Quick and Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial:

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1
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
1/18/2011

Version: 1.00

Copyright © 2011 MontanaPBS
/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


Quick and Easy
Fedora
1

Linux

Installation
Tutorial
:

By Mike Hansen


The goal of this tutorial is to get Linux up and running. This tutorial presupposes that you have an
Internet connection, a DVD Burner that can write from an ISO file, and a machine available to install to.
(I would recommend a minimum of a machine
or VM
2

with 512MB RAM and 40GB of disk space.)
A
Linux or Unix background is not required, but helps. A basic knowledge of working with Mac OSX or
Windows is required to get and ISO image downloaded and for creating the installation media.

This basic
knowledge of

working with a windowing Operating System will also be needed to install and operate
Linux.

These installation instructions are a snapshot in time, but should not change too much to where
the instructions are completely useless.

Contents:

Heading

Page

Get the Fedora Installation Media

2

Boot up the Installation Media

3

First Boot Configuration Tasks

11

First
Login and Initial Setup Options

14

SELinux Security Tool

21

Setting up Windows SMB
file sharing access using Samba

22

Setting up Apache’s web

server on your Linux box

29







1

Names of all products
herein are used only to identify products and the names are the trademarks of their
respective owners. MontanaPBS makes no claim of ownership or association with the products or companies that
own them.

Copyright © 2011 by MontanaBPS/

Michael Hansen.


Mont
anaPBS

Montana State University

VCB 183


P.O. Box 173340

Bozeman, MT 59717
-
3340 USA

Phone: +1.406.994.3437

Fax: +1.406.994.6545

URL: http://www.montanapbs.org


2

A great way to test Linux is to install it as a VM on your current desktop. I have tested Linux as a VM on VMware’s
VMware and Oracle’s VirtualBox. Both have free versions that you can download and install on your current
desktop for testing. Oracle’s Vir
tualBox can be found at
http://virtualbox.org
, and VMware can be downloaded
from
http://
VMware
.com
.


2
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
1/18/2011

Version: 1.00

Copyright © 2011 MontanaPBS
/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


Get the Fedora Installation Media:

The first step is to acquire the Fedora installation media.

The easiest way is to install Fedora from an
insta
llation DVD
3
.
To download, go to the Fedora Project web site
:

http://fedoraproject.org
, click on the
“Download” link, then under the “Other Options” heading, and then click on the “Formats” link. Down
under the “Fedora 14 DVD” heading there will be a link “Download Now!
4
?_??(?}?Œ?????ï?X?í'??/^K??]?u???P
e.

Depending on where you are installing Fedora, you may need a physical DVD or you can use a virtual
DVD.



Physical DVD


If you need to install with the DVD, take the downloaded

file
and
use your DVD
recording software
5

to create a bootable CD from the ISO Image. The option will be named
something like “Write Image.” If you select “Data Disc”

and

copy the ISO image file t
o your DVD,
it won’t be a bootable installation disc.

(I usually pick a slower speed for burning the
image to
the DVD to make sure it writes correctly.)



Virtual DVD


If you are using VirtualBox or
VMware
, if you copy the ISO image to the machine
that runs the VMs you can setup either to boot up the VMs with the ISO image seen as a boot
device.





3

There are various download options. The most prominent is a “Live Media” CD option where you can boot off the
Live CD and run Fedora without changing anything on your desktop computer and then can install Fedora onto
your hard drive later. (The Fedora Pro
ject people have managed to cram a whole lot of stuff onto a single CD.)

You can also download a set of installation CD’s if you do not have a bootable DVD or a way to burn a DVD, but be
prepared to download 5 CD’s. This option is available, but harder to
find on the Fedora Project web site.

4

I would recommend the 32
-
bit ISO image as it will work with most hardware. The 64
-
bit ISO image requires
newer hardware.

If you click on the “All download methods” link, and then click on the “See all mirrors” link yo
u will see a page
where you can decide for yourself which web site you want to the ISO images from.

5

If you don’t have software for converting an ISO image file to a bootable CD I recommend downloading the
completely free InfraRecorder from
http://infrarecorder.org/
.


3
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
1/18/2011

Version: 1.00

Copyright © 2011 MontanaPBS
/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


Boot up t
he Installation Media:

On
a successful
boot up, you will see the following screen
. By default the first option “Install a new
system or upgrade an existing system” should work, and all you need to do to start is pressing the
“Enter” key.


A lot of stuff
will scroll by as Fedora works on figuring out what hardware is available in the computer
you are running.




