Perception: Insights from

soilflippantAI and Robotics

Nov 17, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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The Face and Person
Perception: Insights from
Social Cognition

Kimberly A. Quinn and C. Neil
Macrae

Contents

I.
Foundation of the study

II.
Social
-
cognitive dynamics of face
perception

III.
Processing multiple social
-
category cues

IV.
The categorization

identification
interface

V.
Conclusion and Discussion

I. Foundation of the study



Understanding
the dynamics of social
categorization


Considering visual processing (bottom
-
up
process) and semantic knowledge (top
-
down process) for understanding in face
perception


Derived from Bruce and Young (1986)
dual route model

Reminder of Bruce & Young theory

Main Focus


Debate of identity
-
nonspecific information’s
role, and previous studies showed:

a.
Dissociation between abstract
generic
information from faces and
face
recognition


b.
Integrated processing
of identity
-
specific
and
-
nonspecific
information

c.
Explain where visually
derived semantic
codes
related
to identity
-
nonspecific
information,
and how
extra
-
facial factors
influence face
processing
-
>
social
-
cognitive perspective


II. Social
-
cognitive dynamics
of face perception



Social
perceivers automatically and inevitably
perceive others
according to
visible
dimensions such as sex, race, and
age
(Fiske, 1998)


Brewer’s (1988)
dual
-
process model:
perceivers choose
implicitly between
stereotyping and individuation



Fiske
and
Neuberg’s

(1990) continuum
model:
priority to stereotyping and depicting
individuation as a correction process


Brewer’s model (1988)


primitive
categorization


Fiske and
Neuberg’s

(1990)


initial
categorization



Emphasize
social categorization of
faces.



Social
-
cognitive
models


person
perception rather
than face
recognition
,
and primarily
to the construal of
unfamiliar rather than familiar individuals
.


These models assumed stereotyping
sufficient for identity
-
specific information,
therefore identity
-
non specific information
processing is not needed.



III. Processing multiple social
-
category cues



Three experiments from Quinn and
Macrae

(2005)


Experiment 1: showed social categorization
need an appropriate processing goal


Experiment 2: if perceiver didn’t categorize
stimuli, the reaction times won’t be differ
between repeated and new stimuli


Experiment 3:
the efficiency of sex
categorization depended on the age of
a
target
,
but age
categorization was not
influenced by variation in target sex.


a.
Single category selection


Perceiver


using relevant dimension and
inhibit irrelevant ones.


Quinn and
Macrae

(2005) second
experiment.


S
tereotype activation
is also
selective.


Challenge on finding: Wiese,
Schweinberger
,
and Neumann (2008) recently
reported ERP
version of Quinn and
Macrae’s

multiple
-
category repetition
-
priming experiment.


b. Multiple
-
category integration




Quinn &
Macrae’s

third experiment




Freeman et.al easy and difficult
-
to
-
categorize faces’ task



c.
Integrating processing of social
-
category cues and other social cues




cues to differentiate sex (facial features
and specific facial expression)




Male


angry

Female


fear



gaze direction and emotional expression








There is still debate

Happy


direct
gaze

Fear


averted
gaze




race categorization and emotional
expression


Anger expression
identified faster in
African people

Happy expression
identified faster in
Caucasian




Voice Cues


Raki
´
c
, Steffens, and
Mummendey

(2011), who used a ‘who
said what
?’
paradigm





to
examine the separate
and combined
influences of voice and facial cues in
person perception


Contextual cues


Perceivers do
not categorize by race when
another dimension of categorization
is
more
useful
in the
ongoing
context.


Example:
T
-
shirt
colour

denoted
coalitions that
race did
not.


Social
-
cognitive
evidence thus suggests
that the processing of
identity
-
nonspecific
information
in faces is extremely flexible
and responsive to such factors as
processing goals,
semantic
knowledge,
and
contextual
cues
.

IV.
The categorization

identification interface

a.
Social categorization influences identity
recognition



cross
-
race’ or ‘other
-
race’
effect.


social
categorization
also plays
a critical role in
shaping own
-

and other
-
race face
processing.


Other race identity recognition could also be
sensitive to social categorization (making in
-
group and out
-
group)


Social
categorization
can
even affect how
individual features are perceived
.



Emotional recognition

b. Identity
recognition influences social
categorization




it is easier to extract categorical
information from known versus unknown
faces.




before a perceiver can recognize a target’s
unique identity, the target’s face must first
receive basic visual processing.




primacy of categorical thinking




Identity recognition appears to be heavily
reliant on the extraction of
configural

information across multiple features


Categorization
vs

identification



Quinn, Mason, and
Macrae

(2010) used
automatic priming paradigm to investigate
whether and when participants would
automatically respond to unfamiliar and
familiar others according to identity
versus social category


V.
Conclusion


Emphasis on the processing of identity
-
nonspecific (primarily social
-
category)
information.


The contribution of social cognition face
perception is twofold.


a. social categorization


b. importance of extra
-
facial (prejudice)


A comprehensive account of face perception
requires, at minimum, the consideration of
three issues.


a. Model should specify whether and how
various forms of identity
-
specific and
-
nonspecific information are integrated


b. Specify the downstream consequences of
such integration


c. Make clear the nature and extent of online
feedback from long
-
term memory during face
processing.


Discussion


Which social categorization needed or
automatically came out when we’re
looking at a person?


Procedures and results in Quinn and
Macrae’s

study should be explained in
more details.