Managing Small Public

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Nov 18, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Managing Small Public
Water Systems
.

Part B: Source Assessment
and Planning

Source
Assessment and Planning

Overview


Groundwater Sources: well
construction, and measurements


Surface Water Sources:
measuring water levels


Recordkeeping



Best Management Practices
(BMPs) to protect your source


Alternative water sources


Technical resources and
contacts


Source
Assessment and Planning

Overview

Where Does Your Water
Come From?


Groundwater


Surface water


Purchase water systems

Major
Aquifers

Well Basics

Cement

Bentonite


Sand or Gravel

Pump

For visualization only. Not to scale. Follow state rules and
specifications for well construction and pump installation.

Measuring Groundwater
Levels


Determine a permanent
measuring point


Determine the distance to
ground surface


Land Surface

Determine the Distance to
Ground Surface


Your mark is the top corner of a
triangle.


Measure to a point on the ground.
This is one leg of the triangle
(A)
.



Determine the Distance to
Ground
Surface


Now you need to know how far
the point is from the well


A
2

+ B
2

= C
2


3
2

+ 2
2

= 9 + 4 = 13;
√13 =3.6





Groundwater
Measuring Methods


Wetted tape method


Use a weighted steel tape


Chalk the last few feet



Water level indicator tape


Easy to use


Available to rent


Taking Measurements


Measure
from the same point
every time.


Measure three times.


Average the three
measurements.


Subtract the distance to the
ground.


Record results.


Keep Records


Worksheets are provided in the
guide.


Keep track of the date and the
depth to water from ground
level.


Look for changes in water levels.


Gradual or abrupt


Take action if needed


WORKSHEET 1A: GROUNDWATER
MEASUREMENTS USING
GROUNDWATER ELEVATION

Date

(A)

Depth to
Water
from
Measuring
Point

(
ft
)

(B)

Depth to
Water from
Land
Surface

(
ft
)

(C)

Change in
the depth
from last
week (ft)



(D)

Number of
days since
your last
measurement



(E)


Daily
Level
Change

=(C/D)

Example
(week 1):

10/11/12

200

197

Gather 1 week’s data to
compare to depth next week.

Example
(week 2):

10/18/12

198

195

-
2

7

-
0.29

Common Well Problems
and Troubleshooting


Pump cavitation


Pumping sand


Pump lowered in the past
year


Common Well Problems
and Troubleshooting


Reduced daily well
production


Increased pump run times


Increased electricity usage


Common Well

Trouble Shooting


Conduct a
well
test


Determine static water level


Contact the
local Groundwater
Conservation District


Contact a well driller


For visualization only. Not to scale.

Well Test

For visualization only. Not to scale.

Well Test

Initial Response

For visualization only. Not to scale.

Well Test

Drawdown

For visualization only. Not to scale.

Well Test

Drawdown

For visualization only. Not to scale.

Well Test

Drawdown

For visualization only. Not to scale.

Cone of Depression

Pumping Level

Well Test

Static Water Level

Other Remedial Actions


Drought Contingency Plan


Review


Implement


Lower the pump


Consider interconnections


Drill a new well


Surface
Water

Surface Water


Reservoir elevation


TWDB, USGS, local river authority


Intake location


Intake elevation


Can you move your intake
structure
?


What is your critical pumping level?


How Much Surface Water is
Left in my Reservoir?

Intake

Water elevation

Find your intake elevation

1.
Measure the water level over the intake

2.
Look up the
lake’s surface elevation

3.
Calculate the intake elevation


WORKSHEET 3: SURFACE
WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS

Date

(A)

Source
water
elevation
(
ft

msl
)



(B)

Depth to
the
intake
(
ft
)



(C)

Change in
the depth
from last
week (
ft
)



(D)

Number of
days since
your last
measurement



(E)


Daily
Level
Change

=(C/D)

(F)

Estimated
Days
Remaining

=(B/E)

Example
Week 1

10/11/12

200

20

Gather 1 week’s data to compare to depth next
week.

