INTERDISCIPLINARY MANAGEMENT RESEARCH VIII INTERDISZIPLINARE MANAGEMENTFORSCHUNG VIII

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THE JOSIP JURAJ STROSSMAYER UNIVERSITY OF OSIJEK,
FACULTY OF ECONOMICS IN OSIJEK
-

CROATIA
HOCHSCHULE PFORZHEIM UNIVERSITY


INTERDISCIPLINARY MANAGEMENT RESEARCH
VIII INTERDISZIPLINARE
MANAGEMENTFORSCHUNG VIII






































Opatija2012.

Published by:

Josip Juraj Strossmayer University in Osijek, Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia Postgraduate Studies
"Management" Hochschule Pforzheim
University



For the Publisher:


Ulrich Jautz, Ph.D., Dean, Germany
Zeljko Turkalj, Ph.D., Dean, Croatia

Editors:

Urban Bacher, Ph.D., Pforzheim University, Business School, Germany

Drazen Barkovic, Ph.D., Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia

Karl
-

Hein
z Dernoscheg, Ph.D., International Business School Styria, Austria

Maja Lamza
-

Maronic, Ph.D., Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia

Branko Matic, Ph.D., Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia

Norbert Pap, Ph.D., University of Pecs, Hungary

Bodo Runzhe
imer, Ph.D., Pforzheim University, Business School, Germany
Review
Committee:

Luka Crnkovic, Ph.D., Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia Ivan
Ferencak, Ph.D., Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia

Nino Grau, Ph.D. University of Applied Sciences, Fachh
ochschule Giesen
-
Friedberg, Germany Slavo Kukic,
Ph.D., University of Mostar, Faculty of Economics in Mostar, Bosnia and Hercegovina Hartmut Loffler, Ph.D.,
Pforzheim University, Business School, Germany Brano Markic, Ph.D., University of Mostar, Faculty o
f
Economics in Mostar, Bosnia and Hercegovina

Renata Peric, Ph.D., Faculty of Law in Osijek, Croatia

Bela Orosdy, Ph.D., University of Pecs, Faculty of Business and Economics, Hungary Ivan
Pavlovic, Ph.D., University of Mostar, Faculty of Economics in Most
ar, Bosnia and Hercegovina

Slavica Singer, Ph.D., Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia Vladimir Srb,
Ph.D., Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia Jusuf Sehanovic, Ph.D., Juraj
Dobrila University of Pula, Croatia Dirk Wentzel, Ph.D., Hochschule
Pforzhe
im University, Germany


Technical editors:

Jerko Glavas, Ph.D. candidate, Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia Hrvoje
Serdarusic, Ph.D. candidate, Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia


Language Editing and Proofreading:

Ljerka Rados, Faculty of
Economics in Osijek, Croatia

CIP zap is dostupan u racunalnom katalogu Gradske i
sveucilisne knjiznice Osijek pod brojem 130421087


ISSN 1847
-
0408

ISBN 978
-
953
-
253
-
105
-
3

Indexed in: EBSCOhost, RePEc, EconPapers, Socionet

Program committee:

Mate Babic, Ph.D
., University of Zagreb, Faculty of Economics in Zagreb, Croatia

Heinrich Badura, Ph.D., President, The European Academy for Life Research, Integration and

Civil Society, Austria

Firouz Gahvari, Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana
-
Campaign, Department
of Economics, USA

Gunther Gottlieb, Ph.D., University of Augsburg, Germany

Rupert Huth, Ph.D., Pforzheim University, Business School, Germany

Zoran Jasic, Ph.D., Ambassador of the Republic of Croatia to the Republic of Austria

Zlatko Kramaric, Ph.D.,
Ambassador of the Republic of Croatia to the Republic of Kosovo

Ulrich Jautz, Ph.D., Pforzheim University, Business School, Germany

Zeljko Turkalj, Ph.D., Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia

Mladen Vedris, Ph.D., University of Zagreb, Faculty of Law, C
roatia

Jozo Krajina

THE IMPORTANCE AND ROLE OF MANAGEMENT

IN HIGHER EDUCATION

................................
................................
................................
................



