DAML-S Briefing - Semantic Web Services Initiative (SWSI)

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Oct 22, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

DAML
-
S:

Bringing Services to

the Semantic Web




David Martin

SRI International


http://www.daml.org/services/



David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

DAML
-
S Web Services Coalition

BBN:

Mark Burstein

CMU:

Massimo Paolucci, Katia Sycara

ICSI
: Srini Narayanan

Nokia:

Ora Lassila

Stanford KSL:

Sheila McIlraith*

SRI:

David Martin*

Southampton:
Terry Payne*

USC
-
ISI:

Jerry Hobbs

Yale:

Drew McDermott

*
Contributed to these slides


David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Outline

Motivation & Goals


DAML
-
S technical overview

Profile, Process & Grounding ontologies

Achievements to date

Releases, tools & applications

Challenges

Next Steps


David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Convergence on Services


Commercial vendors, media, forecasters, etc.


Intra
nets, not just
inter
nets


W3C Web services efforts


Semantic Web community


DAML
-
S; WSMF & other EU efforts


ISWC: 10 services
-
related papers, 7 posters


Grid computing (OGSA)


Ubiquitous computing (devices)


Mobile access to services



A remarkable opportunity


Bringing behavioral intelligence to the Web


David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

What is DAML?


A DARPA program


An input to the W3C Semantic Web activity


Draft for the Web Ontology working group


A markup language

www.daml.org

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Characteristics of DAML


Based on XML & RDF(S)


Beyond RDF: properties of properties, equivalence and
disjointness of classes, more constraints, etc.

Feature comparison:
https://www.daml.org/language/features.html


Layered approach

XML => RDF(S) => DAML+OIL => (DAML
-
L) => DAML
-
S


Semantics for Web resources from Knowledge
Representation concepts


DAML+OIL: can be regarded as a description logic


Ontologies


Logical rules & inference


DAML
-
S: Extension to Services



David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

What is DAML
-
S?





D
ARPA
A
gent
M
arkup
L
anguage for
S
ervices





A DAML+OIL ontology/language

for (formally)
describing properties and capabilities of Web services




An approach that draws on many sources



Description logic



AI planning



Workflow



Formal process modeling



Agents



Web services


http://www.daml.org/services/


David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Layered Approach to Language Development


DAML
-
???
(Rules, FOL?)


XML
(Extensible Markup Language)


RDF
(Resource Description Framework)



RDFS
(RDF Schema)


DAML+OIL


佗L

(Ontology)


DAML
-
S
(Services)

DAML
-
S: a major application of DAML+OIL

Future versions will build upon emerging layers


(e.g. DAML
-
Rules)


David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

DAML
-
S Objectives

Automation of service use by software agents

Ideal: full
-
fledged use of services never before
encountered:

discovery, selection, composition, invocation, monitoring

Useful in the “real world”

Compatible with industry standards

Incremental exploitation

Enable reasoning/planning about services

e.g., On
-
the
-
fly composition

Integrated use with information resources

Ease of use; powerful tools



David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Automation Enabled by DAML
-
S




Web service
discovery


Find me a shipping service that transports goods to Dubai.




Web service
invocation


Buy me 500 lbs. powdered milk from www.acmemoo.com





Web service
selection

&
composition



Arrange food for 500 people for 2 weeks in Dubai.




Web service
execution monitoring


Has the powdered milk been ordered and paid for yet?


David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Upper Ontology of Services

Ontology images compliments of Terry Payne,

University of Southampton

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

High
-
level characterization/summary of a service

Used for


Populating service registries


A service can have many profiles


Automated service discovery


Service selection (matchmaking)

One can derive:


Service advertisements


Service requests


Service Profile:

“What does it do?”

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Service Profile

Non Functional Properties

Functionality
Description

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Service Profile: Capability Description


Specification of what the service provides


High
-
level functional representation in terms of:



preconditions


inputs



(conditional) outputs


(conditional) effects

Summarizes

the top
-
level Process
(described by Service Model)

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Service Profile: Functional Attributes


geographical scope


Pizza Delivery only within the
Pittsburgh area


quality descriptions and
guarantees


Stock quotes delivered within
10 secs


service types, service
categories


Commercial / Problem Solving
etc


service parameters


Average Response time is
currently ...

