spectacularscarecrowAI and Robotics

Nov 17, 2013 (4 years and 5 months ago)



James Nelson





Fingerprint Scanning

Facial Recognition

Hand Geometry

Vein Pattern Recognition

Iris Scanning

Retina Scanning

Gait Recognition

Voice Recognition


Redirections & False Starts

How Someone Might



Biometrics is extremely effective in security
applications and is used in multiple instances that
include the government, military and business. It is
also a field that is rapidly growing and expanding.
This project will look at various biometric methods
including iris scanning, retina scanning, hand
geometry, facial geometry, fingerprint scanning and
others to see how they are done, and their general
effectiveness. My hypothesis is that biometrics is the
future of security and that it is coming into the
mainstream where even more people will be able to
take advantage of the technology.


Focus on security in technology

Up to this point

“What you know”

Passwords, PINs

“What you have”

Smart Card, Remote

Biometrics is different

“What you are”

Utilizes a physical or behavioral characteristic of a user’s body
for identification


With the potential accuracy of these methods,
biometrics should be used in all situations, right?

Not necessarily

Following are descriptions, advantages,
disadvantages and real
life situations for biometrics

A biometric device, the SanDisk Cruzer Profile, will
have its everyday use detailed

Project Goals

Provide an overview of biometric technology

Demonstrate the benefits of biometrics

Make readers aware of the potential pitfalls that can
be caused by biometrics

Evaluate the potential benefit of a biometric device for
Juniata faculty and staff

Fingerprint Scanning

Well known

Based on two assumptions:

Fingerprint details are

Fingerprints of an individual
are unique

“A fingerprint is made up of a
pattern of ridges and furrows
as well as characteristics
that occur at Minutiae points
(ridge bifurcation or a ridge
ending)” (Beal).

Fingerprint Scanning

Scan the fingerprint of the subject with a built

It may take a picture of the fingerprint, or it may take
points of the fingerprint and store a “template” rather
than the whole fingerprint

Often linked with other authentication methods such
as PINs or Smart Cards

Fingerprint Scanning


Template uses little space

Easy registration process

Little interaction needed


User hesitancy

Dirty, cut fingerprints

Easier to fool

Fingerprint Scanning

World Application

Child Care Facilities and Schools

Access control

Allows staff to do tasks other than door monitoring

Can be used for time accounting

Facial Recognition


System is designed to find close matches to particular facial
features such as eyes, nose, mouth, cheekbones, chin and
forehead. These features are then compared to a database
of static images (Reynolds).


“Technology captures facial images by using a number of
digital cameras positioned around the subject's face or by
using a structured light grid that captures facial
data” (Greenemeier).

Facial Recognition


Able to pick out a face in the crowd

When match is made, alert the proper people


Performance decreases linearly as the enrollment database
size goes up

dimensional easily fooled

“Big Brother”

Facial Recognition

World Application

Tampa Bay Police Department

Airport and Border Security

Hand Geometry

Users align their hand according to guide marks on a
hand geometry reader

The reader then captures a three
dimensional image
of the user’s hand, including the fingers and knuckles

This data is then stored in a template in the system

Hand Geometry


Robustly built

Easy to use

20 byte template


Scanners must be large enough to hold a spread out human

Small amount of data points collected by the scanner can
lead to higher false positives and false negatives than some
other biometric technologies

Hygiene perception

Hand Geometry

World Application

Scott Air Force Base

Access control system

100% uptime

2.7% false negative

0.0% false positive

As good as or better at access control than human security

Allowed guards to tend to other duties

Vein Pattern Recognition

Scanner has a CCD camera built
in, along with LEDs that
project near
infrared waves

“The high absorbance rate of near
infrared wave length of
hemoglobin in the blood vessel enables the finger vein pattern to
be acquired by CCD camera” (Hitachi).

