DECO2205 - Principles of ArchiCAD - 2011

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DECO2205
-

Principles of Archi
CAD

-

2011

Tutorial 2

-

ArchiCAD Advanced Modeling Review


This document has been produced to guide

and assist
your learning of more advanced
functions of ArchiCAD, as you
read and review

the ArchiCAD Modeling and the GDL
In
teractive Training Guides, and later, to serve as a reference to facilitate your further
learning and re
-
learning of ArchiCAD.


It is not essential for all ArchiCAD users to learn how to program using GDL

and y
ou are not expected to
learn GDL scripting i
n this unit. However it is useful to understand how GDL works. I
suggest
that
understand
ing GDL

is analogous

to a musician knowing how to read music, or an architect understanding
how buildings are constructed. A musician doesn’t need to compose and an arc
hitect doesn’t need to
build. But deeper levels of understanding enable practitioners to go far beyond the basic limitations of
beginners and amateurs.



In general, what you are asked to do
,

by the end of
week

7,
is:


1. Read
the GDL Objects and the Archi
CAD Modeling Training Guides

in full.


You are required to complete the exercises in the first three chapter of th
e GDL Objects

guide which
cover the basics of object making, without requiring you to write programs. You should also acquaint
yourself with t
he techniques in Chapters 4 and 5 which also deal with the modeling of objects, without
programming. There is no need to complete the exercises in Chapters 4 and 5.

C
omplete
approximately 50% of the

exercises in the Modeling Training Guide.
More detaile
d
instructions
are provided at the beginning of the Modeling Review.

2. Note, as before, that t
his review document also combines instructions, in blue, intended to guide and
assist you to complete the review, and headings, in black, that are to be included

in your review. Again,
the blue text should be deleted from your completed review before you submit it. Keep the black text
headings, even if your comment on any particular subject matter under a particular heading is "No
comment".

Again, add your additi
onal thoughts under "Summary" and "Personal Observations and Impressions"
headings. These two headings are necessary because both technical observations and personal views
are important. Separation of technical descriptions and personal comments also helps

to maintain clarity
in each part of the review.

Refer bac
k to

Collaborative Learning


in the ESSENTIALS
-

Starting and working smarter

WEB
page
,
[
http://web.arch.usyd.edu.au/~pmurty/courses/DECO2205/intro/parch_worksmart.htm
]
for information
about comp
leting each part.

You may change fonts, sizes and colours to achieve the layout and graphic approach which you consider
is best suited to convey your ideas.





DECO2205 Principles of
ArchiCAD



Tutorial 2

Graphisoft

ArchiCAD


Advanced
Modeling

Review


N
ame of author
A:
_________________
____
___


Login

ID:
__________



Name of author
B:

________________
____
____


Login ID:__________



The main aims
of this
second Tutorial
are
to
extend your knowledge of
ArchiCAD

beyond the
straight forward use of the simpl
e building object tools
,

so that you can model all of the
structures and
other kinds of object that you need to include in your designs
.


Th
e GDL and 3D Modeling

tutorial
s

w
ere

created for ArchiCAD 12 but
they are also

the
version
s

recommended by Graphiso
ft,

for ArchiCAD13
, downloaded from their Website.



This Tutorial has two parts which cover the following subject matter:


1.

GDL


This part describes and explains:



How all
ArchiCAD

models are built from 2D and 3D element
s, known as library parts or
obj
ects.




H
ow
to save and edit simple and parametric
library
objects

using both
:

o

ArchiCAD modeling tools you learnt about in Tutorial 1 and

o

GDL
, the ArchiCAD graphic description language



2.


C
oncept
s, tools and techniques
of 3D

modeling in ArchiCAD



This
part describes and
explains:
.




How to
creat
e
intelligent

objects

such as
walls, columns and beams
that can b
e trimmed
to the surfaces of slanted roofs
.



S
pecial ArchiCAD

function
s

like StairMaker, TrussMaker and RoofMaker,

allowing for
the simple creation

of stairs, trusses, girders and roof

structures.



GDL
-

ArchiCAD
's Graphic Description Language


ArchiCAD

is a high level
parametric
application
but th
e high level

sophistication
of ArchiCAD derives

from
an
accessible

low level base.

A
ll A
rchiCAD

models
are built from lower level 2D or 3D building elements
and other objects, known as library parts.


While you were completing the
first

tutorial you would have seen that, before drawing lines, or more
complex things, such as slabs, columns, walls, roofs, fu
rniture

whatever, you must first choose an
object type from libraries of objects, acce
ssed via the Tool Menu. Objects or combinations of objects,

drawn or placed in
ArchiCAD,

can be saved as
ArchiCAD

projects. They can also be saved as new library
parts,

which you can insert into the current design, or an
y
other
ArchiCAD

model
.

