Computer Hardware and Software - Covenant Consulting

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Nov 17, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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Fundamental Principles

of

Computer Systems

Unit B, Objective 3.01 & 3.02


Computer Hardware


A
computer

is an
electronic device that
processes information in
the form of data very
rapidly.


A computer system
consists of
hardware

and
software components.



Hardware

is the physical
equipment of a computer
system

Input Devices



A device that is used to
put information


into a computer system
for use or storage.


Input Devices


Keyboard


Mouse


Trackballs


Digitizing tablets/
Touch pads


Scanner


Webcam



Modem


Voice recognition


Sensors


Touch Screens


Joysticks/ Game pads


Numerical Keypad


Stylus



Output Devices

A device used to
visually display, or
transfer information
into either a hard
copy, audio or a
physical component.


Output Devices


Robot (Mills & Arms)


Voice recognition


Sound card


Speakers



Monitor


Laser printer


Inkjet printer


Plotter


Modem

Modems

A modem is both an input and output
device.


The word modem is derived from two words
modulation and demodulation
.

Modulation


Modulation

is when the
information is combined
with the carrier wave.



This allows the information
to be sent through
telephone wires and fiber
optic wires, etc.


Demodulation


Demodulation

is when the carrier wave is
separated from the information received
by the computer.

Storage Devices


A device used to
store a variety of
information.

Magnetic Media

Storage Devices


Metal oxides are placed on a plastic base so that when a
magnetic head passes over them they may become
magnetized. The pattern created is a digital binary
code.


This technique is known as writing data.


Examples:


Floppy drive


Hard drive


Zip drive


Optical Disk

Storage

Devices

A device used to store data in which a laser is
used to write and retrieve the information from
the media
.



Examples:


CD
-
ROM


CD
-
RW


DVD
-
ROM


DVD
-
RW


More Storage Devices


Memory


Read Only Memory
(ROM)


Random Access
Memory (RAM)



Portable Memory


USB drives (Jump)


Smart drives


Compact flash


Secure digital


Flash sticks


Hard copy


CPU

The
central processing unit (CPU)

is the
brain of a computer system that includes
control and arithmetic logic.


The rate at which it processes information is
often referred to as speed and is
measured in
hertz
.

Networking

Is the connecting of
two or more
computers
together to share
information and
resources.



Types of Networks

LAN
-

Local Area Network


These are usually a two or more computers connected
together within a single building or plant.

*Intranet


network within a network.


WAN


Wide Area Network


This network consist of a group of computers that are
located in various buildings, which are connected by
either phone lines, T1 or T3 connections or the Internet
itself.


*Internet


world wide web.

Types of LAN Networks


Peer
-
to
-
Peer


Client/Server


Bus (Ethernet)

Types of WAN Networks


Internet


Information Databases


FBI, IRS, DMV,
Naturalization Bureau (citizenship)



Bus (Ethernet)

Software

A computer system uses
software

which is
a set of instructions that controls the
actions of the machine.

Types of Software


Operating software

is a bridge between
the computer hardware and application
software.


Application software

is comprised of a
variety of software programs that
processes data into information.

Operating Software

There are a variety of platforms available
today.


Windows


OS


Unix


Linux

Application Software


Database Management


Desktop Publishing


Graphics


Multimedia


Networking


Spreadsheets


Word Processing

DATA


Data

is the information that is put into the
computer, stored and taking out of the
computer.




Data must be input through devices in to
the computer. These are called
peripherals
.

Binary


The counting system used by a computer for
data storage/ retrieval is called
binary

or base 2.




The data is represented by a one or zero which
is the smallest piece of information called a
bit
.



ON (1) or OFF (0)




Eight bits of information is equal to one b
yte
.






Image Files


Graphic programs create images
consisting of a pattern of dots


or pixels known as
Bitmaps.




Vector based images

are stored in
mathematical terms as a shape or


object, with properties and a location.

ASCII


The American Standard Code of
Information is a numbering system used to
represent alpha numeric characters.


ASCII Code
is used to convert letters to
binary code.


Connecting To The Internet


5 Components are essential to connect to
the internet or the world wide web


Computer


Modem


Medium


Internet Service Provider (ISP)


Phone Connection or Satellite Connection

Internet Connections


There are 3 basic types of internet
connections:


Dial up


DSL


Tier 1 or broadband


Internet Tracking


Internet Protocol Address


IP Address


Google:
Internet Protocol Tracker
. Select this link:
www.
ip
-
adress.com/
ip
_tracer



What is your IP Address?


What is your IP latitude and longitude?


What is you IP postal code?


What type Internet connection do you have?


What is your upload and download speed?


What type browser and operating system used?



Select Who am I from the Start Menu on your computer: