# Managing Small Public

Management

Nov 18, 2013 (4 years and 7 months ago)

94 views

Managing Small Public
Water Systems
.

Part B: Source Assessment
and Planning

Source
Assessment and Planning

Overview

Groundwater Sources: well
construction, and measurements

Surface Water Sources:
measuring water levels

Recordkeeping

Best Management Practices

Alternative water sources

Technical resources and
contacts

Source
Assessment and Planning

Overview

Come From?

Groundwater

Surface water

Purchase water systems

Major
Aquifers

Well Basics

Cement

Bentonite

Sand or Gravel

Pump

For visualization only. Not to scale. Follow state rules and
specifications for well construction and pump installation.

Measuring Groundwater
Levels

Determine a permanent
measuring point

Determine the distance to
ground surface

Land Surface

Determine the Distance to
Ground Surface

Your mark is the top corner of a
triangle.

Measure to a point on the ground.
This is one leg of the triangle
(A)
.

Determine the Distance to
Ground
Surface

Now you need to know how far
the point is from the well

A
2

+ B
2

= C
2

3
2

+ 2
2

= 9 + 4 = 13;
√13 =3.6

Groundwater
Measuring Methods

Wetted tape method

Use a weighted steel tape

Chalk the last few feet

Water level indicator tape

Easy to use

Available to rent

Taking Measurements

Measure
from the same point
every time.

Measure three times.

Average the three
measurements.

Subtract the distance to the
ground.

Record results.

Keep Records

Worksheets are provided in the
guide.

Keep track of the date and the
depth to water from ground
level.

Look for changes in water levels.

Take action if needed

WORKSHEET 1A: GROUNDWATER
MEASUREMENTS USING
GROUNDWATER ELEVATION

Date

(A)

Depth to
Water
from
Measuring
Point

(
ft
)

(B)

Depth to
Water from
Land
Surface

(
ft
)

(C)

Change in
the depth
from last
week (ft)

(D)

Number of
days since
measurement

(E)

Daily
Level
Change

=(C/D)

Example
(week 1):

10/11/12

200

197

Gather 1 week’s data to
compare to depth next week.

Example
(week 2):

10/18/12

198

195

-
2

7

-
0.29

Common Well Problems
and Troubleshooting

Pump cavitation

Pumping sand

Pump lowered in the past
year

Common Well Problems
and Troubleshooting

Reduced daily well
production

Increased pump run times

Increased electricity usage

Common Well

Trouble Shooting

Conduct a
well
test

Determine static water level

Contact the
local Groundwater
Conservation District

Contact a well driller

For visualization only. Not to scale.

Well Test

For visualization only. Not to scale.

Well Test

Initial Response

For visualization only. Not to scale.

Well Test

Drawdown

For visualization only. Not to scale.

Well Test

Drawdown

For visualization only. Not to scale.

Well Test

Drawdown

For visualization only. Not to scale.

Cone of Depression

Pumping Level

Well Test

Static Water Level

Other Remedial Actions

Drought Contingency Plan

Review

Implement

Lower the pump

Consider interconnections

Drill a new well

Surface
Water

Surface Water

Reservoir elevation

TWDB, USGS, local river authority

Intake location

Intake elevation

structure
?

What is your critical pumping level?

How Much Surface Water is
Left in my Reservoir?

Intake

Water elevation

1.
Measure the water level over the intake

2.
Look up the
lake’s surface elevation

3.
Calculate the intake elevation

WORKSHEET 3: SURFACE
WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS

Date

(A)

Source
water
elevation
(
ft

msl
)

(B)

Depth to
the
intake
(
ft
)

(C)

Change in
the depth
from last
week (
ft
)

(D)

Number of
days since
measurement

(E)

Daily
Level
Change

=(C/D)

(F)

Estimated
Days
Remaining

=(B/E)

Example
Week 1

10/11/12

200

20

Gather 1 week’s data to compare to depth next
week.

