Knowledge Mangement and Administration of Justice

sounderslipInternet and Web Development

Oct 22, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

96 views

Erich Schweighofer


University of Vienna, Austria



Outline (1)


State of the art: legal research and legal retrieval
systems (TXT, HTML)


+ hypertext, + some meta information


N
-
Lex
: Standard for exchange of legal information


Good start, but improvements necessary


Legal Semantic Web, Legal Social Web


XML, RDF, RDF schema, OWL


Knowledge management in legal units


Known applications: knowledge representation,
conceptual information retrieval, advanced lexical
thesauri, exchange standards (
MetaLex
)

2

Outline (2)


Other uses; more support for European legal work?


Status quo of legal searching insufficient


Exchange of electronic legal meta data a big problem


Need for a legal „Dublin Meta Core“


Future: Dynamic Electronic Commentary


Support tools for European legal work


Next steps


Conclusions

3

Text archive & retrieval (1)


Standard service


Easy access and efficient handling of the now so many
legal documents


Retrieval: discrimination task more and more difficult
(e.g. finding the Boolean combination that sufficiently
selects only those documents I am interested in [e.g.
finding 1 to 10 documents in a collection of 1 to x million
documents])

Text archive & retrieval (2)


Legal retrieval ≠ “To Google”


Exact legal provision (or paragraph in a legal
judgement); not just some information available in a
redundant way


No Social Web (e.g. lawyers as a community are
linking sufficiently to important legal documents)


Only in law firms with efficient knowledge
management possible


Semantic Web?


5

Semantic Web


Tim Berners
-
Lee:


[T]he Semantic Web is "not a separate Web but an
extension of the current one, in which information is
given well
-
defined meaning, better enabling computers
and people to work in cooperation”.


Standards for semantic information on the web


Tagged and linked using the technologies of Resource
Description Framework (RDF), XML and URIs


Web Ontology Language (OWL)


Next layer: may be a logical one, an inference machine


Remains largely unrealised



6

Legal web, legal text corpora and
beyond


Legal web = huge text corpora


Legal information systems


Web sites


Boolean logic + hypertext


Some mark
-
up (text structure)


Good coverage, easy handling of documents


Problem: semantic meaning and searching is insufficiently
developed


Same situation as semantic web


To do: adaptation of standards for mark
-
up +
implementation

7

8

XML (
eXtensible

Markup

Language)


General specification for creating markup languages


Subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language
(SGML) but human
-
legible


Free standard of the W3C; versions 1.0 and 1.1


Recommendation XML 1.1 (Second Edition):
http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC
-
xml11
-
20060816/


Structure has to be represented like a tree


Document type definition (DTD)


Mark
-
up tags are freely extensible


Allows semantic mark
-
up


Law: definition of semantic document structure, e.g.:
<!ELEMENT judgement (title, summary, grounds, operational
part, citations*)>



Attribute values


Automatic verification


XML (2)


Valid documents conform with a particular DTD/schema


XML schema definition (XSD)


Successor of DTDs


XML Style Sheet


Extensible Style Sheet Language (XSL)


Client
-
side XSLT


XML
-
based document transformation language


Extensible Linking and Pointer Languages


XLink: simple and multiple links


Xpointer: links to other document parts


Browser: Internet Explorer from version 5.0


File format: OpenOffice, Word2007


DTD for legal documents for Electronic Data Interchange
(EDI)


9

10

Why XML?


Advantages


Semantic meaning for syntactic data


<name>schweighofer</name>


Reuse + recycling of information


Change of layout


Improved searching of documents


Unicode


Open document format


Disadvantages


Hierarchical model for representation has its limits


Redundancy of data


Main uses in law


Interchange of documents


Interchange of knowledge

11

12

13

RDF (Resource Description
Framework)


RDF syntax


Description of meta data in web documents


Each data can be linked with a file that describes the type of this data.


Recommendation: http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC
-
rdf
-
primer
-
20040210
/



RDF statement: subject
-
predicate
-
object expression (triples in RDF
terminology)


Subject (described websource = URL)


predicate (attribute, e.g. author)


object (value, e.g. name)


Query language for RDF graphs: SPARQL


Semantic web


Automated storage, exchange and use of machine
-
readable
information on the web


Applications: exchange and common use of web data, improved
implementation of search engines, classification of a website (also with
software agents) etc.


14

RDF Schema


Extensible knowledge representation language


Language for description of the structure, the content and the
semantic of XML documents


Basic elements for the description of ontologies (RDF vocabularies)


Recommendation: 10.2.2004:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC
-
rdf
-
schema
-
20040210/


A RDF scheme does not only describe predicates of a web source (e.g.
title, author, etc.), but also the kind of the described sources (e.g.
books).


