Katri Seppälä - EAFT-AET.net

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Oct 22, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Ontological

terminology work



EAFT & Nordterm workshop: Terminology,
Concept Modelling and Ontology
-

Which
approach for which problem?


Katri Seppälä,

The Finnish Terminology Centre TSK /

FinnONTO project, Helsinki University of
Technology

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Ontological terminology work


Contents


FinnONTO project


from thesauri to ontologies


ontological features in terminology work



Core concepts


semantic web: extension of WWW which uses
ontology based content description of web
material


ontology: description of concepts of a certain
domain in computer readable format

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FinnONTO project


project coordinator: Professor Eero Hyvönen, Helsinki
University of Technology, Media Technology /
University of Helsinki, Department of Computer
Science


Semantic Computing research group: 20 persons


IT experts


terminologists, information specialists


participants from several sectors: museum, library,
education, health care, land survey etc.


financiers: Tekes (the Finnish Funding Agency for
Technology and Innovation) and participants


1. phase 1.9.2003
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31.8.2004, 2. phase 1.9.2004
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31.8.2005,
3. phase 1.9.2005
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31.8.2006

(31.5.2007)

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Goals


to demonstrate the usability of ontologies


for example MuseumFinland (MuseoSuomi),
Finnish General Upper Ontology (YSO)


to provide central ontologies for free public use in
order to maximize their use and to avoid multiple
work


to create a national ontology library for decentralised
development, managament and use of ontologies


easy access (search/copy/add/change)


version management, communication on changes


to suggest a model for organizing ontology work


co
-
ordination of general ontology work: National
Library of Finland


responsibility for extending the General Upper
Ontology with domain ontologies: domain experts

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From thesauri to ontologies


a widely used thesaurus is a good starting point for an
ontology, but many changes must still be made…


every concept must have its exact own place in
the hierarchy and an URI (
Uniform Resource
Identifier)

which identifies the name and the place
of the concept


an upper structure must be added in order to
integrate the concepts into one system which
computers can use in information processing


preliminary upper structure in Finnish General
Upper Ontology: period, physical object,
phenomenon, immaterial output, system,
property, place, event, action

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From thesauri to ontologies


action concepts have a central role in an ontology
as they link different types of concepts to each
other, but the amount of associative relations has
to be increased in order to build these links


for example: action


agent


instrument


patient


place


time


result


ontological relations have no room for
interpretation


generic relation (broader term


narrower term)


partitive relations have to be separated from
generic relations


generic group concepts (dimensions) have to
be added


individuals have to be separated from
classes


associative relation (related term)


type of associative relation might be needed

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From thesauri to ontologies


different means to describe several viewpoints
simultaneously are allowed


several generic superordinate concepts, for
example exposure meter: photographic equipment
and meter



roles, for example


human: occupation, member of a family


material: source of energy, building material


different kind of associative relations, for example


instrument used in action; result of action

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From thesauri to ontologies


ontological features make it possible to


describe the content of web material for
computers more precisely than before


for example deal with polysemy/homonymy


improve description methods, for example


by eliminating unnecessary relations


by unifying descriptions (concepts belonging
to a certain upper class typically have certain
relations)


develop intelligent web services which use
ontology based description


use information on concept relations to
delimit search results


joint use of information which is described
with the help of different systems

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From thesauri to ontologies
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diagrams

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From thesauri to ontologies



generic/partitive relations

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From thesauri to ontologies



group concepts (dimensions)

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From thesauri to ontologies


use of associative relations

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From thesauri to ontologies

TERMINOLOGY

THESAURUS

ONTOLOGY

content

one domain or part
of a domain


domain or
combination of
domains

domain or
combination of
domains

designations

often
recommendations
and some synonyms
in one or more
languages

recommendations in
several languages
when needed

recommendations
and probably
synonyms in several
languages when
needed

concept descriptions

definitions
, notes
and concept
diagrams

concept relations
with the help of
three relation types

concept relations
and characteristics
comprehensively
and exactly
specified

format

markup languages
can be used (for
example XML)

markup languages
can be used (for
example XML)

ontology languages
are used (for
example RDFS,
OWL)

results

for human
readers

for human readers

for computers

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Ontological features in terminology work


products of systematic terminology work offer an
accurate basis for ontologies


information on concept relations can be picked up
from definitions and enriched with the information
found in explanatory notes


this requires a system which allows the tagging
of concept relations, but doesn’t necessarily
involve any extra work if the concepts are
linked anyhow, for example, for electronic
publication


if there is a need to combine material from
different vocabularies, the relations between
concepts from different sources have to be
tagged separately


XML based information can be converted into
RDFS or OWL for ontological use

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Ontological features in terminology work

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More information


FinnONTO project:
http://www.seco.tkk.fi/projects/finnonto/


MuseumFinland
http://www.museosuomi.fi/



methods: Sanastokeskus TSK,
http://www.tsk.fi/