Valentina Ladic

DESTINATION MANAGEMENT AND DESTINATION MANAGING

PROBLEMS
-

EXAMPLE VINICA COUNTY

................................
................................
..............


Maja Lamza
-
Maronic, Jerko Glavas, Igor Mavrin

TOWARDS A NEW MODEL OF CULTURAL M
ANAGEMENT
-

THE

EUROPEAN CAPITAL OF CULTURE PROGRAMME

................................
...........................


Barbara Marusnik, Boris Marjanovic

PERFORMANCE OF CROATIAN ECONOMY MEASURED

WITH KNOWLEDGE
-
BASED ECONOMY PARAMETERS

................................
.................


Josip Mesaric, Stjepan Rudan, Joze Kuzic

METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND APPROACH TO

INN
OVATING AND BUILDING THE CURRICULUM OF GENERAL

MANAGEMENT

................................
................................
................................
................................
....


Monika R. Molnar, Istvan Andras

EMBEDDEDNESS OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN LOCAL

COMMUNITIES: THE COMPLEX CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION

RESEARCH PROJECT

................................
................................
................................
.........................


Ninoslav Novak, Mirko Cobovic

BUSINESS
IMPROVEMENT USING CLOUD COMPUTING IN

COMPANIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

................................
................................
......


Rajko Odobasa

COMMERCIALIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND CHANGES IN THE
MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS: EXAMPLES AND LESSONS
FROM

ANGLO
-
AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES

................................
................................
...........................


Mirko Pesi
c

CRISIS AS A CHANCE TO REORGANIZE THE GROWTH

AND DEVELOPMENT

................................
................................
................................
.......................


Milan Puvaca, Ivica Zdrilic

RESISTANCE TO CHANGE IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS ADAPTATION Ivana Sandrk Nukic

COMPETITIVENESS OF CONSTRUCTION FIRMS:

CASE STUDY OF „GRADNJA Ltd" OSIJEK

................................
................................
................


Ana Skledar
Matijevic, Zlatko Barilovic, Igor Vrecko

THE POSSIBILITIES OF USING ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING FOR

DEVELOPING PROJECT MANAGEMENT COMPETENCES

................................
............


Marko Sostar

THE ROLE OF DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES

IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

................................
................................
................................
...


METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND APPROACH TO
INNO
VATING AND BUILDING THE CURRICULUM OF
GENERAL MANAGEMENT

Josip Mesaric, Ph.D.
\

Stjepan Rudan, B.Sc.
2
, Joze Kuzic, Ph.D.
3
llosip Juraj StrossmayerUniversity,
Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia,
mesaric@efos.hr
in
stitute for Public Health of Osijek
-
Baranja
County, Croatia
3
Monach University, Melbourne, Australia,
Joze.Kuzic@monash.edu








ABSTRACT

The development and / or analysis of the curriculum are based on knowled
ge of specific areas in
which the curriculum is made and model used for its design. There are several different approaches
and each has its advantages and disadvan
tages. The paper analyzes four approaches for the
development of general manage
ment curricu
lum innovation. We analyzed few curriculum of
American, European, Australian and Croatian studies in general management on bachelor and
graduate (master) level. Study of general management at the undergraduate level of Ameri
can,
Australian and some Europe
an universities differ significantly from the Croa
tian Schools in number
as well as in the methodological, core and major courses. At higher levels of education (graduate and
master) the differences are even more obvious. Based on the performed analysis w
e tried to estimate
the balance of the curriculum in terms of key aspects of the curriculum: the role of managers, the ap
-
plication of pedagogy, the methodological basis, the level of research, process and content and the
domains and areas.

