerning composites. Both Snecma
Propulsion Solide and Aircelle are
taking part, with a project for a high-
temp nozzle incorporating acoustic
treatment.
© Equivox
©Lorenzo Timon
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NOISE REDUCTION:
TRENDS AND OUTLOOK
Current generation
SILENCE(R)
Objective
Old generation
noise level per aircraft operation

ACARE
Objective
EUROPEAN OBJECTIVES
fOR
2020

The European Commission has issued various
recommendations which aim to make Europe a global

leader in aviation, while also providing the best solutions

for society as a whole. Certain objectives have been

set for 2020:
L
aunched in 2001, the
Silence(r) research pro
-
gram came to an end in July
2007 with the large-scale
validation of various noise
reduction technologies for
commercial jetliners. it was designed to
investigate not only engine noise, but
also the aerodynamic noise produced
by the airframe and aerostructures.
“Silence(r) aimed to prove the
maturity of these technologies, pav
-
ing the way for development and then
practical applications,” explains eugène
Kors, coordinator of the Silence(r)
program at Snecma, part of the
Safran Group. the advisory council
rEsEarCh.

the Silence(r) aircraft
noise reduction research program has
now been completed, with some very
concrete results.
flyINg

IN SIlENCE
• Decreasing fuel consumption per passenger-kilometer by
50%

(20% through improvements to engines).
• Decreasing noise by
50% (aCarE objective), including all noise
sources: aerodynamics, landing gear, engines, etc.
• Decreasing nitrogen oxide (nOx) releases by
80%.

The most reliable defense against identity fraud
is biometrics,
and Sagem Sécurité is a global
leader in this field.
12-13
BIOMETRICS FROM

HEAD TO FOOT
P. 14
SECuRITy ACROSS

THE BOARD
P. 16
A TECHnOlOgy

pRIMER
P. 18
BIOMETRICS
MAkES

ITS MARk
FACTS &
FIGURES
special report
>140

biometric systems
by Sagem Sécurité
in service with
governments
worldwide .
© Nadia Rabhi
November 2007 _
safran
magazine
safran
magazine
_ November 2007
65%
of biometric
systems are based
on fingerprints.
53

billion dollars
The annual cost of
identity fraud in the
united States.
s c a n n i n g
i ma g e p r o c e s s i n g
i d e n t i f i c a t i o n
/// O K ///
/// OK ///
14-15
to Didier, “You are sometimes asked
to show two pieces of ID, which
means that society has doubts about
the integrity of these documents.”
These “proofs” of identity clearly have
limits, because they can be falsi
-
fied. Furthermore, more and more
transactions are taking place online,
without buyer and seller ever meeting
each other. Biometrics may well be
the only possible link between the
real and virtual worlds, to guarantee
identities and carry out operations in
total security.
from official documents
to personal accessories
The first use of biometrics in the
modern world can be traced to the
police. All major police forces around
the world now
deploy systems
capable of enter
-
ing, storing,
retrieving and
comparing mil
-
lions of finger
-
prints, and doing
so very quickly.
However, the
fastest growing
market today
is for civilian
applications: ID
cards, passports, voter cards, social
security cards, etc. Sagem Sécurité is
the global leader in this growth sec
-
tor, having delivered over 100 million
biometric ID certificates worldwide.
Biometrics is used in all of these
cases to protect against fraud and
abuse. In elections, for instance, bio
-
metric voter cards keep people from
voting more than once. “In Gabon,
the opposition asked the president
to set up a biometric electoral system
to prevent fraud,” explains Philippe
Larcher, director of programs and
products at Sagem Sécurité. The
Democratic Republic of the Congo
is one of the latest countries to use
biometrics for voter identification,
calling on European funding and a
partnership with the UN.
Another civilian application is
physical access control. For example,
airports, nuclear plants and ports are
Special report
context.

How do you guarantee personal
identification in an increasingly
electronic world? Biometrics has
emerged as one of the most reliable
solutions to address this very thorny
problem.
Biometrics
from head

to foot
very sensitive sites that are now fitted
with effective ID systems. Biometrics
may also be used in consumer-

oriented applications where the stakes
are not quite so high, namely logical
access control. For instance, a PDA
or mobile phone may use biometric
validation instead of the traditional
PIN.
Many other applications also call

on biometrics, from driver licenses
and payment terminals to border con
-
trols. Biometric technologies have
proved to be very useful in protecting
citizens and safeguarding democracy,
although at the same time they have
been criticized for restricting indi
-
vidual liberty (see the interview with
Anne Carblanc above). Biometrics
is quickly becoming indispensable in
today’s world, which is why its use must
be carefully controlled. “Our position
at Sagem Sécurité is to explain and
deliver the technical capabilities, so
that governments can make the right
choice,” concludes Bernard Didier.

D. bauDier
safran
magazine
_ November 2007
November 2007 _
safran
magazine
VIEwPOINT
ANNE CARBLANC*,
PrinciPal aDministrator at the oecD
Why is an
organization like the
oecD interested in
biometrics?

Biometrics is
enjoying fast-paced
growth. But while
its main purpose is
to enhance citizens’
security, if used
dishonestly it may
also entail certain
risks in relation to the
protection of people’s
lives and personal
data.
What specific risks
are you referring to?
Biometric data is not
like other data:

it doesn’t stop “living”
once the data is
collected. The data is
processed, stored and
possibly transmitted
over networks and
shared. So there is
a risk that biometric
data collected for one
purpose may be used
for another, or even
compromised. But if
there’s a problem, it’s
not like replacing an
ID card: we can’t get
a replacement eye or
finger!
What mechanisms
are generally applied
to prevent this type
of misuse?
The main protection
is legal. There are a
number of national
or European laws to
protect our personal
data. One of the major
principles applied
is transparency.
You can’t collect
information if the
person concerned is
not aware of the fact.
The purpose of the
data being collected
has to be explained,
as well as how the
information is to be
used. Any person for
whom biometric data
has been collected
must know who
holds the data, so
that they can request
corrections in case
of error. Another
major principle is
technical security:
biometric systems
must be secure to
prevent pirating,
expropriation or
misappropriation.
Over and above the
legal obligation, this
is also an essential
prerequisite for
mutual trust between
individuals and the
company that collects
the data.
* Principal Administrator at the
OECD, leader of the Information
Security and Private-Consumer
Policy working group, which
published a report on biometric
technologies in 2003.
©DR
Legal and ethical
aspects of biometrics
I
t seems that biometrics has always
been used for identification. In
the second century B.C., the
Chinese emperor Ts’In She was
already authenticating certain seals
with a fingerprint. This budding use
of biometrics was then forgotten, only
to be rediscovered by william James
Herschel in the mid-19th century.
“He was an English officer in charge
of building roads in Bengal,” explains
Bernard Didier, Vice President R&T
Business Development at Sagem
Sécurité (Safran Group). “He had his
subcontractors sign contracts with
their fingerprints, thus making it eas
-
ier to find them if they defaulted.”
This application already expresses
the basic principle of biometrics: to
identify a person based on certain
characteristics, whether anatomical
(size, fingerprints, iris, odor, etc.) or
behavioral (way of walking, footfall,
handwriting, etc.).
Biometrics is inextricably linked
with the question of identity. Until
now, it was relatively easy to prove
one’s identity by certain possessions
(a key to show ownership of a car,
for example), or by knowing a secret
(password). Official ID cards are also
a proof of identity, but according

100

million
biometric ID
certificates
delivered
worldwide.
Sagem Sécurité

is the global
leader in this
growth sector.
A wEApOn

AgAInST ID FRAuD

Biometrics is proving to be one of
the best defenses against identity
theft and fraud, which is a lot
more common than one would
think. In the United States, for
instance, a Federal Trade
Commission study estimates the
financial damage to the U.S.
economy due to ID fraud at $53
billion! In the United Kingdom, the
estimate is £1.72 billion. And all
indications are that this type of
fraud is accelerating at a dizzy
pace. Of course, Internet use
continues to boom, and in the
virtual world, it’s still relatively
easy to pretend you’re somebody
else!
Henri léon Scheffer was the first

criminal to be identified by the paris
police from fingerprints,

in October 1902.
© Préfecture de Police de Paris / Tout droit réservé
safran
magazine
_ November 2007
November 2007 _
safran
magazine
16-17
Special report
S
agem Sécurité, part of the Safran
Group, is a pioneer in biometric
systems for police forces. In fact,
it leads the field, with more than
60 systems up and running worldwide.
Its client list includes such prestigious
organizations as the FBI, the British
Home Office, Interpol and the Ger
-
man and Australian police. The FBI’s
database, for instance, lists more than
700 million fingerprints, and is con
-
sulted more than 50,000 times a day. For
many years, this was the core business
at Sagem Sécurité, accounting for half
of its biometric revenues. Today, civil
-
ian applications have caught up with, or
even surpassed police applications, and
often involve very hefty contracts.
Biometric ID card
In South America, Colombia chose
Sagem Sécurité to provide a highly
secure biometric ID card to all citi
-
zens over 14 years old by the end of
2009 – a total of 33 million people!
The company’s engineers developed
mobile registration stations which will
travel around the country to accom
-
plish this immense task. Sagem Sécu
-
rité (Safran Group) is already an old
hand at this type of operation, since
it has conducted similar campaigns
in Malaysia and Mauritania. Further
-
more, since 2006 Sagem Sécurité has
been working in Mexico to deploy a
huge multibiometric system – combin
-
ing fingerprints and facial recognition
– to combat electoral fraud, one of the
problems facing this young democracy.
Mexico will have the largest multibio
-
metric system in the world. Today,
more than 140 governmental systems
32,500
The number of controls carried

out daily by the Sagem Sécurité
biometric access control systems
installed at the two main paris
airports, Charles-de-gaulle and
Orly. More than 100,000 employees
have been registered with the
system, one of the largest of its

type in the world.
VIEwPOINT
YVES MOSSé,
Director of the ntic Project at the french ministry

of the interior
There is a bit of
confusion about the
word “biometric”.

In fact, to be exact,

the current passport
in France already has
a biometric
component, namely
the photo, which is
digitized and stored on
a chip inserted on one
of the pages. What is
generally called a
biometric passport in
fact designates a new
passport that will be
mandatory starting

in June 2009, in
application of a
European regulation.
The main difference
from the current
passport is that, in
addition to the photo,

it will also have two
digitized fingerprints.
The widespread use

of this passport will
help us fight against
identity theft and
fraud, and also
facilitate border
checks. The French
data protection
authority (CNIL)

will shortly be asked
to issue a
recommendation on
this matter.
When will the french

passport go biometric?
information, including fingerprints and
photos (see the interview above with
Yves Mossé).
In the words of Jean-Paul Jainsky,
Chairman and CEO of Sagem Sécurité:
“we’re a global operator, capable of pro
-
viding real turnkey solutions that meet
government needs for all aspects of ID
management.”

D. bauDier
K

MORE
www.le-webmag.com
built by Sagem Sécurité are in opera
-
tion around the world.
Border control
with terrorist threats on the rise and
immigration at the forefront of govern
-
ment concerns, biometrics can also be
applied to border control systems. For
example, Sagem Sécurité supplied five
major airports in Britain with special
automatic control stations that allow
frequent flyers and volunteers (travelers
have to register) to avoid the manual
passport control windows. The passen
-
ger enters the booth, looks at a camera
which analyzes the iris in both eyes, and,
if everything is in order, the gate opens
on the other side in just a few seconds.
Dubbed “Iris”, this system greatly speeds
up passenger traffic in airports. It’s a very
timely solution, given the rapid growth in
air travel and the upcoming service entry of
the Airbus A380, with some 600 passengers
all eager to deplane in short order.
Sagem Sécurité is a coordinator of the
Visabio project, a biometric visa issued
by France to foreigners entering the
Schengen area (15 European countries
requiring a single visa). The company
has also won a contract for Europe’s
future visa system, tasked with guar
-
anteeing the authenticity of biometric
Biometric access control system.
Automated ID control booth
for travelers.
Recording travelers’

biometric data.
success.

Biometric applications are
booming, driven by increased security
needs and the growing demand for
protection against all types of fraud.

Sagem Sécurité is ideally positioned to
capitalize on these opportunities, since

it is already a global leader in biometrics.
security across
the Board
© Gérard Vouillon/Sagem Sécurité
© Gérard Vouillon/Sagem Sécurité
© Gérard Vouillon/Sagem Sécurité
BIOMETRIC

BODy pARTS

The quality of a biometric
analysis depends on a judicious
choice of the body part, which
has to meet three main criteria:
it has to be universal, unique and
unchanging over time. Several
parts of our body meet these
criteria. The uncontested king is
of course the finger and its print,
which combines accuracy and
comfort (it’s easier to place one’s
finger on a detector than to place
your eye in front of a camera).
But other approaches have
made breakthroughs in recent
years. In particular iris
recognition is at least as
accurate as fingerprints, while
facial recognition requires

a relatively simple detector

(a camera), but is not as
accurate.
Another key biological element
is of course our DNA, reputed
infallible, although entailing
certain legitimate ethics issues.
However, the DNA must be
physically sampled from the
person to be tested, and the
processing is long and costly.

A person can be identified from
his or her palm prints. Or even
from walk, or footfall patterns,
but both of these techniques are
still nascent and do not offer
sufficient precision.
safran
magazine
_ November 2007
November 2007 _
safran
magazine
18-19
Special report
technoLogy.