Vein Pattern Recognition


Different even for identical twins

Not easily observed

Stable, robust


Hand deformations

Hygiene perceptions

Vein Pattern Recognition

World Application

Lora SE210 Laptop

Japanese ATMs

Future vehicle door handles

Iris Scanning

The iris, or the colored part of the human eye, has
unique characteristics that make it a viable source for

Many biometric methods are said to have 13 to 60
distinct characteristics, the iris is believed to have 266
unique spots

It is also believed that every iris is unique and stays
the same over time and across environments

Iris Scanning

A user’s iris is photographed with a black and white, high
resolution camera

Once the image is collected, analysis and processing of a
connecting tissue in the iris, called the trabecular meshwork

Differentiating characteristics of the iris include ligaments, furrows,
ridges, crypts, rings, corona, and freckles

Create an “optical ‘fingerprint’” (

The optical fingerprint is put into a digital form so it can be stored
within a database

Iris Scanning


Highly protected, internal organ

Can be imaged from a reasonable distance

High degree of randomness


Relatively small target

Moving target

Eyelashes, eyelids and lenses can also obscure the iris

Iris Scanning

World Application

Freehold Borough School District in New Jersey

Retina Scanning

Sometimes mistaken for iris scanning, but has
nothing to do with the iris

The retina is the patterns of blood vessels on the thin
nerve at the back of the eyeball that processes light
entering the pupil

The idea that retinal patterns could be used as
unique identifiers was brought up in research during
the 1930’s

Even with this knowledge, the first retinal scanner
was not commercially produced until 1984

Eyedentification 7.5

Retina Scanning

During a retinal scan, a user brings their eye very
close to the lens of the camera being used for the

Must look directly into the lens

Enrollment can also take up to a minute or more

Must be scanned every time for authentication

Retina Scanning


Highly accurate

Patterns remain stable

If killed for their retina patterns, a deceased person’s retina
deteriorates too quickly to be of any use to an attacker

No known way to duplicate a retina


Diseases such as glaucoma, diabetes, high blood pressure,
and Autoimmune Deficiency Syndrome can affect retina

Demanding enrollment process

Retina Scanning

World Application

Nuclear Power Plants

Missile Silos

Other high security installations

Gait Recognition

First method

The first method uses a radar system, very similar to the kind that is
used by police officers trying to catch speeders on highways.

This looks at the “gait cycle” that is formed by a person’s
movements over time (Cristol).

As a person’s upper and lower leg, knee, and foot move while
walking, the radar is keeping track of the continuous cycle of

This creates the “gait cycle.”

Second method

Measure static characteristics such as a person’s leg length

Can be viewed from many angles

Gait Recognition


In an ideal state, it would be able to identify subjects up to
500 feet away, under any conditions

Can be coupled with other biometrics



Public perception of bringing together facial recognition and
gait recognition technology, creating a “24/7 human
identification system” (Koerner)

Not fully reliable

Gait Recognition

World Application

None found

Attribute this to the unreliable nature of the technology

Most information pointed to a potential commercial
availability time of 2008

Voice Recognition

May be confused with speech recognition, but they
are not the same

Speech recognition technology is used to convert
spoken words into text

Voice recognition takes the unique sound of a voice
and matches it to a particular person, authenticating
that person for entry into a system (Briggs)

Voice Recognition

Users are usually made to speak a short pass phrase

“It also could be a set of phrases spoken to a challenge or
prompt, such as ‘What is the name of your favorite pet?’”

If it's responding correctly, the technology will attempt to match
your utterance's timbre and pattern of speech against the
pattern stored in the system in digital form

This comparison is used to create a mathematical score using
algorithms to tell if there is a high confidence or low confidence
in the authenticity of the user’s voice

Voice Recognition



Ability to be mobile


Need relatively quiet environment

Distance between device and user

Voice Recognition

World Application

University of California Davis Medical Center


SanDisk Cruzer Profile 512 MB USB Flash Drive

Information about the device can be found at

Purchased from

If the Cruzer was successful during testing, it could be
implemented as a secure way to transfer more sensitive files for
faculty and staff across campus, or to and from their homes


First Plugin

Enrollment Tutorial

Fingerprint Enrollment

Two drives appear in My Computer

System tray icon appears

User can now use the drive at any computer

Profile program is contained on USB drive

Window will pop up asking to open the drive through
the Profile program

Swipe finger and access is obtained



Login storage for web sites

Only works with IE


For logging in to Windows machines

Program must be installed on computer


Trying to “break” the scanner

Dirty fingerprints

Wet fingerprints

Daily wear and tear


Could be an excellent product for a number of faculty and
staff on campus

Accomplishments, Redirections and

False Starts

Accomplished my project goals


New expository format




World Application

half schedule

False starts

Removed DNA Scanning and societal impact sections

How Someone Might Continue

DNA Scanning

Fingerprint reader and timekeeping software


Biometric methods are the future

Security is about striking balances

All security methods will have issues

Education on biometric methods is key

Be ready to see biometrics, as it may usher in a new
era for technology