Example
Week 2

10/18/12

199

19

-
1

7

-
0.14

136

Best Management Practices

Water
-
loss
audits

Public participation

Water
-
wise project

TWDB resources

Flush mains
wisely

Best Management Practices

DCP diligence

Update it regularly

Implement when needed

Pump maintenance

Communicate with your
provider

Keep in touch with TCEQ

Planning for
Alternative Sources

Alternative Water
Sources

Water Supply Options

Funding

Technical
Resources

Open
Discussion

Water Supply Options

Interconnections

Emergency wells

Hauling water

Reclaimed water

Desalination

Interconnections

Capacity issues
-

the seller

Pressure

Cost

Rate
Increases,
Surcharges,
Funding

Interconnections

TCEQ approval process:

before beginning
construction
.

approval to construct
.

Interconnections

TCEQ emergency interconnection
approval process:

Submit plans and specifications
within 30 days of approval to
construct
.

A general fact sheet can be
found on the TCEQ website
.

Interconnections

http://www.tceq.texas.gov/assets/public/age
ncy/emergency_interconnection.pdf

Emergency Wells

Steps for Constructing
Emergency Wells

office
.

The regional office determines if the
Emergency Well Authorization
request is sent to the plan review
team
.

The plan review team sends out the
approval letters and authorizes
construction only
.

Emergency Wells

Plans and s
pecs
process still applies

Construction must begin and plans
and specs must be received within
30 days of approval

Texas Water Development Board
Resources

Groundwater availability reports
.

Hauling Water

Hauling Water

Where will the water come from?

Who will haul the water?

Is the hauler licensed by the TCEQ
?

Hauling Water

Hauling Water

Hauling treated water versus raw
water?

If hauling raw
water,
can you treat
it?

Is your current system capable of
treating raw water from an
alternative source?

Cost

Using Reclaimed Water

May be used as part of a
conservation plan

Irrigation
.

Industrial uses
.

30 TAC Chapter 210 rules apply.

Requires pilot study for a year,
plans, specs, funding...

Using Reclaimed Water

Wastewater used for drinking
water
.

Permitting
.

Public Perception
.

Plan Now
.

Desalination

Treatment option for
brackish groundwater

Pilot
Projects

Seawater

Costs

Funding Resources

Privately owned utilities

Normally not eligible for grants

government in some cases

Temporary vs. permanent
solutions

Some require Asset
Management

Funding Resources

Texas Water Development Board
(TWDB)

Loans and Grants for water related
infrastructure construction and
improvement

Contact Information:

Financial_Assistance@twdb.texas.gov

512.463.7853

Funding Resources

Texas Department of Agriculture (TDA)

Community Development Block Grants

Disaster Relief Fund

Contact:

Tom.Entsminger@TexasAgriculture.gov

512.936.7891

Funding Resources

Texas Water Infrastructure
Coordinating Committee (TWICC
)

Complete a Project Profile form

Contact:

Stacy.Barna@twdb.texas.gov

512.463.7870

http://www.twicc.org
/

Technical Resources

TCEQ
EnviroMentor

Program

and small local governments

Volunteer professionals

Technical Resources

TCEQ Financial, Managerial, and
Technical Assistance Program
(FMT)

Contact:

Stacy.Foster@tceq.texas.gov

512.239.3105

Technical Resources

Drought Contingency Planning

Review and update plan every
5 years

(or
as needed
)

Notify TCEQ when stages are
initiated

Templates available
.

Contact: 512.239.4691

Technical Resources

Water Rights

Alternative Source of Surface
Water

Changing a permitted diversion
point

Contact:

wras@tceq.texas.gov

512.239.4691

Source
Assessment and Planning

Review

Groundwater
and surface water
sources

Measuring and recordkeeping

Best
Management Practices
(
BMPs)

A
lternative
water sources

Technical resources and contacts

Source Assessment
and Planning

Questions