How does a system
differentiate between individual
fingerprints, irises or faces? That’s the
job of biometric processing software,
which calls on very different methods
depending on the body part in
question.
a technology
primer
W
e usually see only the out
-
side aspect of a biometric
system, namely a finger
-
print reader or camera.
But it’s what behind the detector that
counts: the software that processes the
data gathered by the detector, and the
database used to compare the new fin
-
gerprint with all previous ones. Therein
lies the added value of a biometric sys
-
tem, which has to combine performance,
precision and reliability, since most large
systems of this type operate 24 hours a
day, 7 days a week.
But how exactly do they work? Every
-
The system identifies as many of these
points as possible, assigning spatial and
angular coordinates to each minutiae.
Once this “map” has been established,
the system compares it to minutiae
already in its database. If two data sets
are identical, then it’s the same person.
This technology is already considered
mature, and currently accounts for more
than 65% of the biometrics market.
filming faces
Face recognition, although less wide
-
spread, is also a very successful technique,
largely because it is relatively easy to use.
The face is first filmed, in close-up or
from a distance, depending on the venue
(airport, street, etc.), the system used
(close-up or wider angle view) and the
degree of accuracy desired. The system
identifies the face on the screen, formats
it, if necessary adjusting the perspective,
and then compares it to a list of faces in
its memory, using very sophisticated algo
-
rithms. One of the main advantages of
these systems is that they are comfortable
(people are simply “shot” by a camera),
and intuitive (anybody can check if the
system has made a mistake or not). On
the other hand, reliability depends on
the shooting conditions. If the subject is
poorly lit, too far away or out of focus,

the results will not be as accurate. Once
again, however, technical advances are
making these systems increasingly toler
-
ant of less than ideal shooting conditions.
This is still a relatively recent technology,
and currently accounts for a little over
10% of the market.
coding eyes

Another identification technique now
being developed is for the iris, which
offers theoretical precision at least equal
to fingerprints, but is not as comfortable
(you have to position your eye in front of
a reader). when you take a closer look,
the iris comprises a seemingly chaotic
entanglement of micro-tubes, in a pat
-
tern that is specific to each person. The
system divides this tangled mass into
eight concentric circles, like a target.
The pattern in each one looks something

like a barcode. Processing the image with
thing depends on the biometric marker
involved…
Zebra skin and

fingerprints
Let’s start with fingerprints. when you
place your finger on a detector the pro
-
cessing software analyzes the ridge pat
-
terns, which look a bit like a zebra skin. It
determines the points of interest, which
specialists call minutiae. There are two
main types: ridge endings and bifurca
-
tions. These are the points that enable
analysts to tell the difference between
individual fingerprints.
1.
FABRICATIOn
of the prisms for
fingerprint detection.
2.
ASSEMBly
of fingerprint

detectors.
3.
InTEgRATIOn
of the fingerprint
recognition module.
4.
ADJuSTMEnT
of fingerprint sensor.
1
2
3
4
a filter, the system converts this barcode
into a series of digital bits – “0” and “1”.
All that’s left is for the system to compare
these strings of figures with those in its
memory to distinguish between two indi
-
viduals. The market for this technology
is still emerging.
There are other biometric techniques,
including those based on DNA, but they
are still relatively insignificant in the
market.
The basic principle behind fingerprint,
iris and facial recognition systems is well
known, but each manufacturer has its
own secret technology recipe, which it
keeps under lock and key!

D. bauDier
© Nadia Rabhi
© Virginie Sueres
20-21
panorama
A CFM56-powered airplane

takes off somewhere in the world

every 3 seconds. Safran Magazine

takes you on a guided tour of Snecma’s

engine test facilities at Villaroche, near Paris.
CFM56, the world’s

best-selling airCraFt
engine under test
November 2007 _
safran
magazine
safran
magazine
_ November 2007
©J.-F. Damois/ J.-C. Moreau/SAFRAN
22-23
1
November 2007 _
safran
magazine
safran
magazine
_ November 2007
panorama
1. asseMbly
A CFM56 at the end of the assembly

line in Villaroche.
2. transport
The engine is transported to the test
zone. An intake duct has been fitted

to the front of the engine.
3. preparation
Attached to a pylon, the CFM56 is
“clothed” in its nacelle.
4. MeasureMent instruMents
The different measurement channels
are installed on the engine prior to

the test.
5. test
While the engine spools up on the test
stand (see page 20-21), control room
staff concentrate on the readings.
6. ready For delivery
Once they have passed their tests, the
engines are protected and placed in a
standby zone while awaiting delivery

to customers.
3
2
CFM56, a FrenCh-aMeriCan

airCraFt engine
The CFM56 turbofan engine is designed, produced and
marketed by Snecma (Safran Group) and General Electric
through the equally-owned CFM International. It mainly
powers the two leading families of short/medium-range
twin-engine commercial jets, the Airbus A320 and Boeing
737. With more than 17,000 engines in service, the CFM56

is the world leader and the best-selling engine in the history

of commercial aviation. At September 30, 2007, 26 years
after the service entry of the first CFM56, the partners

had already recorded orders for 2,290 engines since the
beginning of the year – an all-time record. Both partners

are responsible for engine assembly and testing. In France,
CFM56 engines are assembled at Snecma’s Villaroche plant,
south of Paris. Each engine is of course extensively tested
before being delivered to the customer. So far this year,
Snecma has already checked out more than 550 engines

on its test rigs, about the same as General Electric.
6
5
4
24-25
A
riane 5 is one of the most
successful launch vehicles
on the market today,” says
Jacques Serre, Vice President
and General Manager of the Space
Engines division at Snecma, part of
the Safran Group. By 2009, Snecma
will have delivered all engines for the
30 Ariane 5 launchers in the original
“PA” batch order by Arianespace. The
new “PB” order will then take over,
with 35 more Ariane 5 launchers in
the heavy-lift ECA version. “We signed
a Memorandum of Understanding with
EADS Astrium, the industrial prime
contractor, at the Paris Air Show this
summer,” adds Serre. “Our aim is to
ensure the continued supply of rocket
propulsion systems for five more years
starting in September 2009. The con
-
tract should be officialized by March
2008.”
Safran is involved in the Ariane 5
program at several levels, through four
companies: Snecma Propulsion Solide,
in charge of the MPS solid rocket mo
-
tors (SRM), Snecma, in charge of the
cryogenic engines (fueled by liquid
hydrogen and liquid oxygen), Tech-
space Aero, producer of the launcher’s
SPAce.