Development of user
-
oriented RDF vocabularies


Object
-
oriented description of data structures with multiple heritage


Classes, predicates, constraints


Ontology for exchange of data on the Web


Important initiatives: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, PICS labels,
P2P


Web Ontology Language (OWL)


Family of knowledge representation languages for
developing ontologies


Revision of the DAML+OIL web ontology language


W3C standard 10 February 2004


http://www.w3.org/2004/OWL/


Two semantics based on Description Logics


OWL
-
DL


All OWL language constructs


OWL
-
Lite


Classification hierarchy and simple constraints (not widely used)


RDF/XML syntax


LKIF Core Ontology (Leibniz Center for Law, Amsterdam)

15

Semantic Web & ontologies


Semantic Web: highly developed description languages
exist


Merger between web & ontologies envisaged


Quantity of mark
-
up so far insufficient


Legal semantic web


Semantic mark
-
up of legal information systems should be re
-
used


Field structures


Thesauri


Citations


AI & law (legal logic, conceptual information retrieval etc.)


Incorporation of world ontologies


16

Legal thesauri


Legal thesauri



ISO 2788 standard


Definition


Precompiled list of important words in a given domain of
knowledge (c
ontrolled vocabulary)


Concepts are linked with relations


Synonyms (polysems), antonyms, broader term, narrower term,
homonyms


Dictionary: definitions


Information science + legal information systems


Documentation and retrieval


Nucleus of a lexical ontology


17

Legal ontologies


Explicit formulation of a legal domain


Thesauri + definitions + more relations + formalisation for IT
applications


Conceptual model


Abstract, simplified, computable


New form of abstraction and formalisation of law


Theory of formalisation (?)


Advantages


Computable


Links with world ontologies


Re
-
use of existing ontologies


Important tool for automation of law


Problems


High efforts required for knowledge acquisition


Scaling
-
up (well
-
known problem in AI & law)


18

Related work


Earlier formalisation attempts


Hohfeld, Allen, McCarty, Stamper etc.


1990ies


FOLaw (Valente), FBO (van Kralingen, Visser)


Workshop on legal ontologies 1997


LOAIT Workshop on Legal Ontologies and Artificial Intelligence
Techniques 2005 and 2007


ICAIL International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law


Sessions on ontologies since 1997


LEX Legal XML Workshop Florence 2007


Major research: Leibniz Center for Law, Amsterdam; ITTIG, Florence;
University of Turin, Autonomous University of Barcelona, University of
Vienna etc.

19

Types of applications


Representation of legal knowledge


e.g. FBO, LRI Core, LKIF


Conceptual information retrieval


Juriservice, LOIS


Advanced lexical ontologies


Multilingual thesauri


e.g. LOIS, Legal Taxonomy Syllabus


Interchange of documents and knowledge


e.g. MetaLex, eLaw


20

Knowledge representation (1)


Language for Legal Discourse LLD / McCarty (1989)


NORMA / Stamper (1991)


Frames
-
based ontology (FBO), van Kralingen and Visser


Common legal ontology; re
-
useable, 3 classes of model primitives, for each
class a frame structure has been defined with all relevant attributes


Functional ontology (FOLaw), Valente


Aim: organisation and linking of legal knowledge, in particular in
respect to conceptual information retrieval


6 basic categories of legal knowledge


Normative knowledge, meta
-
legal knowledge, world knowledge,
responsibility knowledge, reactive knowledge, creative knowledge

21

Knowledge representation (2)


ON
-
LINE (architecture of legal case
-
solving)


PROSA (training system for legal case
-
solving)


E
-
Court, LRI
-
Core,

University of Amsterdam


Goal: semi
-
automated multi
-
lingual information management
for various sources (audio, video, text); application area: penal
law


LRI
-
Core
: broad concept structure with typical legal main
concepts


About 200 concepts, in development anchors


Links between foundational (upper) ontology (= world
knowledge) and legal core ontology (legal concepts)


Supports legal subsumption

22

Knowledge representation (3)


Select/direct from various acts or agents to the legally relevant ones


E
-
Power
,

project of the Dutch Tax and Customs Administration


Application
-
oriented knowledge system; formalisation of laws and
regulations as conceptual models


Automated tasks (e.g. subsumption, calculation, document assembly);
comprehensive support from legislation to application


LKIF Core
Ontology (Legal Knowledge Interchange Format)

(Estrella project), University of Amsterdam


Standard OWL ontology


OWL
-
DL (description logic)


Description logic programs (DLP)

23

Knowledge representation (4)


Obligation, permission, roles, rights, duties, privileges, liabilities etc.