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Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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Version: 1.00

Copyright © 2011 MontanaPBS
/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


After going through an initial device discovery

the media testing screen will come up. If you booted of a
physical DVD this would be a good idea,
if you want to skip the test press the tab key and press the
“Enter” key to select and activate the “Skip” button.


The first installation screen will come up. Simply click on the “Next” button to start the installation.





5
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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Version: 1.00

Copyright © 2011 MontanaPBS
/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


Next select the language you w
ant to use during installation and click on the “Next” button.


Next select the appropriate keyboard you have plugged in.


New to this version is an option to make it easier to work with SANs. If you are installing Linux as a VM
on a
VMware

system that s
tores the VM and data stores on a shared SAN. I haven’t spent any time
working with any specialized storage devices. In this tutorial we’ll
stick with the “Basic Storage Devices”
option. Click on the “Next” button.





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Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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Version: 1.00

Copyright © 2011 MontanaPBS
/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


If you are installing on a new hard d
rive you may get a warning that the drive needs to be initialized. This
is your last chance before all data on the drive is wiped out. To let Fedora write to the disk, click on the
“Re
-
initialize all” button.


Next the installation will ask

for the DNS na
me you want to give the Linux server. The default is
localhost.localhost
, but if you have a domain name it some descriptive name that you can put in your
DNS and click on the “Next” button.


After the Linux server name the system will ask for your time
zone.

Click on any of the yellow dots and
select your time

zone

and click on the “Next” button
.





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Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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Version: 1.00

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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


The administration password for the user “root” comes next. This is the administrative password you
will need for all administrative operations such as inst
alling software, running updates, etc. Try a mix of
upper and lower case letters, and
symbols with enough length to be a strong password.


Next the installer will ask for how to partition the drive. The easiest is to se
lect the option “Use all
Space” and
click on the “Review and modify partitioning layout” checkbox before

click
ing the “Next”
button.


By clicking on the “Review and modify partitioning layout” checkbox, i
f you are interested you will see
how your drive is to be partitioned before clicking o
n the “Next” button.





8
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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Version: 1.00

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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


A confirmation dialog box will come up asking if you really want
to format the disk or not. Click on the
“Format” button to write to the disk.


Afterwards you will get one last warning before the drive is formatted and partitioned

for you. Click on
the “Write Changes to Disk” button to continue.


Next the installer will ask to install a boot loader onto the boot partition. The default settings should
work, so click on the “Next” button to continue.





9
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
1/18/2011

Version: 1.00

Copyright © 2011 MontanaPBS
/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


The last step before the ins
tallation of the OS starts is configuring what packages will be installed. I
would recommend selecting the “Graphical Desktop” and “Customize now” options before clicking on
the “Next” button.


In the OS Package Customization screen
I would recommend the
following selections. Click the “Next”
button when everything is selected.


Main Selections

Sub Sections

Notes:

Desktop Environments

KDE Software Compilation

Select in addition to GNOME

Applications

Default selection


Development

Development Libraries



Development Tools



GNOME Software Development



KDE Software Development



X Software Development


Servers

MySQL Database

Select in addition to defaults


Server Configuration Tools



Web Server



Windows File Server


Base System

System Tools

Select in addition to defaults



10
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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Version: 1.00

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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


The installation of all the OS software and application software packages will start installing. You should
see something like the following:


After the OS and applications are installed

click on the “Reboot” button to reboot the OS and bring up
the OS for the first time.

(Make sure you take out the installation media or tell the computer to not boot
off the ISO installation file.)





11
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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Version: 1.00

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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


First Boot Configuration Tasks:

After a successful in
stallation the “Welcome” screen will come up. Click on the “Forward” button to
continue.


Next up is the “License Information” screen which describes the licensing

included with Fedora Linux
and where to read more about the Fedora license agreement. When
you are done, click on the
“Forward” button again.



12
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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Version: 1.00

Copyright © 2011 MontanaPBS
/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


On the “Create User” screen you need to create an initial user with which you can log into the system.
This will be a non
-
privileged user that will be your default login
6
.

There are network and advanced
settings, but for this tutorial we’ll stick with locally created default settings for creating users.


If you have chosen a poor password, you will get the following dialog allowing you to change the
password for something better.


Next up is the “Date a
nd Time” screen. You can manually configure the date and time to get it correct.







6

This is different than the system administrator user “root” created during the OS installation. Whenever you need
to do administrative tasks, you will be prompted for the “root” user password create
d during installation.