Following an initial batch order
for 30 Ariane 5 launchers in 2004,
Arianespace ordered a new batch of
Ariane 5 ECA launchers from EADS
Astrium last June. The Safran Group
plays an active role in the success of the
European launcher, with several companies
supplying key systems and equipment.
Safran, the
power behind
ariane 5
November 2007 _ SAfrAn
magazine
SAfrAn
magazine
_ November 2007
markets
control valves, and Labinal, supplier

of the wiring harnesses.
“Snecma is a cryogenic rocket engine
systems integrator,” notes Jacques Serre.
“We’re in charge of the propulsion systems
on the liquid-propellant stages, including
the HM7B engine for the upper stage
and the Vulcain 2 engine for the main
stage, along with all equipment needed
for engine control and fuel supply.”
Industrial teaming
On the Vulcain engine in particular,
Snecma coordinates the work of a number
of leading European companies: EADS
Astrium’s Ottobrunn plant in Germany
provides the thrust chamber; Volvo Aero
Corporation of Sweden supplies the

nozzle and turbopump turbines; and

Avio of Italy makes the liquid oxygen
turbopump. The electrical harnesses

for the engine, featuring fire-resistant
thermal protection, are supplied by

fellow Safran Group company Labinal.
“We also make the harnesses for the
cryogenic main stage,” adds Michel Al
-
lard, sales & marketing director at Labi
-
nal. This stage includes eight cryogenic

valves provided by Techspace Aero, the
Group’s Belgian subsidiary. According to

Michel Gruslin, head of space programs at
Techspace Aero, “These valves are used
to inject the liquid hydrogen and oxygen,

and control the mixture ratio of these
two cryogenic propellants.”
The huge solid-rocket motors, or boost
-
ers, are “developed and produced by an
equally-owned subsidiary of Avio and
Safran, called Europropulsion,” notes
Michel Dutrop, head of the space pro
-
pulsion group at Snecma Propulsion Sol
-
ide, Safran’s solid propulsion specialist.
Snecma Propulsion Solide’s Bordeaux
plant makes the solid booster nozzles
using advanced thermostructural com
-
posite materials capable of standing up to
exhaust temperatures exceeding 3,000°C.
In addition, Snecma Propulsion Solide
produces the titanium tanks for the liquid
helium used for control and pressurization
of the upper stage.
The ninth launcher in the PA batch
order will lift off in November 2007,
while the first launcher in the follow-on
PB order is scheduled to lift off from the
Guiana Space Center (Kourou, French
Guiana) in the second half of 2010.

A. AngrAnd
UPPER STAGE

Snecma

HM7B cryogenic engine
Snecma propulsion Solide
Titanium helium tanks
MAIN STAGE

Snecma
Vulcain 2 cryogenic engine
techspace aero
Cryogenic valves
Labinal
Electrical harnesses for stage

and engine
BOOSTERS
europropulsion
(50/50 joint venture, Safran and
Avio):
MPS solid rocket motor
Snecma propulsion Solide
MPS
nozzle

© ESA/CNES/Arianespace
ariane 5 propuLSion
26-27
November 2007 _ SAfrAn
magazine
SAfrAn
magazine
_ November 2007
markets
commercIAl engIneS.

The CFM56 technology
improvement program, dubbed

“Tech Insertion”, enables airlines to
reduce engine maintenance costs, NOx
emissions and fuel consumption.
tech
inSertion:
eternaL youth
for the cfM56
A
n Airbus A320 took off this
summer powered by CFM56-
5B engines built to the new
Tech Insertion standard.
Directly derived from the Tech56
research program, the upgraded
Tech Insertion version offers a num
-
ber of advantage to airlines operat
-
ing CFM56-5B or -7B engines. “We
launched the Tech56 research pro
-
gram at the end of the 1990s because
we expected the new generation of
Airbus and Boeing single-aisle jetlin
-
ers to make their appearance towards
2005,” explains Jean-Pierre Cojan,
head of the Commercial Engines
division at Snecma (Safran Group).
But since the two plane-makers didn’t
seem ready to develop any new-gener
-
ation planes at the time, Snecma de
-
cided to apply the technologies devel
-
oped through this program to the two
current CFM International best-sell
-
ers, the CFM56-5B and CFM56-7B.

© Éric Drouin-Snecma
“We looked at the possibilities offered
by these new technologies,” says Co
-
jan, “and applied them to existing
engines.”
The aim is to add value for CFM

International customers through
continuous improvements to their
engines, whether new or already in
service, allowing them to cut main
-
tenance costs and fuel consumption.
“This program concerns at least ten
thousand engines,” adds Cojan. “It
will also enable us to keep them in
service once the new ICAO [Interna
-
tional Civil Aviation Organization]
emission standards for oxides of ni
-
trogen, or NOx, take effect in 2008.
The resale value of both engines and
aircraft will benefit directly from
Tech Insertion. Airplanes are a bit
like cars; the older ones lose their
value faster than new ones, so it’s to
our advantage to maintain engines to
the most recent standard.”
enhanced efficiency and
longevity
All new CFM56-5B and -7B engines
will now be built to the Tech Insertion
standard. Engines already in service can
also be fitted with upgrade kits during
general overhauls by Snecma Services
or General Electric Services. As Jean-
Pierre Cojan notes, “Starting now, all
customers will receive Tech Insertion
versions of these engines. We are no
longer producing the former version,
except of course spare parts for cus
-
tomers who choose not to modify their
engines to the new standard.”
Improvements to the CFM56 focus
on the low-pressure compressor, com
-
bustor (combustion chamber) and the
high- and low-pressure turbines. CFM
International has developed new HP
compressor blades, using advanced
3D aerodynamic design and analysis
methods. The new design not only
improves engine efficiency, it also
minimizes parts wear and reduces
sensitivity to clearances. By using ad
-
vanced analysis tools developed for
the twin-annular pre-swirl (TAPS)
type combustor, CFM International
also improved cooling of the CFM56’s

annular combustors, which reduces
NOx emissions and gives sufficient mar
-
gins in relation to new environmental

protection standards.
Tech Insertion engines will offer lon
-
ger life “on-wing” (without removal for
servicing), reduce maintenance costs
by about 5%, decrease nitrogen oxide
emissions by 15% to 20%, and signifi
-
cantly decrease fuel consumption. In
other words, Tech Insertion rejuve
-
nates the best-selling CFM56 fam
-
ily, while awaiting the advent of its
successor, derived from technologies
developed through the new Leap56
research program and expected to hit
the market towards 2015.

A. AngrAnd
Program
milestones
> September 2004:
official launch
of the Tech Insertion program,
using technologies developed
through the Tech56 demonstrator.
> november 2005:
flight tests
on General Electric’s Boeing 747
flying testbed based at Victorville,
California. Ground tests follow at
Snecma’s Villaroche plant.

A total of six engines are used
for these tests, logging a total of
1,150 hours.
> September 2006:
certification
by the European Aviation Safety
Agency (EASA) and the FAA of the
United States.
> May 2007:
service entry of
Tech Insertion standard engines
on Boeing 737 Next Generation
jetliners.
> September 2007:
service entry
of Tech Insertion standard engines
on Airbus A320 family jetliners.
the first cfM56-5b tech insertion engine,
designated cfM56-5b/3, left the Villaroche
assembly line in late august 2007. it will be
delivered to italian carrier air one.
assembly of a cfM56-5b.
28-29
November 2007 _
safran
magazine
safran
magazine
_ November 2007
markets
defense.

With the development of the
new M51 ballistic missile, France’s nuclear
deterrence force bolsters its credibility.
Snecma Propulsion Solide supplies the solid
rocket motors for this new strategic missile.
M51, the key

to French

deterrence

F
rance’s nuclear deterrent force plays
a key role in the country’s national
defense. In 2006, former president
Jacques Chirac said, “Deterrence
must maintain its essential credibility in
a changing geographic environment. (…)
With its intercontinental range, the M51
will allow us to counter any threats that
arise in this uncertain world, no matter
where they come from.”
For his first official visit to the armed
forces, France’s new president Nicolas
Sarkozy chose the highly symbolic site of
Ile Longue (western France), where the
navy’s nuclear-powered ballistic missile
submarines are based. During his speech
he reiterated his commitment to allocating
“the resources needed to guarantee French
security under any circumstances.”
The original M5 program (subsequently
renamed M51) was launched in 1992 to
replace the ballistic missiles now deployed
on France’s nuclear submarines. The M51 is
a three-stage missile powered by solid rocket
motors. Weighing 56 metric tons (123,200
lb), it carries up to six nuclear warheads and
features inertial guidance.

Propulsion system

qualification on track
“We’ve nearly completed qualification of
the propulsion system,” says Gérard Frut,
managing director of programs at Snecma
Propulsion Solide, a Safran Group com
-
pany. He is also a director of G2P, a con
-
sortium formed by Snecma Propulsion
Solide and SNPE Matériaux Energétiques
(supplier of the solid propellants) to oversee
© DGA/CELM site Landes
solid rocket motor production. With a 75%
share of G2P, Snecma Propulsion Solide is
the propulsion prime contractor, in charge
of manufacturing all inert components in
the rocket motors (structure, thermal lining,
igniter and nozzle), as well as final assembly.
“The M51 program accounts for 50 to 60
percent of business volume at SPS,” contin
-
ues Frut, “so it’s extremely important for our
company. We have a production contract
that runs to 2015, and we’re already making
preparations for the future.”
According to Laurent Sellier, director
of sea-launched strategic ballistic missiles
(MSBS) at French defense procurement
agency DGA, “During development of
the M51, there were extensive discussions
between teams from Snecma Propulsion
Solide, SNPE Matériaux Energétiques and
the DGA concerning rocket motor develop
-
ment and testing, as well as program man
-
agement. The co-contracting agreement
between overall prime contractor EADS
Astrium and propulsion prime contractor
G2P proved to be very effective, and enabled
us to overcome the problems inherent in any
program of this size. We should keep this in
mind for any future developments.”
The missile passed a major milestone in its
qualification program with a successful first
test launch on November 9, 2006. This was
confirmed with an equally successful sec
-
ond launch on June 21, 2007. Several more
qualification launches are scheduled in the
coming years, leading to service entry of
the M51 on the new-generation nuclear
submarine Le Terrible in 2010.

f. LERT
Hi-rel inertial
navigation
The M51 is fitted with an inertial
navigation system developed by
Sagem Défense Sécurité, based on
purpose-designed accelerometers
and laser gyros. With this system, the
M51 enjoys complete independence in
terms of navigation and flight control.
This highly integrated system has to
be extremely reliable, since size and
weight restrictions mean it cannot
provide a very high degree of
redundancy. Mission success and
therefore the credibility of French
deterrence depend on this reliability,
as well as navigation accuracy and
the ability of the navigation system to
resist external threats.
a wide variety of
applications for
tHermostructural
composites


The ongoing search for higher-
performance ballistic missile
technologies led Snecma Propulsion
Solide to develop very light carbon-
carbon and ceramic matrix composite
materials, which retain their
mechanical properties even at ultra-
high temperatures. These materials
were subsequently used in brakes
and engine exhaust systems on both
civil and military aircraft, developed
and produced by other Safran
companies, reflecting the synergies
within the Group and its dual
technology cross-fertilization.
28-29
November 2007 _
safran
magazine
safran
magazine
_ November 2007
markets
equipment.

Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner is a
challenging new aircraft. Labinal rose to
the occasion by developing wiring systems
that deliver unprecedented weight savings,
coupled with a brand-new design and
production organization.
A brAnd-new
wiring system
for the
dreAmliner
B
oeing’s latest, the 787 Dream
-
liner, is a technological mar
-
vel that is destined to become
a landmark in commercial
aviation. Under the skin are purpose-
designed electrical wire bundles built by
Labinal, a Safran Group company and
world leader in aircraft wiring, as prime
contractor.
The 787 features the widespread use
of electrical energy instead of the tradi
-
tional pneumatic energy sources used to
drive various aircraft systems. A “more
electric” plane translates into weight sav
-
ings, fuel savings and simplified mainte
-
nance. Labinal’s U.S. subsidiary handles
the production and installation of the
electrical connection systems, designed
to Boeing specs. This is the first time
that Boeing has delegated such a major
task to an outside company, reflect
-
ing both Safran’s expertise and the
solid partnership between Labinal and
the Boeing Company. Labinal already
© Arturo Rodriguez/SAFRAN
finalizing a 787 wire bundle in the forming
area at the Chihuahua, mexico plant.
30-31
November 2007 _
safran
magazine
safran
magazine
_ November 2007
markets
makes a number of wiring systems for
both commercial and military aircraft
produced by Boeing.
a technological challenge

“Wiring the 787 is a real challenge for
Labinal, in terms of both design and
installation,” says Mike Fogarty, man
-
aging director of Labinal teams in Ever
-
ett, Washington, a community north
of Seattle where the Boeing assembly
plant is located. The widespread use of
composites in the 787 structure implies
major changes from conventional wir
-
ing layouts. Designers also had to pay
particular attention to electromagnetic
interference, because there is no longer
a metallic structure that acts as a protec
-
tive Faraday cage.
According to Jorge Ortega, Vice-Presi
-
dent of Labinal North America Wiring
Division, “The main differences between
the 787 and previous-generation planes
are lighter weight and new electrical
systems, which take on a predominant
role.” There are more than 60,000 elec
-
trical connections to define, bundle,
route and manufacture, not to mention
1,500 electrical harnesses, 97 kilome
-
ters of wiring and 10,000 connectors!
These figures indicate the sheer size of
the task facing engineers. At the same
time, only the best materials are used,
including optical fibers and aluminum
wires instead of copper, where appropri
-
ate, to reduce weight.
Custom-tailored

organization

In addition to these innovative tech
-
nological aspects, the organization
was also revamped. Labinal was placed
in charge of all electrical installation
design and production of the electrical
wiring, delivering to other 787 program
partners worldwide. “The vast scope of
this project led us to change our working
methods,” notes Jorge Ortega. Produc
-
tion of the 787 wiring and components
is handled by several facilities. Labi
-
nal de Mexico in Chihuahua, Mexico
and Labinal, Inc. in Pryor, Oklahoma,
are responsible for the manufacture of
all electrical harness assemblies. The
Labinal facility in Corinth, Texas, is
responsible for fabricating the integra
-
tion panels and junction boxes. The
787 operations are directed by a Labinal
team at Boeing’s main plant in Everett.
“In Everett, we have 135 people in the
engineering section, and another 70
involved in program administration and
management,” says Mike Fogarty. Other
teams are responsible for customer ser
-
vice for everybody involved in the proj
-
ect, including Boeing, of course, but also
other 787 program partners and Labinal
production sites.
Each department plays an essen
-
tial role in the relationship between