Provide supporting information about the
service, including:

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002


Class
-
hierarchical yellow pages


Implicit capability characterization


Arrangement of attributes on class hierarchy


Can use multiple inheritance


Process summaries for planning purposes


More explicit


Inputs, outputs, preconditions, effects


Less reliance on formal hierarchical organization


Summarizes process model specs


Service Profile:

Styles of use

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Exploiting Taxonomies of Services

ServiceProfile

ProductProviding

Service

Manufacturing

Transportation

ActionService

InfoService

PhysicalProduct

Service

Repair

Information

Product+

physicalProduct+

manufacturer+

deliveryRegion*

deliveryProvider*

deliveryType

Physical_

Product+


transportationMode+

geographicRegion+


physicalProduct+

Tie in with UDDI, UNSPSC, …

DL Basis for matchmaking

Multiple profiles; multiple taxonomies

name

provider

role+

avgResponseTime?




FeeBased

feeBasis+

paymentMethod+

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Upper Ontology of Services

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Service Model

“How does it work?”


Process


Interpretable description of service provider’s behavior


Tells service user how and when to interact (read/write messages)

& Process control


Ontology of process state; supports status queries


(stubbed out at present)


Used for:


Service
invocation, planning/composition
,
interoperation
,
monitoring



All processes have


Inputs, outputs, preconditions and effects


Function/dataflow metaphor; action/process metaphor


Composite processes


Control flow


Data flow



Process Model:
“How does it work?”

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Service Model / Process Model

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002


Acme Book

Truck Shipment





Function/Dataflow Metaphor

Input:



confirmation no.



...

Output:



failure notification





truck available

+

valid credit card

Y

N

?



customer name



origin



destination



weight



pickup date



...

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

AI
-
inspired Action/Process Metaphor

Input:



confirmation no.



...

Output:



failure notification





truck available

+

valid credit card

Y

N

?

Preconditions:



customer name



origin



destination



pickup date



...



knowledge of


the input



...



goods at location


if successful



credit card debited...

Effect:

Output:

Effect:


<no effect>


Acme Book

Truck Shipment





David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

AcmeTruckShpng



















www.acmeair.com

book flight service







customer name



flight numbers



dates



credit card no.






...



confirmation no.



...



failure notification



errror information





?

www.acmehotel.com

book hotel service







confirmation no.



dates



room type



credit card no.



...



confirmation no.



...



failure notification





?

www.acmecar.com

book car service







customer name



location



car type



dates



credit card no.



...



confirmation no.



...



failure notification





?













Composite Process











































?


































Input &

Preconditions

Output &

Effects



























David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Simple and Composite Processes

truck available

+

valid credit card

Y

N

Confirm Shipping Region

Get Quote

Get Shipping Dates

Book Truck Shipment


Acme

Truck

Shipping

Service





expands

AcmeTruckShpng

ExpandedAcmeTruckShpng

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002


Conditional outputs & effects


Parameter bindings

<rdf:Description rdf:about="#FullCongoBuy">

<sameValues rdf:parseType="daml:collection">


<ValueOf atClass="#FullCongoBuy“


theProperty="#fullCongoBuyBookISBN"/>


<ValueOf atClass="#LocatedBookOutput“


theProperty="outInCatalogBookISBN"/>


<ValueOf atClass="#CongoBuyBook“


theProperty="#congoBuyBookISBN"/>

</sameValues>



Pushing the limits of DAML+OIL expressiveness


Process Model:

Recent evolution

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Upper Ontology of Services

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Service Grounding:
“How to access it”


Implementation
-
specific


Message formatting, transport
mechanisms, protocols, serializations of
types


Service Model + Grounding give everything
needed for using the service


Examples: HTTP forms, SOAP, KQML,
CORBA IDL, OAA ICL, Java RMI


David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

DAML
-
S / WSDL Grounding


Web Services Description Language


Authored by IBM, Ariba, Microsoft


Focus of W3C Web Services Description WG


Commercial momentum


Specifies message syntax accepted/generated
by communication ports


Bindings

to popular message/transport
standards (SOAP, HTTP, MIME)


Abstract “types”; extensibility elements


Complementary

with DAML
-
S

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

DL
-
based Types

WSDL

DAML
-
S

Process Model

Atomic Process

Operation

Message

Inputs / Outputs

Binding to SOAP, HTTP, etc.