The technology behind this modelling
capabilit
y is a prog
ramming language called GDL

(or Graphic
Description Language).
All of the 2D shapes and 3D solid objects that you see in
A
rchiCAD

models, all
library elements and all of the objects you can make using
ArchiCAD

tools are entirely
represented

in text
files, called GDL scripts,

which

can be viewed and edited. The GDL script language is similar to BASIC, a
popular computer progra
mming language that has evolved since the
pre PC

computing

era
.

Being text based, provides great versatility and, in particular, the capacity to manage information about
different properties, or
parameters
, of each type of object, such as heights, thickne
sses, materials etc.
It
is possible to control or change an object’s appearance and behaviour, by changing parameter settings,
in the object’s dialog box, or by editing the parameters graphically. When you do this all instances of that
object
in the model
file
will be updated. Some kinds of ArchiCAD objects are said to be
intelligent

because, once created, they react to their environment. For example, wall intersections clean up, beams
have intersection priorities, roofs can trim building elements, such as
walls.





-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------

Creating
GDL

Objects Guide

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------


Preface

Some guiding thoughts on GDL are offered below. Add to
,

or edit as necessary
,

for your review.

As with
the BIM guide it is recommended that you finalise this part after completing th
e tutorial.



ArchiCAD

models are built from 2D or 3D elements or objects
,

known as library parts.
Before
drawing
lines, or more complex elements such as slabs, columns, beams, walls, roofs, furnishing and external
items, one must first select an object ty
pe from an object library, accessed via the Tool Menu. The
selection is made using a dialog box which typically contains parameters relating to dimensions, heights,
form factors and appearance features, which vary according the kind of tool chosen, such as

a line, a
slab, a wall or a light fitting.


Once

created, any object (simple or complex) can be saved, not only as an
ArchiCAD

project file, but also
as an
ArchiCAD

(GDL) library file, in an object library. This library part can then be inserted into yo
ur
current design, or any other
ArchiCAD

model, using the Object tool, wherever
,

whenever, as many times
as it is needed. Then if you amend it later for some reason, you can ensure that every instance will be
automatically updated when you open a model fil
e that uses this object.

GDL
,

which stands for
G
eometric
D
escription
L
anguage, was developed for
ArchiCAD

to describe 2D and
3D elements in what Graphisoft describe as a parametric programming environment. The GDL objects
,

called Library Parts
,

are stored
in libraries, external to the
ArchiCAD

project file
.

Each Library Part
contains several text
-
based scripts dedicated to different purposes, including 2D symbols, 3D models and
descriptions for quantity take
-
offs. Whenever a GDL object is inserted into an
ArchiCAD

project, only a
reference to the external Library Part is normally saved with the file.


Users do have the option of saving the project as an archive, which then stores the Library Parts in the
file as well. This creates a bigger file but the arc
hive file, when opened, will be complete without the need
for library files. This may be very useful if the file includes unique library files or files from an earlier
version of
ArchiCAD
, that are unavailable on another computer, or at another time.


The
Preface includes guidance on how to learn GDL, but as you have completed the
ArchiCAD

Basic
Guide you can skip the remainder of the Preface. It is similar to what you have read before
.



Chapter 1: Saving 2D Symbols from the Floor plan


While you may not
need to learn how to program in GDL it is important to understand how to work with
GDL objects. You are required to complete the exercises in this chapter, but you may use a different
North point design,
or
some other 2D symbol

that may be useful to you
, s
uch as a scale bar.



Summary

As with Tutorial 1 you should write a short, but apt summary for each chapter.





1.1 Creating the Symbol.








1.2 Saving the Object








1.3 Checking the Result







1.4 Final Touches






1.5 Using the 2D Symbol
View





Observations and Impressions

This is the place for your personal
reflections





Chapter 2: Saving 3D models from the Floor plan as GDL objects


Because it is important to understand how to work with GDL objects, you are also required to complet
e
the exercises in this chapter, but you may use a different North point design, or some other 2D symbol
that may be useful to you, such as a scale bar.




2.1 Overview

Y
our
summar
ies
can be the overview
s

or the beginning

of
each
, as

appropriate
.






2
.2 Modeling.





2.3 Creating the GDL Object





2.4 Editing the GDL Object






Observations and Impressions






Chapter 3: Rotating Auto
-
saved Objects. Adding Material Parameters to
Library Parts




3.1 Overview







3.2 Modeling.






3.3 Creating the

GDL Object






3.4 Editing the GDL Object






3.5 Adding Material Parameters






Observations and Impressions






Chapter 4: Auto saving rectangular doors. Creating Custom Door Panels.



Summary







Observations and Impressions










Chapter
5: Auto Saving Non
-
rectangular Windows


The remaining chapters describe GDL programming, also known as scripting. It is not necessary to
attempt any of the exercises, or to summarise the procedures in these chapters. What you are expected
to do is read th
rough chapters 5,6 and 7 and briefly summarise the main concepts., however students
with an interest in this aspect of
ArchiCAD

are encouraged to explore these chapters and to include
scripted objects in their project. Use of scripting to make or enhance o
bjects in the modelling project will
earn additional marks.