13
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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Version: 1.00

Copyright © 2011 MontanaPBS
/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


If you want to use the default Internet available NTP servers or if you have an NTP server on your
network, click on the “Synchronize date and time over the network”
checkbox to enable network time
synchronization. If you have your own NTP server you can add it here to the list of “NTP Servers” listed.


The last step in the “First Boot Configuration” process is sending your hardware profile back to the
Fedora Project.

Sending your hardware profile helps the Fedora Project know what hardware to support
in the future. Select “Send Profile” or “Do not send profile” and click on the “Finish” button.





14
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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Version: 1.00

Copyright © 2011 MontanaPBS
/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


First Login

and Initial Setup Options
:

The user created previously
during the first boot up is now shown as the default login user.


Click on the user icon, enter the password when prompted and click the “Log In” button.





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Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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Version: 1.00

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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


Once you are logged in, you will probably need to setup IP on your Linux machine. If you are goin
g to use
this machine as a server you will need to setup a static IP Address. From the main pull
-
down “System”
menu, select “Administration” and then select the “Network” option.

(Don’t select the “Network Device
Control” option.)


Each time you use an ad
ministrative application you will be prompted for the “root” user password you
created during the installation of the OS. Type in the password you created earlier and click on the “OK”
button.


If successful, you will see the “Network Configuration” appli
cation come up showing your network
connection. If you have a DHCP server on your network, the status should be Active. If you do not have a
DHCP server on your network, you will see something like the following where the Ethernet device
“eth0” is Inactive
.





16
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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Version: 1.00

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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


To continue, make sure the desired Ethernet interface is highlighted and click on the “Edit button above.
Then update the fields as necessary to configure the network interface.

(Don’t put in these settings as
you will need to get the settings that a
re necessary for your network.) When finished, click on the “OK”
button.


Now switch from the “Devices” tab to the “DNS” tab to setup DNS. Make sure that the hostname, DNS
servers and DNS search paths are correct. (You would think that you would only need

to enter in the
DNS information once in the device area, but it needs to be entered into the “Device” and “DNS” tab
sections.)





17
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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Version: 1.00

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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


The next step is to save the settings.

Select the “Save” option under the “File” menu.


You will get a message that you nee
d to restart the network. Click on the “OK” button to continue.


If everything worked well, the status of your Ethernet connection should change to “Active” and should
be working. If not, repeat the above steps to get the configuration correct.

After
getting the network working, the system should be updated with the latest security patches
.

The
easiest way to update the OS is using the YUM
7

and the easiest way to use

YUM is from the command
-
line. To get to the command
-
line in Fedora, click on the “Appl
ications” menu, select the sub
-
menu
“System Tools” and then click on the “Konsole” or “Terminal” shortcuts. (Either will work.)





7

YUP (Yellowdog Updater) was created for handling updates for Yellow Dog Linux. The department of Physics at
Duke University completely re
-
wrote YUP to handle updates for their Red Hat Linux systems and named it
Yellowdog Updater, M
odified (YUM). YUM is the preferred update mechanism for Red Hat, Fedora CentOS and
many other RPM
-
based Linux distributions. Even Yellow Dog Linux has switched from YUP to YUM.


18
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


Once at the command
-
line the first step is to run as administrator. To do this, run the “su” command
and put in the “root” use
r password.

If you are successful in putting in the password the prompt will
change from [user@linuxbox… to “[root@linuxbox… as shown below.


Now as administrator run the YUM command to download the OS updates.

The first time it will take a
while to download the current database of updates. The command to use is: yum update


The first time that YUM is run

it will find a LOT of updates.

After a whole bunch of stuff scrolls down your
screen you will get a summary

of how many updates and installations.
In this initial run of yum
878 MB
of updates are required to update the OS and all applications.





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Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


Click on the “Y” key and press enter. You will see as files are downloaded.


The first time you run yum on a new m
achine it will ask you to import the encryption key that verifies
the source as being valid. Click on “Y” key and click on the “Enter” key. (The screenshot text below
doesn’t really show it well, but I clicked on the “Y” and the “Enter” key…)





20
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


YUM will

then start updating those modules that need updating and installing any new required
modules. (This entire operation can take a while to run!)


When YUM finishes you will get a screen like the following.


It would be a good idea to reboot the machine af
ter loading lots of updates. To reboot the machine and
load the updates, click on the “System” menu and then select the “Shut Down…” option.





2
1
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
1/18/2011

Version: 1.00

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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


A pop
-
up menu will come up where you can then click on the “Restart” button to get the updates to
take affect.


Running YUM on a regular basis is recommended for all updates and security fixes.