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

DAML
-
S / WSDL Grounding (cont’d)

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

daml
-
property

daml
-
s
-
process

inputX

daml
-
property

outputY

Atomic

Process

WSDL

Document

<message …>


<part …>


<message …>


<part …>


<operation …>


<binding …>

DAML
-
S / WSDL Grounding (cont’d)

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Review: Upper Ontology of Services

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Process Model

Grounding

Development … Deployment … Use …

Publication

Simulation

Verification

Discovery

Composition

Key:



Selection



Invocation, Interoperation



Monitoring, Recovery

Profile

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Path of Evolution

Release 0.5 (May 2001)

Initial Profile & Process ontologies

Release 0.6 (December 2001)

Refinements to Profile & Process

Resources ontology

Two approaches to formal semantics

Sycara/Ankolekar, McIlraith/Narayanan

Release 0.7 (October 2002)

DAML
-
S/WSDL Grounding

Profile, Process Model refinements

More complete examples

Towards 1.0

Expressiveness issues; process modeling; industry tie
-
in

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Related Activities

Web site & mailing lists

http://www.daml.org/services/

www
-
ws@w3.org

Users

UMCP (Hendler/Parsia), UMBC (Finin), Manchester (Goble),
CMU (Sadeh), Lockheed
-
Martin, Ultralog, beta
-
reviewers, …

Tools

DAML
-
S publications

WWW10 SW Workshop (2), SWWS, WWW11, Coordination 2002,
AAMAS, ICSW (4), IEEE Computer, IEEE Intel. Systems…

W3C Web services activities

Designated liaison for WS Arch. WG; Katia Sycara

Experiment

Use cases

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Tools and Applications

DAML
-
S is just another DAML+OIL ontology



All the tools & technologies for DAML+OIL are relevant


Some DAML
-
S Specific Tools and Technologies:


Discovery, Matchmaking, Agent Brokering:

CMU, SRI (OAA), Stanford KSL


Automated Web Service Composition:

Stanford KSL, BBN/Yale/Kestrel,






CMU, MIT, Nokia, SRI


DAML
-
S Editor:

Stanford KSL, SRI, CMU (profiles), Manchester


Process Modeling Tools & Reasoning:

SRI, Stanford KSL


Service Enactment /Simulation:
SRI, Stanford KSL


Formal Specification of DAML
-
S Operational/Execution Semantics:


CMU, Stanford KSL, SRI

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Challenges


Finding the “80/20” line


Profiles: relationship with processes


Process modeling: many issues


Variability of public/private aspects of Processes


Extending to offline (sub)processes


Generalizing to multiple roles


Failure, transactions


Where and how to go
beyond

DAML+OIL?


Interface between DL ontology, logical expressions,
algorithm/workflow representation


Connecting with Industry


Showing compelling value


Not promising too much


Providing an incremental path

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Next steps / priorities

Focus on use cases


architecture

Joint committee forming …

Move to OWL

Model information services

Profile: More substantial illustrative taxonomies

Tie in with existing taxonomies where possible (e.g. UNSPSC)

Process Model

Evaluate potential tie
-
in with an existing effort (WSFL?)

Support real
-
world use

Describing and using public WSDL services

Possible collaborations with other SemWeb projects

Demos directed towards Web services community

Tools


DAML
-
S API

David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

(Some) Related Work





Related Industrial Initiatives



UDDI



• ebXML



WSDL



• .Net



XLANG



• Biztalk, e
-
speak, etc

These XML
-
based initiatives are largely complementary to DAML
-
S.

DAML
-
S aims to build on top of these efforts enabling increased
expressiveness, semantics, and inference enabling automation.


Related Academic Efforts



Process Algebras (e.g., Pi Calculus)



Process Specification Language (Hoare Logic, PSL)



Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL)



Business Process Modeling (e.g., BMPL)



OntoWeb Process Modeling Effort


David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Summary

The service paradigm will be a
crucial

part of the
Semantic Web

DAML
-
S supports service descriptions that are
integral

with other Semantic Web meta
-
data

DAML
-
S aims to enable automatic
discovery, selection,
invocation, composition, monitoring

of services

Initial versions of Profile, Process, and Grounding
ontologies are available

Many challenges remain

We’re interested in synergy with related work


http://www.daml.org/services/


David Martin for DAML
-
S Coalition

12/18/2002

Acknowledgements



Slides created by David Martin, Sheila McIlraith, Terry Payne



Ontology images created by Terry Payne, CMU