Summary




Observations and Impressions








Chapters 6 to 8: Basics of GDL Scripting


GDL scripting is the foundation of
ArchiCAD
. Chapters 6 to 8 show how to use GDL commands to cre
ate
simple objects, first a simple table top with a round leg and then a more complex table. The lessons
demonstrate basic object making commands and techniques, including use of the Library Part Editor
Window, to generate shapes, set materials and make ob
jects parametric. Other instructions include use
of the coordinate system to move, mirror and transform objects. Chapters 7 and 8 progress introduce
more advanced model making and programming concepts such as logical statements (eg. IF


THEN) the
use of s
ubroutines, creating curved objects and controlling visibility of surfaces and edges of objects in
3D.


Summary







Observations and Impressions








Chapters 9 &10: Advanced GDL Scripting


Summary







Observations and Impressions





Graphi
soft ArchiCAD Modeling

Interactive Training Guide










What you are expected to do is read through
all of the chapters

and briefly summarise the main concepts.



You are not required to complete all of the exercises. However it is recommended that yo
u complete
about 50%, which may be complete chapters, or parts of chapters. You may base your decisions on
personal interest, or the expected needs of your modeling project(s).













Getting Started with the ArchiCAD Interactive Training Guide



You may delete this part unless there is some detail that you want to include.





Introduction



Chapter 1: Architectural Modeling: Terrains




Summary

Include a short, but apt summary for each chapter.





1.1 Customizing the Mesh Parameters








1.2. Creating a Mesh from External 2D Drawings








1.3. Creating a Platoo Slab on the Terrain








1.4. Adding a Sloping Road to the Project






Observations and Impressions

This is the place for your personal
reflections







Chapter 2: Creating B
asic Shapes


Using Solid Element Operations 22


Summary






2.1. Creating the 3D Form of a Church









2.2. Adding the Choir and Aisles









2.3. Creating a Bell Tower









2.4. Completing the 3D Form of the Church







Observations and Impr
essions







Chapter 3: Architectural Modeling: Structural Grid




Summary







3.1. Creating a New Structural Grid


Columns, Beams and

Dimensions








3.2. Adding a second structural grid








3.3. Modifying the structural grid’s elements









Observations and Impressions














Chapter 4: Architectural Modeling: Columns, Beams and Complex

Profiles



Summary





4.1. Modifying the Attributes of the Columns






4.2. Placing Circular Slanted Columns







4.3. Creating New Complex Pr
ofiles for Construction Elements






4.4. Placing a Profiled Column






4.5. Creating Inclined Beam
,
Defining the Intersection Priority of

Beams and Columns







4.6. Defining Holes in the Beam








4.7. Adding an ArchiCAD Object to the Structure







Observations and Impressions

Chapter 5: Architectural Modeling: Walls


Slanted Walls /Composite Walls



Summary






5.1. Creating and Editing Straight and Slanted Walls








5.1.1. Stretching the Slanted Wall







5.2. Wall Priorities and the La
yer Intersection Group Number

Functionality







5.3. Creating a New Composite Structure for Walls







5.4. Using the Modify Wall Command







5.5. Drawing a Double
-
Slanted Wall







5.6. Creating and Editing a Profiled Wall






Observations and Impr
essions


Chapter 6: Architectural Modeling: Roofs



Summary






6.1. Creating a Simple Roof in 3D









6.2. Trimming Walls and Columns to the Roof









6.3. Creating a Polyroof









6.4. Creating a New Barrel
-
Vaulted Roof on the Floor Plan









6.5. Constructing an Irregular Barrel
-
Vaulted Roof in 3D








Observations and Impressions





Chapter 7: Special Constructions: Special Openings



(
Skylights /Corner Windows
)




Summary






7.1. Creating Special Windows









7.2.
Customizing and Placing a Storefront Door








7.3. Creating an Empty Opening







7.4. Placing a Skylight Object








7.5.
Adding Entrances to the Project







Observations and Impressions






Chapter 8: Architectural Modeling: Stairs



Summary







8.1. Adjusting and P
lacing an Existing Stair Object








8.2. Creating a New Staircase









8.3. Creating Stairs with the Profile Manager









8.4. The ‘Create Stair Using Selection’ Feature








Observations and Impressions








Chap
ter 9: Special Constructions


TrussMaker



Summary





9.1. Creating a Truss from Rolled Steel Profiles







9.2. Terminating the Building Structure







Observations and Impressions







Chapter 10: Special Constructions
-

RoofMaker



Summary






10.1. Using the Roof Wizard Settings








10.2. Modifying Elements of the Roof Structure








Observations and Impressions