SELinux Security Tool:

An important part of any installation on Fedora is a discussion of SELinux. SELinux stands for “Security
-
Enhanced Linux” and is a security tool that
is included with Fedora, Red Hat, and many

other Linux
distributions. SELinux is a security system

integrated into the OS kernel

where applications are allowed
access to only
those resources

the designers of the application

intended.

The goal being that a rogue
application will not be able to bypass security of other applications by reading or writing in places not
allowed by
the SELinux
Mandatory Access Controls (or MAC for short).

SELinux is a good security tool that has been evolvi
ng and getting easier to use. In previous versions of
Fedora, it was easier to disable
SELinux

than try to get some applications to work. The continuing caveat
of using SELinux is that changing the default configuration for applications not directly suppor
ted by the
Fedora Project can be a daunting prospect.

If SELinux

is running, it will need to be modified so that various applications can operate such as Samba’s
file sharing.

The example given below for setting up Samba’s SMB file sharing also includes the SELinux
configuration step needed to get Samba working.




22
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


Setting up Windows SMB
file sharing
access using Samba:

Samba is already installed and ready for configuration. In
configuring Samba the first step is to bring up
the Samba configuration tool. Go to the main “System” menu, then the “Administration” sub
-
menu and
select the “Samba” option.


Then because configuring Samba requires administrative privileges, you will be p
rompted for the “root”
user password. Enter the “root” user password and click on the “Authenticate” button.


Now with the Samba configuration tool up, click on the “Preferences” menu and select the “Server
Settings…” option.



23
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


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Version: 1.00

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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


I would recommend changing
the domain to the same name as your local domain or workgroup. Leave
the “Security” tab fields to the default “User” Authentication Mode with no guest account.


Next add Linux users as Samba users by clicking on the “Samba Users…” option under the “Prefer
ences”
menu.


Click on the “Add User” button, and then in the “Create New Samba User” pop
-
up, select one a Linux
user you have previously created, put in the equivalent Windows login, and Windows password. When
finished, click on the “OK” button. Add othe
r users as needed and then click on the “OK” button when
finished adding users.





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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


Next to create a

share, click on the

“Add Share” button to create a Samba Share.

Enter in the
following settings for the purpose of this tutorial. Click on the “Access” t
ab when finished.



In the “Access” tab, grant rights to the individual

you added before and click on the “OK” button to finish
adding the share. Other shares can be added as needed.


Changes do not take effect until the Samba process is started or
restarted. To start Sam
ba, bring up the
services tool by selecting “Administration” from the main “System” menu and then “Services” option.





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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


Scroll down until you see “smb” as one of the services. There are two indicators for each service. The
first is
the red or green button indicating whether the service will auto
-
start with the OS on boot up.

The
next icon shows whether the service is running or not. Click on the “Enable” button above while the
“smb” service is selected to get the “smb” service to aut
o
-
start with the OS. Click on the “Start” or
“Restart” button as needed
.


The last step in configuring Samba is to open the firewall to allow Samba requests in.

From the “System”
menu, select the “Administration”
sub
-
menu, and then select the “Firewall” o
ption.


Scroll down and check the options for “Samba” and “Samba Client” and then click on the “Apply” button
to enable Samba communications…



26
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


You will be asked to confirm whether you really want to do this and because we do, click on the “Yes”
button.


Now if you go to a Windows machine, bring up Windows explorer
, put in double back
-
slashes and the IP
Address of your Linux machine and you should see two shares. The first is the home directory that is
created for each individual user. The other is the sh
are we setup earlier.


Now, if you wanted to copy a file to the “opt” share, you would find that you do not have enough rights.
There are two ways to handle this. One is to open it to everyone or add a particular user to a directory
and grant that user al
l rights.

Option 1


Open it up for everyone: Open a command
-
line console prompt as before and authenticate
as root using the “su” command.
The next explanations go with what was typed at the console prompt:

The “cd

/opt
” command is used to change to the

/opt directory.

The “ls


ash1l


.” command lists the current directory and the “ash1l” parameters display the size, user
and group owners, timestamp, and security of the object.

Running the “ls” command again after running
the chmod command as before sho
ws that the chmod command worked as expected.

The “chmod ugo+rwx .” command opens up
r
ead/
w
rite/e
x
ecute (rwx) rights to
u
sers/
g
roup
owner/
o
thers (ugo). The “+” symbol tells chmod to add rwx to the user type objects. The “.” tells the
chmod

command to work in the current directory only.



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Option 2


Open it up for a single user: Open a command
-
line prompt as before and authenticate as root
using the “su”command.

The “cd /opt” command is used to change to the /opt directory.