Top level clusters


Mereological relations



Location


Time


Changes (processes)


Agents + actions + roles


Propositions


Legal agents + actions, rights, powers


Norms


LKIF rules


more expressive than OWL


Application: traffic domain



Impressive standard




24

Multilingual thesauri (1)


LOIS Lexical Ontologies for legal Information Serving


Multi
-
lingual access to European legal databases


Formal representation of legal concepts in all languages on the
basis of the WorldNet technology; similar concepts


6 languages, 5000 synsets


ILI inter
-
lingual index + legal definitions


10 partners; leader: ITTIG, Florence


Legal Taxonomy Syllabus (University of Turin)


Tool to annotate and recover multi
-
lingua legal information (EU
Directives)


Legal dictionaries


Taxanomies of legal concepts



26

Multilingual thesauri (2)


DALOS (ITTIG, Florence)


Ontological
-
linguistic resource for multilingual drafting process
(EU)


Basis: LOIS


Ontological layer: conceptual modelling at a language
-
independent
level


Lexical layer: lexical manifestations in different languages


Term extraction using NLP tools


27

Advanced lexical ontologies


LOIS


Legal Taxonomy Syllabus


Juriservice


DALOS


Comprehensive legal ontology (University of Vienna)


Real world (world knowledge)


Legal system as a order of norms : socio
-
economic governance by law
with the goal of risk reduction


Frames


Material rules


Procedural rules


Concepts


Concept frames


Starting point legal thesauri, e.g. LOIS thesauri


Links: world knowledge, rules, top legal ontology


Hard core of a legal ontology




28

Interchange of documents and
knowledge


Interchange standards for documents


Many international and European applications


e.g. EU, eLaw (Austria), MetaLex


Interchangability of legal knowledge representation



MetaLex
(University of Amsterdam)


Generic and extensible framework for XML
-
encoding of legal
resources




29

Dynamic Electronic Legal
Commentary (1)


Abstract representation of law in a conceptual & logical
-
systematic structure; like printed commentary but in a
machine
-
useable format


Description of the world ([possible] facts)


The core: links between possible facts (situations) and legal
consequences


Problem: world ontologies have still some way to improve
sufficiently, legal formalisation has to move from small
environments to the real big world


It‘s time to move on

Dynamic Electronic Legal
Commentary (2)


For legal information systems:


Not the very, very big step, but :


Tools like a navigator [time and document types, layers of the legal
order, consolidated texts] (e.g. PreLex) , citator or terminologist are
possible and would be highly desirable …


Thus good paying services


In the near future


The real thing … some automated support for legal subsumption,
e.g. helping in the real game of applying legal provisions (could that
also called legal reasoning or a legal expert system … maybe?)

European
standard

of

legal
ontologies


Motivators


Comparative legal research, harmonisation of EU law (e.g.
Services Directive), European E
-
Government


Ontologies

are standards, thus an obvious thing to do


Meta information in Dublin Core Metadata
language


Citations

(
standard
, URI)


Ontological

structures


Rules


Haley Ltd. (
formerly
:
Softlaw
)


Concepts


E.g.
lexical

ontologies

projects

32


33

Next steps (1)


Interchange of documents and knowledge


Legal documents: ongoing and improving


Legislative documents: many applications, standards like MetaLex may
improve formalisations due to inclusion of knowledge representation
aspects


Improvement and enlargement of legal thesauri


Up to 10.000 concepts


URI formalisation of c
itations on an EU level


Multilingual information retrieval


Conceptual information retrieval using legal thesauri


Improved searching, classification and summarisation of documents


Word sense disambiguation for easier coupling with legal information
systems


34

Next steps (2)


Text analysis and text categorisation


Start: information system (text archive)


Classification


Concept analysis (e.g. DALOS, KONTERM)


(Semi)automatic text analysis


Summaries (e.g. SALOMON, KONTERM, FLEXICON)


Result: semantic description of the legal order; some “primitive”
anchors to legal system and world knowledge


Inclusion of results of text analysis in an advanced lexical
ontology





35

Next steps (3)


Concept frame


Header, definition, relations


+ More relations, better definitions, links to legal rules + world
knowledge


“Raw” conceptual legal ontology


“Raw” dynamic electronic commentary


Conceptual description of legal order with links to legal rules and
world knowledge


Formalisation of dynamic electronic commentary in LKIF
or other ontology languages


Big step, resources not available


More research required

36

Conclusions


Ontologies

are the key for a computer
-
useable formalisation of the
knowledge on the world and the legal system


XML: standard for mark
-
up of legal documents


XML/
ontologies
: emerging standard for knowledge representation


New form of a legal commentary: dynamic, electronic, computer
-
useable


Big support for European legal work


Legal search, exchange of data, exchange of knowledge


Next steps


Exchange standards


Multilingual information retrieval


Improvement of legal thesauri


Some (semi)automatic text analysis and categorisation, advanced lexical
ontologies


Later: formalisation in LKIF


Big potential for easier better European legal work


37

Contacts


Erich Schweighofer


Universität Wien

Arbeitsgruppe Rechtsinformatik


Wiener Zentrum für Rechtsinformatik


erich.schweighofer@univie.ac.at


http://rechtsinformatik.www.univie.ac.at


IRIS2009 Internationales Rechtsinformatik Symposion, Salzburg

http://www.univie.ac.at/RI/IRIS2009