Example
Week 2

10/18/12

199

19

-
1

7

-
0.14

136

Protecting Your Source

Best Management Practices


Water
-
loss
audits


Public participation


Water
-
wise project


TWDB resources


Flush mains
wisely

Protecting Your Source

Best Management Practices


DCP diligence


Update it regularly


Implement when needed


Pump maintenance


Communicate with your
provider


Keep in touch with TCEQ


Planning for
Alternative Sources

Alternative Water
Sources


Water Supply Options


Funding


Technical
Resources


Open
Discussion


Water Supply Options


Interconnections


Emergency wells


Hauling water


Reclaimed water


Desalination

Interconnections


Capacity issues
-

your system and
the seller


Pressure


Cost


Rate
Increases,
Surcharges,
Funding


Interconnections

TCEQ approval process:


Contact your regional office
before beginning
construction
.


You will receive notice of
approval to construct
.


Interconnections

TCEQ emergency interconnection
approval process:


Submit plans and specifications
within 30 days of approval to
construct
.


A general fact sheet can be
found on the TCEQ website
.


Interconnections

http://www.tceq.texas.gov/assets/public/age
ncy/emergency_interconnection.pdf

Emergency Wells

Steps for Constructing
Emergency Wells


First contact your regional TCEQ
office
.


The regional office determines if the
Emergency Well Authorization
request is sent to the plan review
team
.


The plan review team sends out the
approval letters and authorizes
construction only
.


Emergency Wells


Plans and s
pecs
process still applies


Construction must begin and plans
and specs must be received within
30 days of approval


Texas Water Development Board
Resources


Groundwater availability reports
.


Hauling Water

Hauling Water


Where will the water come from?


Who will haul the water?


Is the hauler licensed by the TCEQ
?

Hauling Water

Hauling Water



Hauling treated water versus raw
water?


If hauling raw
water,
can you treat
it?


Is your current system capable of
treating raw water from an
alternative source?


Cost


Using Reclaimed Water


May be used as part of a
conservation plan


Irrigation
.


Industrial uses
.


30 TAC Chapter 210 rules apply.



Requires pilot study for a year,
plans, specs, funding...

Using Reclaimed Water

Wastewater used for drinking
water
.


Permitting
.


Public Perception
.


Plan Now
.


Desalination


Treatment option for
brackish groundwater


Pilot
Projects


Seawater


Costs

Funding Resources


Privately owned utilities


Normally not eligible for grants


Can be sponsored by local
government in some cases


Temporary vs. permanent
solutions


Some require Asset
Management

Funding Resources


Texas Water Development Board
(TWDB)


Loans and Grants for water related
infrastructure construction and
improvement


Contact Information:


Financial_Assistance@twdb.texas.gov


512.463.7853

Funding Resources


Texas Department of Agriculture (TDA)


Community Development Block Grants


Disaster Relief Fund


Contact:


Tom.Entsminger@TexasAgriculture.gov


512.936.7891


Funding Resources

Texas Water Infrastructure
Coordinating Committee (TWICC
)



Complete a Project Profile form


Contact:

Stacy.Barna@twdb.texas.gov

512.463.7870

http://www.twicc.org
/


Technical Resources

TCEQ
EnviroMentor

Program


Available to small businesses
and small local governments


Volunteer professionals


Technical Resources

TCEQ Financial, Managerial, and
Technical Assistance Program
(FMT)



Contact:


Stacy.Foster@tceq.texas.gov


512.239.3105


Technical Resources

Drought Contingency Planning


Review and update plan every
5 years

(or
as needed
)


Notify TCEQ when stages are
initiated


Templates available
.


Contact: 512.239.4691


Technical Resources


Water Rights


Alternative Source of Surface
Water


Changing a permitted diversion
point


Contact:

wras@tceq.texas.gov

512.239.4691

Source
Assessment and Planning

Review


Groundwater
and surface water
sources


Measuring and recordkeeping


Best
Management Practices
(
BMPs)


A
lternative
water sources


Technical resources and contacts



Source Assessment
and Planning


Questions