The “ls

ash1l

.” command lists the current directory and the “ash1l” parameters display the size, user
and group owners, timestamp, and security of the object.

Running the “ls” command again
after running
the
chown and
chmod command
s

as before shows that the command
s

worked as expected.

The “chown mike:mike .” command mo
difies the user and group ownership to mike. (Whenever a user
is created, there is also a group with the same name created.)

The “chmod u+rwx .” command opens up
r
ead/
w
rite/e
x
ecute (rwx) rights to
u
ser (u) mike only
. The
“+” symbol tells chmod to add rwx to the user object. The “.” tells the chmod command to work in the
current directory only.





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. All rights reserved.


The last step to get Sam
ba working is to configure SELinux to allow Samba to operate. From the
“System”
menu, select the “Administration” sub
-
menu and then click on the “SELinux Management”
option.


In the “SELinux Administration” application, select the “Boolean” area and then scroll down to the
“Samba” modules and click on the “Allow Samba to share any fi
le/directory read/write” option. Now if
you pull up Windows Explorer

put in the path to access the Samba share, you will be able to create
and/or copy files as with any share.





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/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


Setting up
Apache’s web server on your Linux box
:

By default, Apache’s web s
erver will come right up without any need for configuration, but
there are
some options that ought to be setupair
. To open the

Apache configuration, select the “System” menu,
click on the “Administration” sub
-
menu, click on the “Server Settings” sub
-
menu,
and then click on the
“HTTP” option.


Put in the DNS URL of your Linux box in the “Server Name:” field, and the e
-
mail address of the system
administrator for your Linux box.





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You should not have to change anything else, but it would be a good idea to
look at the configuration for
the “Default Virtual Host” that comes with Apache. Click on the “Virtual Hosts” tab, and then click on the
“Edit” button.


In the “General Options” tab you will see that the e
-
mail address here also needs to be changed to

the

administrator of this particular web site. The other interesting thing is the “Document Root Directory”
field shown. We’ll add this as a Samba share so that from a Windows machine you can edit your web
documents. Click on the “OK” button in the “Virtual H
ost Properties” screen and then on the “OK”
button in the “HTTP Server Configuration” application screen. When asked if you want to save the
settings change, click on the “OK” button again.





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To setup the Apache document root directory as sharable
, bring

up the Samba configuration tool again,
click on the “Add Samba Share” button and fill in the fields as shown below.


Give access to all those who need access to this share. Click on the “OK” button to create the share.


You will now see the new web docu
ment root directory as a share in the list.


Now to have the share become active, bring up the Services configuration tool as before, scroll down to
the “smb” service, select it, and then click on the “Restart” button to restart Samba.





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Copyright © 2011 MontanaPBS
/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


While still in
the Services configuration tool, scroll up to “htppd” service, which is the Apache web server
service and select it. Click on the “Enable” button to enable the service to start automatically

on system
reboots. Then click on the “Start” button to start the
web service.


To give rights to the /var/www/html/ directory

to a single user
, open up the command prompt, login as
root and do the following commands following the same template as given in the Samba section. Use
the “cd” command to change to the /var/ww
w/html/ directory. Use the “chown” application to change
the user and group ownership to the user who will be working in this directory. Use the “chmod”
application to make sure that the user owner of this directory can read/write/execute in this directory
.

Lastly, use the “ls” command to verify that the ownership and rights to the directory are as expected.


Or if multiple people need access to the same directory, use the following commands to open up the
rights for all users who can access the Samba shar
e. Use the “cd” command to change to the
/var/www/html/ directory. Use the “chmod” application to make sure that all users
(
u
sers/
g
roup/
o
thers) can read/write/execute rights in this directory.





33
Quick & Easy Fedora Linux Installation Tutorial


Published:
1/18/2011

Version: 1.00

Copyright © 2011 MontanaPBS
/Michael Hansen
. All rights reserved.


With the Apache web server running, the firewall needs to b
e setup to allow requests to come in from
other machines. Open up the Firewall configuration tool as

we did before and scroll down to the “WWW
(HTTP)” service and select it. If you are going to be using https, also select the “Secure WWW (HTTPS)”
service a
lso. Only select the “https” service if you are going to use it. With all the necessary services
selected, click on the “Apply” button to enable the web server.


If everything worked right, you should now be able to bring up the default “Apache” web serve
r page.


To access the Apache document share directory from Windows explorer, bring up Windows Explorer
and put in
\
\
YourLinux
IP
\
www
\

in the address bar. By default there are no files in the directory. Create
and edit files in the document directory to setup your own web pages.