Labinal and Boeing, and the people at
different production sites have formed
very tight bonds. “Our main organi
-
zational challenge is to communicate
clearly so we can quickly meet customer
requirements,” notes Fogarty. “We pro
-
duce the wiring and design its installa
-
tion away from Everett, so that commu
-
nications between our plants and design
offices has to be perfect. That’s why
our U.S. subsidiary has several teams

to handle this task: response teams, local
customer support, local program office,
certification team, electrical design and
quality, etc. With this type of organi
-
zation we can quickly meet Boeing’s

needs, from wiring design to sched
-
ule management. We have to be fully

cognizant of the customer’s needs and
work alongside them at all times.”
Labinal’s organization also encom
-
passes more than 350 engineers globally
located at three different engineering
facilities: Blagnac-Toulouse in southwest
France, Bangalore, India, and the design
office in Chihuahua, Mexico.
Boeing is very satisfied with the new
design processes and the unprecedented
market success of the state-of-the-art 787.
“We’re ready to react to the last-minute
changes which are to be expected in
this type of aircraft program,” says Mike
Fogarty. “Boeing has greatly appreciated
our efforts to integrate any changes in
a timely fashion.” Quick responsive
-
ness like this is all the more necessary
since the program is proceeding full
Safran and

the 787
A total of eight companies in the
Safran Group were selected on
the Boeing 787. Labinal is in
charge of wiring. Messier-
Bugatti supplies the wheels and
electric brakes (a world first on

a commercial jet), while the
electrical brake actuator
controllers (EBAC) are being
developed with Sagem Défense
Sécurité. Messier-Dowty
supplies the main and nose
landing gear. Techspace Aero is a
partner to General Electric on
the GEnx engine, supplying the
low-pressure compressor and
fan disk. Cenco International
supplies the cowls on the GEnx
test stand. Aircelle makes the
composite struts for the landing
gear on behalf of Messier-Dowty.
Fadec International, a joint
venture of Hispano-Suiza and
BAE Systems, was chosen by
General Electric to supply the
full authority digital engine
control for the GEnx.
speed ahead. The first Boeing 787 wir
-
ing shipset was delivered by Labinal last
May, and on July 8 some 15,000 people
attended the aircraft’s rollout at Everett.
The maiden flight of the 787 is sched
-
uled for the end of first quarter 2008.


A. AngrAnd
© Arturo Rodriguez/SAFRAN
© Arturo Rodriguez/SAFRAN
Formboard and wiring harness
assembly design activities for the 787

in the Mexico design engineering office.
Second end process on a 787 wire bundle

at the Chihuahua, Mexico plant.
32-33
November 2007 _
safran
magazine
safran
magazine
_ November 2007
markets
HigH-teCH.

Faster, further, stronger: French soldiers are boosting
their capabilities with the Félin integrated equipment suite built by
Sagem Défense Sécurité.
Félin, For toMorrow’S
SoldierS
S
oldiers in Western armies face
increasingly demanding mis
-
sions and far-f lung deploy
-
ments. At the same time, casu
-
alties must be kept to a minimum. The
logical conclusion is to provide better
protection for each soldier by improv
-
© Sagem Défense Sécurité
each félin platoon leader has

a terminal information system

(SIt-COMde) giving him a real-time

view of the unit’s tactical situation.
ing mobility, firepower and environ
-
mental control.
In France, the solution is called
Félin (
Fantassin à Equipements et Liai
-
son Intégrées
), or integrated infantry
soldier combat suite. The program
was announced by French defense
procurement agency DGA in 2002. In
March 2004, the DGA awarded Sagem
Défense Sécurité an 800 million euro
contract for system development, and
the production and support of more
than 30,000 Félin systems. “Félin will
make our soldiers far more capable in
every area,” enthuses Philippe Riou
-
freyt, director of land combat pro
-
grams at Sagem Défense Sécurité. “All
equipment is highly integrated, mak
-
ing Félin a state-of-the-art warfighter
system.”
a complete suite
The Félin integrated system is built
around a lighter, more ergonomic uni
-
form, which can be fitted with armor
offering different levels of ballistic
protection. On the offensive side,
advanced optronic sighting systems
multiply the effectiveness of individual
weapons, day or night. Soldiers also
have headgear that displays images
captured by the sight on their own
weapons

or even from their fellow
soldiers’ weapons!
The backbone of the integrated
system is the Felin Information Net
-
work (RIF), providing short-range data
transmission and wireless communica
-
tions. Each soldier is equipped with a
man-machine interface called the
Portable Electronic Platform (PEP),
which manages data exchanges as well
as the operation of weapon-mounted
sensors. The platoon leader has access
to GPS data, allowing him to see the
relative positions of his soldiers on a
touch-sensitive pad, similar to a PDA.
This pad can also display images from
sensors and digital maps; it interfaces
with the regiment-level information
system via PR4G radios. “The Félin-
equipped warfighter will never be iso
-
lated,” notes Philippe Rioufreyt with
pride. “He will be operating as part of
an integrated network that multiplies
his own capabilities.”
Production qualification
“Each soldier will carry two batteries to
power the communications equipment
and optronic sensors for his weapons,”
explains Rioufreyt. “This gives him
about 24 hours of run time. After that,
he can recharge these batteries using
VIEWPOINT
Lieutenant colonel

XAVIER HOFF,

Félin oFFicer with the French Army’s

engineering section
What does the Félin
program mean for
the French army?
Félin is one of the
army’s major
programs. It will
considerably enhance
the value of our
soldiers and their
capabilities by
integrating infantry
units in the digital
battlefield, in full
harmony with the
information systems
now being deployed
at all command
levels. The
cornerstone of the
Félin system is the
SIT COMDE, or
Dismounted
Combatant Terminal
Information System,
which guarantees
smooth
communications
between each
company’s
commanding officers.
Where does Félin
stand in relation to
similar systems in
other armies?
Several Western
countries have also
launched so-called
“future soldier”
programs, including
the United Kingdom,
Germany, Finland

and Norway.

But the French army
has made significant
progress, starting
with the original
ECAD dismounted
combatant system
demonstrator. Today,
Félin is undoubtedly
the most advanced of
these systems, since
it will be widely
deployed starting
next year.
But aren’t the
Americans also in
the lead with their
Future Force Warrior
system?
The American
concept is very
different from ours.
Roughly speaking,
you could say that the
Future Force Warrior
aims to revolutionize
land combat by
making the soldier a
platform for sensors
that send information
to a second command
level. Félin has more
modest, practical
goals.

It will not change
basic operating
modes, but simply
augment each
soldier’s capabilities.
Furthermore, Félin
will enhance the
value of infantry
units, by ensuring the
quick circulation of
data via SIT-COMDE.

©DR
special adapters on his unit’s armored
vehicles, the modernized VAB* or the
future VBCI**.”
Félin is now in the process of quali
-
fication. In October, the French army’s
engineering unit STAT started testing
30 complete systems. As from March
2008, two companies will be outfitted
with a total of 358 systems to test these
systems in the field. All French infan
-
try regiments will subsequently be out
-
fitted, paving the way for a revolution
in military operations.

