DAML+OIL: Metadata for

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Oct 22, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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DAML+OIL: Metadata for
Ontology Design

Chris Clouser

INFO653

What is DAML+OIL?


DARPA Agent Markup Language


Ontology Inference Layer


Both are markup languages, like SGML or
HTML.


Both are based on (and extensions to) RDF,
which in turn is an extension to XML.


Goal is to create
ontologies


Where did it come from?


2000: DAML
-
ONT is started as a DARPA
-
funded
project to enhance web content accessibility by
designing a web ontology language


2000: OIL project starts, with very similar aim,
but using a frame
-
based logical architecture.


As development of both projects progress, project
members recognize that they can pool efforts for
better progress. DAML+OIL is born.


What is it for?


Designs ontologies: formal representations of a
domain of data


Used for semantic interchange among various data
sources


Support logical manipulation and inference


Aim to describe the “aboutness” of a particular data set


Supports efforts to create the “Semantic Web”


“a new form of Web content that is meaningful to
computers”
Tim Berners
-
Lee, 2001


Enables intelligent “agent” software to search and
process data for us


Reduces human effort in intepreting Web data

What does it look like?


DAML+OIL is an XML
-
based language (or, in reality,
languages
)


Uses XML syntax to mark up text


DAML and OIL are XML namespaces


Uses RDF as the basic semantic architecture


Provides advanced modeling primitives, types, and restrictions
for more robust ontology design over RDF’s (intentionally)
lightweight modeling abilities.


Strong enumerations


Unique properties


Precise data type restrictions


Multiple ranges for property values



Example: Class Description

<daml:Class rdf:ID=”Library”>


<rdfs:label >



Library


</rdfs:label>


<rdfs:comment>



A library is a repository of

information resources.


</rdfs:comment>


</daml:Class>


Adapted from McGuinness, D.L, Fikes, R., Hendler, J., Stein, L.A. (2002). DAML+OIL: An ontology language for the Semantic
Web.
IEEE Intelligent Systems, September/October 2002
, 72
-
80

Example: Property Description


<Library rdf:ID=”Hagerty Library”>



<rdfs:label >




Hagerty Library



</rdfs:label>



<rdfs:comment>



Hagerty Library is the academic



library for Drexel University.



</rdfs:comment>


</Library>


Adapted from McGuinness, D.L, Fikes, R., Hendler, J., Stein, L.A. (2002). DAML+OIL: An ontology language for the Semantic
Web.
IEEE Intelligent Systems, September/October 2002
, 72
-
80

Example: Property of a Class

<daml:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=”hasStateLocation”>


<rdfs:range rdf:resource=”#States”>


<rdfs:domain rdf:resource=”#LIBRARY”>

</daml:ObjectProperty>


Adapted from McGuinness, D.L, Fikes, R., Hendler, J., Stein, L.A. (2002). DAML+OIL: An ontology language for the Semantic
Web.
IEEE Intelligent Systems, September/October 2002
, 72
-
80

Implications


Machine
-
understandable data models can potentially
revolutionize data processing


Interpreting ontologies


Drawing logical inferences

”learning”


Sophisticated data manipulation


Digital Libraries will see a major benefit from it


Access information by what it
means


Automatic correlation of related but separate resources into virtual
“reference books”


Automated (or semi
-
automated) ontological crosswalks supporting
data interoperability



Looking Ahead


DAML+OIL is a strong attempt to create a robust ontological
modeling language for Web content


It combines the strengths of many layers of metadata to achieve
robustness: XML, RDF, DAML, and OIL are meshed together
for maximum effect


It is one effort among many parallel activities to develop
ontological solutions for data; it won’t necessarily be the be
-
all
-
end
-
all solution


It is part of a greater effort: alone, DAML+OIL (or any other
ontological language) cannot solve the challenges posed by the
Semantic Web and the information age: no matter how much
metadata we throw at the problem, if we don’t have software to
interpret it, the problem we’re trying to solve won’t go away.


Bibliography

Berners
-
Lee, T., Hendler, J. & Lassila, O. The Semantic Web: A new form of Web content
that is meaningful to computers will unleash a revolution of new possibilities.
Scientific
American, May 2001
, 36
-
43.

Connoly, D., van Harmelen, F., Horrocks, I., McGuinness, D., Patel
-
Schneider, P.F, & Stein,
L.A. (2001).
DAML+OIL (March 2001) reference description
. Retrieved 12 April 2004
from
http://www.w3.org/TR/daml+oil
-
reference
.


Hodge, G. (2001).
Metadata Made Simpler
. Maryland: NISO Press.

Lassila, O. (2000). The Resource Description Framework.
IEEE Intelligent Systems,
November/December 2000
, 67
-
69.

McGuinness, D.L, Fikes, R., Hendler, J., Stein, L.A. (2002). DAML+OIL: An ontology
language for the Semantic Web.
IEEE Intelligent Systems, September/October 2002
, 72
-
80.

Ouellet, R., & Ogbuji, U. (2002).
Introduction to DAML: Part I
. Retrieved 18 April 2004
from
http://www.xml.com/1pt/a/2002/01/30/daml1.html
.

Van Harmelen, F., & Horrocks, I. (2000). FAQs on OIL: The Ontology Inference Layer.
IEEE Intelligent Systems, November/December 2000
, 69
-
72.