JEL
Classification: 123,125

Keywords:
Curriculum, general management, undergraduate, graduate


1. INTRODUCTION

In the last ten years a large number of management schools have been opened all over the world,
and the Republic of Croatia has not been bypassed by
this trend. In many of these schools, the
curricula based on which formal management education is acquired, haven't been built using
adequate methodological apparatus, without firm goals, relevant domain knowledge and appropriate
pedagogy. Very often (espe
cially in schools which do not have solid managerial tradition in the
environment in which they were established), curricula are the result of uncritical copying of content
of curricula of world
-
famous schools and their adaptation to local limited conditi
ons and
capabilities. Therefore, from time to time the curricula need to be subjected to critical analysis and
adapted to new conditions in the environment, as well as to institutions upon whose foundations
educational processes are carried out.

There are
several problems that arise in connection with reviewing and innovat
ing curricula:

Formal problems in changes of up to 20% of content and the repeated pro
cedure of
accreditation of the innovated program, which is the case in the Republic of Croatia,



Ch
ange of social conditions for which the managers have been trained, and usability of
managerial knowledge,

Problems related to the obsolescence of the acquired knowledge,

*

Problems related to change of management paradigms.

Curricula can be built, develop
ed and analysed based on different approaches and using different
methodologies, each of which has its advantages and disadvan
tages, depending on domain
knowledge, volume (scope) of knowledge, and level of goals.

Since achievements based on a curriculum a
re not only the question of the cur
riculum
concerned, but also of the totality of pedagogical practice and educators' abilities, as well as of
learners' perception and abilities, the acquired knowledge cannot be judged solely on the basis of
curriculum. W
hat can be assessed, however, is the balance of the curriculum and the potential for

integration of knowledge and skills and indirectly acquired knowledge and the desirability of
institution through the level of salaries and the positions of of graduated s
tudents. Since there is no
uni
fied curriculum of general management, several schools have been investigated so as to determine
the key common content in the function of managerial knowledge. Twenty curricula at the
undergraduate and a few less at the grad
uate and master's level have been selected for research and
comparison. Specifically, comparative lists of courses have been created (syllabuses, but not of their
content, pedagogical prac
tice, quality of teachers and students and criteria for goal achiev
ement).
Based on comparative analyses, certain guidelines for review, development and innovation of
curriculum of any of the analysed curricula can be given.

Below, an overview of the key characteristics of managerial knowledge and suit
ability of
individu
al methodological approaches for building management curricu
lum will be presented, after
which comparative analyses of groups and individual curricula of general management on selected
cases will be performed.


2.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGERIAL KNOWLEDGE

Managerial knowledge is very often fuzzy (soft, without clear boundaries) knowledge. Managerial
knowledge is paradigmatic for the most part. This means that the attributes of managerial knowledge
are the results of the change and the acquisitions of variou
s paradigms within managerial practice
and academic com
munity. There are many cases where it can be noticed that curricula do not aspire
to become overly scientific (without causal methods, mathematical
-
statistical appa
ratus and robust
evidence), so that

it seems (to paraphrase Ghoshal) that "business could not be treated as a science,
and we would have to fall back on the wisdom of common sense that combines information on
"what" is with the imagination of "what ought to" to develop both a practical unde
rstanding of and
some pragmatic prescription for "phenomena of organized complexity" that the issue of corporate
governance represents. This too is schooling that yields theory that does pretend to be scientific laws
but merely serves as temporary "walking

sticks" in Fritz Roeth
-
lisbergers (1977) terms
-

to aid sense
making as long as we go along, to be used only until a better walking stick can be found (cited in
Ghoshal, 2005). Besides, these new paradigms which serve to corporate capital and private pres
tige
are often deprived of any moral norms and ethical principles. This raised some concerns among
several scholars about the current state of management research and peda
gogy (Mintzberg &
Gosling, 2002; Donaldson, 2002; Ghoshal, 2005).


3.