F. lert
* VAB: forward-armored vehicle
** VBCI: infantry combat armored vehicle
UnpreCedented
vOlUMe
prOdUCtIOn In
franCe
Sagem Défense Sécurité
delivered 30 Félin systems at
the end of September, and will
deliver 358 by the end of
February 2008. The French
army ordered a total of 31,500
systems to outfit all infantry
regiments and several other
units by 2012. In addition, 2,000
combat vehicles will be fitted
with Felin interfaces. This is the
first contract in France
involving such large-scale
production of electronic and
optronic equipment: several
tens of thousands PEPs, over
10,000 sights, 1,200 tactical
information systems, etc.
November 2007 _
safran
magazine
safran
magazine
_ November 2007
TeLePHOnes.

This new mobile phone was
specified and styled by Porsche Design and
developed and produced by Sagem Mobiles,
part of the Safran Group. It marks Sagem’s
entry into the luxury sector.
A mobile phone
styled by
porsche design

T
he luxury market demands finely
crafted, image-enhancing products
that affirm an individual’s iden
-
tity and status the moment they
are placed on the table,” says Stéphane
Bret, head of the Brands business unit of

Sagem Mobiles (Safran Group). Specified
by Porsche Design and styled in its in-house
design studio, this is not a mobile that passes
unnoticed. “The primary objective of this
project is not to enhance our own image
but to market a premium quality product
that will ensure strong profitability,” adds
Bret. The operation clearly reflects a care
-
fully thought-out strategy. “The value of
these products is definitely related to their
features and functions, but even more
closely to the brand, its reputation and the
way it is perceived by consumers. We had
a choice: we could have gradually moved
up the value chain by investing in the

SAGEM brand. But that could take ten
years, and we don’t have the time. The

alternative was to obtain access to estab
-
lished brands by paying royalties, and
launch projects that would generate bigger
margins.” This choice seems to be backed
by the latest market studies: by 2010, 10% of
the total value of the cell phone market will
be concentrated in 1% of its volume.
Lowest rate of returns
Not everything about the project was sim
-
ple, however. The first task was to negoti
-
ate with Porsche Design. “They chose us
for the reliability of our products, because
we have the lowest rate of returns in the
sector, and because we were convinced that
mobile phones should not be co-branded,”
Stéphane Bret explains. To step up the col
-
laboration begun in December 2005, the
two teams started by concentrating on the
“product personality”. The approach paid
off: the prototype, finalized in the summer
of 2006, got an enthusiastic welcome from
target consumers in a dozen cities across the
world, including London, Moscow, Dubai,
Paris and Hong Kong.
The three-year contract stipulates the roy
-
alties payable to Porsche in exchange for the
use of its brand name and design. Presented
to the international press on June 4, 2007 at
the Red Dot Design Museum outside Düs
-
seldorf, this mobile is targeted to men in the
35 to 50 age bracket. It went on sale in Sep
-
tember 2007 in the EU, Switzerland, Rus
-
sia, the Middle East and parts of Asia, and
will be available in China, Latin America
and North America from early 2008. Only
Korea and Japan will not be seeing this mo
-
bile, due to the different network standards
in those countries. Monthly production ca
-
pacity will be limited to 20,000 units, very
little in comparison to products intended
for the mass market.
G. SEQUEIRA-MARTINS
A unique mobile
phone
The Porsche Design mobile
is noticeably different, with
its refined design, premium
materials (brushed aluminum,
scratchproof mineral glass),
impeccable hand-finished
assembly and technical features
(3.2 megapixel still and video
camera, swiveling screen). But
that’s not all! To switch on the
new Porsche Design cell phone,
its owner no longer has to enter
a pin code but merely touches
the bottom of the screen for a
fingerprint scan. This biometric
recognition system places
Porsche Design’s P9521 mobile
squarely in the exclusive club
of outstanding products. All for
1,200 euros.
markets
© DR

34-35
November 2007 _
safran
magazine
safran
magazine
_ November 2007
T
raditionally, multifunction print
-
ers combine four functions: scan
-
ner, printer, fax and copier,” ex
-
plains Bruno Gérard, director of
the Terminals and Professional Systems
department at Sagem Communications,
a Safran Group company. “We were
looking at additional features to enrich
the ‘stress-free office’ concept that we
created four years ago. The purpose of
this concept is to launch user-friendly,
ergonomic, intuitive products that can
help reduce stress levels and make every
-
day life in the office more pleasant.”
Sagem Communications therefore
created Zen Cube, a fragrance diffuser
that can be adapted to Sagem’s range of
multifunction machines simply by clip
-
ping it to the ventilation grille. When
the printer is used and the cooling fan
operates, air expelled from the grille

at a temperature of 27°C passes through
Zen Cube, which slowly and steadily

diffuses a fragrance throughout the
office, subtly introducing a new work
-
ing atmosphere. The feature does not
increase the machine’s electricity con
-
sumption.
Three ranges

of fragrances
“Zen Cube is no mere gadget,” Bruno
Gérard adds. “Major department stores
have been using the findings of olfactory
marketing for several years now. Twenty
percent of Paris parking garages are
‘perfumed’. The diffusion of background
fragrances in the office environment is
a partial but concrete response to the
general increase in work-related stress
regularly cited by the World Health

Organization and the International

Labor Office.”
To develop these new features, Sagem
Communications has teamed up with
Olfactair, a company specializing in per
-
fume diffusion methods, and Sentaro
-
matique, a creator and manufacturer of
fragrances. Sentaromatique is based in
the perfume capital of Grasse, in south
-
ern France, and directed by the perfumer
Jean-Claude Gigodot, who has created
six fragrances for Zen Cube, presented
in three ranges: “soothing”, “purifying”
and “bracing”. Launched in September,
the system is available worldwide, mar
-
keted under the SAGEM brand or part
-
ners’ brand names. It is available for the
MF44 and 54 ranges, initially targeted
at small office/home office (SOHO)
users. Designed for small and medium
enterprises as well as self-employed

individuals, some models in this family of
multifunction printers are also equipped
with a USB flash reader, enabling them
to print without needing a PC. Some of
the copiers offer wireless connection as
well, using the Wlan “dongle” (an adapter
that plugs into the USB port).
And the next step? To connect a
cordless telephone to the multifunction
printer, as there is strong demand for
this feature from consumers.
B. DIETZ
MarkeTing.