CREATION AND A
NALYSES OF CURRICULUM OF GENERAL MANAGEMENT

THROUGH DIFFERENT APPROACHES

In formal education, a curriculum usually means a formal set of knowledge that is offered (and
that is expected to be chosen) in a certain educational institution (Webster, 2010). Kno
wledge is
formed into domain sets and shaped into courses and course systems (syllabuses) that have to be
realised
-

transmitted within a is for the curriculum to be designed outside of the classroom or
school. The second problem of this approach is evalua
tion. In order to measure, things have to be
bro
ken down into smaller and smaller units. This is of utmost importance nowadays, when we
exceedingly fragmentise but not synthesise, not only managerial knowl
edge. What we are inclined to
measure, such as ac
hievements in any university curriculum, has been more than often reduced to
the quality of interpretation. Suc
cessful interpreters frequently fail to manipulate their knowledge in
real life, which is often the case with managers due to the paradigms acqu
ired over several years of
education, when in practice such paradigms tend to change rapidly. The use of the acquired, but no
longer relevant paradigms will result in poor performance of managerial knowledge in practice.

Smith points to the third problem o
f this ap
proach, "a real problem when we come to examine what
educators actually do in the classroom". Much of the research concerning teacher thinking and
classroom interaction, and curriculum innovation has pointed to the lack of impact on actual
pedago
gic practice of objectives (Stenhouse 1974), (Cornbleth 1990).


3.3. Management curriculum as a process and development

Curriculum as a process 'is a way of translating any educational idea into a hypothesis testable in
practice. It invites critical testin
g rather than acceptance' (Stenhouse, 1975). At first glance, this is an
ideal model desired by managers. Nev
ertheless, at least two problems may occur.

The first problem is the experiment with the socio
-
economic systems and the nature of realising
managerial decisions. A system where an idea, hypothesis or decision can be tested within a
reasonable time period and with acceptable conse
quences simply does not exist, since it is not
possible in a certain moment (a phase of a business cycle) or it can

trigger unexpected, risky or
adverse consequences. The use of mathematical models and simulation techniques or managerial
simula
tion games is more and more becoming a key to these problems. Their shortcom
ing is that
they have to simplify reality and are
, as a rule, often directed towards the problems in managerial
efficiency, i.e. only certain functions of management. This approach to the theory of curriculum,
because it places meaning
-
making and thinking at its core and treats learners as subjects rathe
r than
objects, can lead to very different means being employed in classrooms and a high degree of variety
in content. As Stenhouse comments, the process model is essentially a critical model, not a marking
model (Stenhouse, 1975).

3.4.
Curriculum through
a hexagonal prism

According to hexagonal prism, proposed by (Mesaric, Kuzic, Dovedan, 2011 curriculum (of
general management) is developed/analysed through integration of six interrelated domains (Figure
1.)



Philosophy and

methodology

frameworks:

Based on: Economics
Sociology Laws and
ethics Mathematics
and statistics
Language and
symbolic models



Scholarship;

Level of knowledge/
education

Teaching (Pedagogy)
Practices
(Application)
Discovery (Research)
integration
(Synthesis)


Level:

Strategic

Tactical

Operational

Organizational

National

International




GENERAL
MANAGEMENT
CURRICULUM





Roles and scope

Decision making

Organizing

Planning

Leading

Negotiating

Resourcing

Staffing

Motivating

Analyzing

Integrating

Processes and contents:

Identification of

-

Value added
opportunity

-

Problem Vision,
goals, objectives
Proces definition
Lifecycie

Change
perception
Communication
Measures
Performance



^eas, domains, _and
objects

Business

Business functions
Finance
Marketing,,,
Business areas
Business objects
Information
Technology
Products/services
Non business/
nonprofit
Government
Education, Health,
Environment,...


Figure 1.
Curriculum domains through hexagonal
prism (Source: Mesaric, Kuzic, Dovedan)

Josi
p Mesaric • Stjepan Rudan * Joze Kuzic

206

Creating and/or revising curriculum can begin from any aspect (elementary prisms),
depending on goals and initial assumptions. Thus the starting point in the revision of curriculum
of Yale school of Management was th
e prism of role manager would find himself in the
environment. The creation of curriculum of management at management schools in the
Republic of Croatia was started from the point of BOK, that is, philosophical
-
methodological
elementary prism (because of w
hich content is overloaded with economies of all kinds, as well as
with other content, which typically belongs to higher levels of education).

4. ANALYSIS OF THE SELECTED CURRICULA

In order to establish if there is a general consensus, and what is the mini
mum core knowledge
offered (i.e. required) by general management curriculum at dif
ferent educational levels, we have
analysed 20 general management curricula at bachelor level (8 American, 5 European and 7
Croatian) and 27 MBA or gradu
ate programs (12 Am
erican, 8 European, one Australian and 6
Croatian). All the courses were listed (for some universities only core, major or concentration
courses, without electives) in a single MS Excel table, and then submitted to data analysis from
different aspects. Alp
habetical listing and additional key word searches re
vealed common
features in general management curricula at undergraduate and graduate levels respectively.

At undergraduate level all the programs have these core (mandatory) courses: (Introductory)
Management, Accounting and Marketing. Most American and Eu
ropean programs (11 out of
13) have also Finance, Corporate Finance or Financial Management, and for the majority (9 out
of 13) Business Law and Human Re
sources Management (HRM) are also core cour
ses. Analysed
through hexagonal prism, approaches to curriculum of general management at undergraduate
level are significantly different in American, Australian and European studies in relation to
Croatian studies of general management.

Analysed through pr
ism, US and European curriculum have starting point in do
main and
objects
-

more specifically, the business system and its characteristics and core business
functions (Accounting, Business Finance, Marketing). The philosophi
cal aspect is focused on
Busin
ess Law, and the level on business organisation. Man
agement in its roles and scope
primarily relates to those topics. The number of courses is lower than the number of courses at
Croatian programmes, the length of studying is generally the same, which mea
ns that the depth
of studying is more pronounced.

The starting point of study of general management in Croatian studies is the
philosophical
-
methodological aspect, where the study is fraught with economic courses
(General Economics, Microeconomics, Macroec
onomics, National Econ
omy, International
Economics, and Mathematics, Statistics, Informatics and Law). Two business functions are
covered: Accounting and Marketing, while Business Finance are rarely studied, but Public
Finances and Financial markets are c
ompul
sory, which, by nature of things, should be courses of
higher levels of education.

At higher tertiary level (graduate and MBA) the similarities (the number of com
mon
core/major courses) are significantly decreased, whereas the number of electives is

increased.
Elective courses are intended to allow students to shape their managerial

Josi
p Mesaric • Stjepan Rudan * Joze Kuzic

206

4. ANALYSIS OF THE SELECTED CURRICULA

In order to establish if there is a general consensus, and what is the minimum core knowledge
offered (i.e. required) by general man
agement curriculum at dif
ferent educational levels, we have
analysed 20 general management curricula at bachelor level (8 American, 5 European and 7
Croatian) and 27 MBA or gradu
ate programs (12 American, 8 European, one Australian and 6
Croatian). All t
he courses were listed (for some universities only core, major or concentration
courses, without electives) in a single MS Excel table, and then submitted to data analysis from
different aspects. Alphabetical listing and additional key word searches re
vea
led common
features in general management curricula at undergraduate and graduate levels respectively.

At undergraduate level all the programs have these core (mandatory) courses: (Introductory)
Management, Accounting and Marketing. Most American and Eu
ro
pean programs (11 out of
13) have also Finance, Corporate Finance or Financial Management, and for the majority (9 out
of 13) Business Law and Human Re
sources Management (HRM) are also core courses. Analysed
through hexagonal prism, approaches to curricul
um of general management at undergraduate
level are significantly different in American, Australian and European studies in relation to
Croatian studies of general management.

Analysed through prism, US and European curriculum have starting point in do
mai
n and
objects
-

more specifically, the business system and its characteristics and core business
functions (Accounting, Business Finance, Marketing). The philosophi
cal aspect is focused on
Business Law, and the level on business organisation. Man
agement
in its roles and scope
primarily relates to those topics. The number of courses is lower than the number of courses at
Croatian programmes, the length of studying is generally the same, which means that the depth
of studying is more pronounced.