The increase in work-
related stress has created a market for
user-friendly, stress-reducing products.
Developed using the latest techniques

in olfactory marketing, Zen Cube

can be fitted to multifunction printers to
diffuse a pleasant background

fragrance.
A multifunction
printer thAt
reduces stress

© Le square des photographes

ter of competitiveness in Southwest
France, in conjunction with the Midi-
Pyrenees region.
A concept applicable
worldwide
The Tarmac platform is now being set
up at the Tarbes Ossun airport zone,
with the long-term aim of establish
-
ing similar projects worldwide. Over
the next 20 years, some 6,000 com
-
mercial aircraft will be withdrawn
from service. By establishing itself as
the benchmark in this sector, Tarmac
plans to take a healthy share of what is
expected to be a large market.
In addition to its basic dismantling
business, Tarmac will develop a com
-
plete range of services, from short-term
aircraft storage to the recycling of parts
and materials. This means that own
-
ers of both civil and military aircraft
will be ready for upcoming European
regulations on recycling products at
end of life. The partners in Tarmac
will also be able to recover parts and
B
y 2015, we should be able
to recover, reuse or recy
-
cle some 85% of an air
-
craft’s components, while
meeting all safety and
environmental protec
-
tion standards. That was the conclu
-
sion of a 2006 project dubbed Pamela,
or Process for Advanced Management
of End-of-Life Aircraft. Led by Airbus
and SITA France, the Pamela project
proved that the recycling of aircraft
parts and materials was feasible.
Several partners in the Pamela
project are now members of Tarmac
(Tarbes Advanced Recycling & Main
-
tenance Aircraft Company) – the first
company providing industrial-scale
dismantling and recycling services for
aircraft reaching end of life. Tarmac
is jointly managed by companies from
the aviation and environmental sec
-
tors, and was developed within the
scope of the Aerospace Valley cen
-
"Airbus has signed

an environmental

charter
"

Jean-Marc Thomas
36-37
bio
1972
graduates
from

"sup’aero"
engineering
school.
1993
research
director at
aerospatiale,
aircraft
division.
1999
vice president,
engineering &
production at
aerospatiale
matra.
2000
senior vice
president
industry, r&t,
Quality, eads
corporate.
Face to face with Jean-Marc Thomas,

Senior Vice President and General Manager, Airbus France.
November 2007 _ sAfrAn
magazine sAfrAn
magazine
_ November 2007
© AIRBUS
2004
senior vice
president
and general
manager,
airbus france.
interview
Tarmac:


pioneer in

aircraft

recycling
Several major companies have set up a joint venture called
Tarmac Aerosave to dismantle aircraft at end of life and
recycle parts and materials. Snecma Services is one

of the founding members of Tarmac, along with Airbus.
38-39
November 2007 _ sAfrAn
magazine sAfrAn
magazine
_ November 2007
interview
snecma services, industrial project leader
Jean Macheret, Vice President, Strategy and Development,

Snecma Services
Civil engineering work
started at the Tarbes
airport last April, and will
take about a year. Tarmac
is set to kick off operations
in 2008.
Snecma Services has a
20% stake in Tarmac
Aerosave, alongside
Airbus France, TASC

(an Airbus parts trading
subsidiary), SITA (the
waste recycling subsidiary
of the Suez Group),
Equip’Aéro, an equipment
manufacturer and repair
company, and Aéroconseil,
an aeronautical and
systems engineering
consulting firm. Not to
mention Caisse des
Dépôts et Consignations
(state-owned savings and
investment bank), which
will co-finance the
construction of the
maintenance hall at
Tarbes Ossun.

A pilot project
In addition to their
financial contribution,
Snecma Services and the
other partners (especially
Airbus France and TASC)
will help identify the
planes likely to be
dismantled. Snecma
Services teams are not
directly involved in this
activity, but we are firm
believers in the concept. If
everything goes smoothly,
it will be duplicated in
other parts of the world,
and in this sense, Tarmac
is a pilot project.
Snecma Services’
investment in Tarmac
should prove
advantageous in several
ways. First of all, it
positions the company as

a responsible corporate
citizen, focused on
environmental protection
and sustainable
development.
Secondly, the number of
aircraft reaching end-of-
life will increase
considerably in the coming
years. Even though the
CFM56 engine fleet is still
relatively young, it is
important to control the
fate of these engines once
they do reach the end of
their useful lives – in
particular to guarantee
the quality and traceability
of used parts. Since
Tarmac will be a
controlled source of spare
parts for CFM56 engines,
it will give Snecma
Services additional
flexibility in offering
service packages to
customers: for example,
we can propose recycled
parts to reduce their bills.
Last but not least,
Tarmac will enable us to
recover certain strategic
materials, such as
titanium or nickel-based
alloys, and reuse them in
parts – provided of course
that this recycling
operation is cost-
effective.
© B.Debertonne
assemblies that could still be reused, in
compliance with the laws governing
air safety, environmental protection
and traceability of spare parts.
Safran Magazine asked Jean-Marc
Thomas, General Manager of Airbus
France, to describe this vast undertak
-
ing in greater detail.
safran Magazine:
What does

Tarmac entail for Airbus?
Jean-Marc Thomas:
Airbus is still a
relatively recent company. Our oldest
aircraft entered service in the 1970s, so
they are just beginning to reach end of
life. The A300 will be the first model
concerned, but these measures could
also affect the A320, which is a real
“frequent flyer”, with multiple takeoffs
and landings. We’ve been looking at
the end-of-life issue for several years
already, and we quickly concluded
that dismantling and recycling was the
best solution. Our aim of course is to
facilitate more efficient reuse of every
possible component, such as engines,
electronics or pumps. Some of this
equipment can be reinstalled directly
on other aircraft, or refurbished and
then reused. The same thing applies
to structural parts, meaning fuselage
sections or wing panels. Metals can
also be melted down for use as raw
materials.
This approach reflects our sustain
-
able development policy; in fact,
Airbus has signed an environmental
charter. But at the same time, it also
reflects a major strategic objective,
namely to ensure the traceability of all
parts available on the market. Airbus
applies a strict policy of guaranteeing
the complete traceability of each air
-
craft and its constituent components,
to meet both safety and environmen
-
tal protection requirements. Tarmac is
part of this approach, especially since
the market for reconditioned parts is
highly regulated and requires manu
-
facturer seals.
To recover metals for recycling, work
-
ers apply an ordered separation process
that depends on precise knowledge of
the plane’s makeup, in particular to
classify metals by type. They have
to distinguish between the different
grades of aluminum, titanium, cop
-
per, etc., so that the resulting materi
-
als, when remelted and recast, can be
used in the demanding aircraft con
-
struction industry.
Taking a longer-term view, manufac
-
turers will have to apply “eco-design”,
meaning that the aircraft’s original
design, choice of materials and assem
-
bly techniques are all selected to facili
-
tate dismantling and recycling.
Will the Tarmac concept be
deployed elsewhere?
Of course! Once aircraft are with
-
drawn from service they remain on the
continents where they were used. So
we want to make Tarmac-Tarbes the
benchmark site, and gradually develop
a worldwide network with Tarmac at
its hub.
Where does Tarmac fit in the
Aerospace Valley center of

competitiveness?
Aerospace Valley was one of the 65
national projects chosen by the French
government, which issued a call for
proposals for centers of competitive
-
ness. It is also considered a global hub,
which is important. Since Tarmac was
one of the three pivotal projects in the
Aerospace Valley initiative, this inter
-
national recognition helped attract
European funding, with the French
government, the region and industrial
partners providing the balance.

P. Michaud
©Eyedea
more than 6,000 commercial airplanes
will be withdrawn from service in the
next 20 years. this is the “airplane
graveyard” in mojave, california.