The startin
g point of study of general management in Croatian studies is the
philosophical
-
methodological aspect, where the study is fraught with economic courses
(General Economics, Microeconomics, Macroeconomics, National Econ
omy, International
Economics, and Math
ematics, Statistics, Informatics and Law). Two business functions are
covered: Accounting and Marketing, while Business Finance are rarely studied, but Public
Finances and Financial markets are compul
sory, which, by nature of things, should be courses of
higher levels of education.

At higher tertiary level (graduate and MBA) the similarities (the number of com
mon
core/major courses) are significantly decreased, whereas the number of electives is increased.
Elective courses are intended to allow students t
o shape their managerial knowledge according
to their own interests and goals. The courses with the highest common denominator at
American, European and Australian programs taken to
gether are Marketing, Leadership, and
HRM (10 out of 21 universities). One

third of programs offer Higher
-
level Accounting,
Operational and Strategic Management. The remaining courses are quite varied both in titles and
the areas they cover.

Graduate and MBA general management programs in the Republic of Croatia have hardly
any
common features. The courses that might be viewed as common appear at two universities
Josi
p Mesaric • Stjepan Rudan * Joze Kuzic

206

at the most. There are also significant differences in com
parison to the analysed universities
abroad.

Management study programs are distinctively divergent, encompassi
ng a large number of
courses which are different in terms of their subject matter, depth and width of study, object of
management, etc. As we analysed the course titles, the word management was found in
combination with almost 60 different concepts. In som
e of those combinations the word
management is superfluous, or somehow at odds with the other concept.

Unless the approach taken in designing the general management curriculum is explicitly
stated elsewhere, it can be discerned from the list of courses
(syllabus). As for Croatian graduate
programmes, there are three courses that appear in more than half of syllabuses we investigated:
Financial management, Operational man
agement and Strategic management, whereas all other
content is highly differenti
ate
d, with no common course names. At postgraduate and specialist
postgraduate studies it is impossible to find a course that would be common for more than two
of the six investigated postgraduate programmes (except for Marketing manage
ment occurring
twice).

The above
-
mentioned analyses indicate that management studies at select
ed management
programmes in the USA, Europe and Australia are more firmly founded on managerial practice
with an emphasis on leadership as a key managerial function, human resources a
nd operational
management, with strategic orientation and internationalisation of business operations. These
principles indirectly reveal the dominant forms of schooling. In the first case this is probably the
orientation of curriculum towards practice and

integration, and in the process and content
towards newly
-
created value and performance of managers.

Looking at curricula in Croatia, schooling is apparently dominated by tradi
tional teaching
methods and weak practice orientation. Managerial roles will n
eces
sarily be only declarative and
the processes covert.

5. CONCLUDING REMARKS

The analysis of numerous general management curricula created by different business
schools and schools of management has shown that there is no one com
mon, universally
accept
ed general management curriculum
-

neither in terms of content or in terms of educational
level, regardless of the geographical location of the schools. It seems that European and
American business schools agree that undergraduate programs should include g
eneral education
in management, accom
panied by basic knowledge in accounting, marketing, human resources
manage
ment, business law, and business finances. At universities with a shorter tradition of
managerial education, such as Croatian universities, the
re are other core courses in addition to
principles of management, accounting and marketing.

The differences at higher levels of education are of such a scope that it becomes difficult to
recognize the common features of general management programs at dif
ferent graduate and
MBA schools.

Josi
p Mesaric • Stjepan Rudan * Joze Kuzic

206

Management curricula depend on the context and not on some acquired scien
tific theories
nor generally accepted philosophical concepts; general management is not the same in different
environments and its contents on the on
e hand and its realisation on the other hand strongly
depend on the institution and its social, economic and cultural environment, as well as strategic
objectives and positions of the institution
-

the school of management.

The fundamental functions and ro
les of management (planning, organising, leading,
coordinating, controlling, staffing, motivating, resourcing) are in some cases designed as
separate courses which implicitly emphasises the importance of some aspect of managerial
function, but at the same
time makes that general man
agement curriculum unbalanced. Revision
of managerial curriculum of particular university, although timely consuming, will give best
results by using methodology (approach) of hexagonal prism.


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