Linux Bible 8th Edition Website

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Dec 9, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Linux

Bible

8th

Edition

Website

This
document
acts as a companion to the
Linux Bible
,
8th Edition
.
In
this
document
, you will find links to Linux distributions and additional information that
relates to content in the book. Revisit
the web
site
from which y
ou downloaded this
document
from time
-
to
-
time. The authors expect to add content to answer questions
that arise about the book and to make corrections to the book or the exercises it
contains.

Finding

Linux

Distributions

Because Linux rarely comes preinsta
lled on a computer, you must typically
download a Linux distribution from the Internet before you can start using Linux.
This section contains links to Linux distributions you can use with the book, as well
as to other Linux distributions that may interest

you.

Once you have chosen and downloaded the Linux distribution image (usually
a CD, DVD, or USB image), you can burn the image to the appropriate physical
medium using the instructions included in Appendix A of
Linux Bible, 8th Edition
.

Getting

Linux

dis
tributions

for

use

with

the

Linux

Bible,

8th

Edition

The
Linux Bible, 8th Edition

uses Fedora 16 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
for most of the demonstrations and exercises in the book. Using later versions of
Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux should wor
k for most cases as well.

Using Ubuntu to follow along with the book will not work consistently. The
most common differences relate to package names and packaging tools, as well as
techniques for managing services. On occasion, configuration files will ha
ve
different names.

Follow the links below to download the Linux distributions that work with the
book:



Fedora

With few exceptions, almost all of the descriptions and exercises
in the book will work on the Fedora Linux distribution. You can get the
latest
version of Fedora here:


http://fedoraproject.org/get
-
fedora


In particular, the Fedora 16 Live CD was used to test most of the book. Click
the following link to get the 64
-
bit version of the Fedora 16 Li
ve CD:

http://mirrors.se.eu.kernel.org/fedora/releases/16/Live/x86_64/Fedora
-
16
-
x86_64
-
Live
-
Desktop.iso


If you have a 32
-
bit computer, you can

download the Fedora 16 Live CD
from this link:

http://mirrors.se.eu.kernel.org/fedora/releases/16/Live/i686/Fedora
-
16
-
i686
-
Live
-
Desktop.iso




Red H
at Enterprise Linux

If you are a customer of Red Hat Inc., you
can use the Red Hat Customer portal to download any release of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux you choose from this location:


https://access.redhat
.com/downloads



If you are not a customer, you can get a trial version by clicking on the
following link and filling out the information requested:


https://www.redhat.c
om/products/enterprise
-
linux/server/download.html


Those sections of the book that specifically refer to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
were tested against Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 (usually 6.1 or 6.2).



Ubuntu

If you want to use Ubuntu to work through example
s in the
book, you can download the latest version of Ubuntu from the following
link. (Be sure to choose either the 32
-
bit or 64
-
bit version to match your
computer hardware):

http://www.ubuntu.c
om/download/ubuntu/download


NOTE:

If you choose to use Ubuntu, some of the examples and exercises
described in the book may NOT work as illustrated.

The descriptions from the book will match better if you install the GNOME 3
desktop software packages an
d choose GNOME 3 as the default desktop
environment on your Ubuntu system.

Getting

other

Linux

distributions

In previous editions of the
Linux Bible
, we described many different Linux
distributions. While this made the book’s coverage very wide, it did not

make it very
deep. For that reason, we decided to focus this edition primarily on Fedora and Red
Hat Enterprise Linux (which are very similar) and touch on Ubuntu (which gives you
a flavor of how such things as software packaging and service management ca
n be
done on different Linux distributions).

That said, you still may be interested in exploring different Linux
distributions for different reasons. This section includes a list of some other popular
Linux distributions, along with links for obtaining tho
se distributions.

Debian

GNU/Linux

Debian offers thoroughly tested Linux operating system releases that many
Linux consultants and experts use because of Debian’s excellent software packaging
and stability. Many other popular Linux distributions, such as U
buntu, Linux Mint,
KNOPPIX and Damn Small Linux, are all based on Debian. You can download
Debian GNU/Linux from here:

http://www.debian.org/distrib/

KNOPPIX

Linux

KNOPPIX was one of the first popular live CD
Linux distributions and offers
some unique features that set it apart from other bootable Linux distributions. It was
one of the first live CD Linux systems to work immediately with a large number of
video cards and network interfaces. Features in KNOPPIX
also made it easy to save
your data to alternate media (such as a USB drive), making your KNOPPIX sessions
persistent across reboots. You can get KNOPPIX from the following website:

http://knoppix.net/get.php

Slac
kware

Linux

Slackware is the oldest surviving Linux system and continues to have a loyal
following among Linux enthusiasts. One of Slackware’s goals was simplicity.
Instead of having a lot of fancy packaging facilities and slick graphical interfaces,
Slack
ware provides more opportunities for learning the basic commands for things
such as configuring disks, managing users, and managing services. You can get
Slackware here:

http://slackware.com/getslack/

AntiX

L
inux

AntiX is a lightweight, desktop
-
oriented Live CD that is suitable for older,
less powerful computers. It can run on machines with as little as 64MB of RAM
(although 128MB is recommended). AntiX is based on MEPIS
(
h
ttp://www.mepis.org/
). You can get AntiX here:

http://sourceforge.net/projects/antix
-
linux/files/

BackTrack

Linux

Security

Suite

BackTrack is a Live CD that contains a set of tools for tes
ting, repairing, and
otherwise securing Linux systems, Windows systems, and networks. You can
download Backtrack from this location:

http://www.backtrack
-
linux.org/downloads/

Gentoo

Linux

Gentoo is
a highly tunable Linux distribution. You can start Gentoo with pre
-
built live media or installation media, just as you can with other Linux distributions.
However, Gentoo also gives you the option of building the entire operating system
from scratch, compi
ling the source code into binaries that exactly suit the processors
and other hardware features of your computer. You can get Gentoo in various forms
from this site:

http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/where
.xml

PCLinuxOS

PCLinuxOS is a popular desktop Linux distribution. PCLinuxOS makes it
easy to get support for common multimedia content that isn’t always so easy to find
with other Linux distributions. There is a KDE
-
based PCLinuxOS system. However,
PCLinu
xOS also provides excellent light
-
weight desktops you can download that
feature Xfce and LXDE graphical desktop environments. You can get PCLinuxOS
from the following site:

http://www.pclinuxos.com/?page_
id=10

Inside

Security

Rescue

Toolkit

Inside Security Rescue Toolkit (INSERT) is a small, bootable Linux
distribution that contains a variety of useful tools for checking, repairing, and
recovering computers and networks. INSERT is small enough to fit on a

bootable
business card CD or mini
-
CD. Although many of its tools are text
-
based, INSERT
includes a simple graphical interface (the desktop interface consists of the X window
system and the FluxBox window manager) and a few graphical tools. You can
downloa
d INSERT from here:

http://www.inside
-
security.de/download_en.html

Puppy

Linux

This live mini
-
CD contains a desktop Linux system that you can use for
creating documents, playing multimedia cont
ent, accessing the Internet, and many
other functions. Puppy Linux also contains many features for configuring your
desktop and saving your features across reboots. To download Puppy Linux, go to
the following site:

http://puppylinux.org/main/Download%20Latest%20Release.htm

Damn

Small

Linux

Damn Small Linux (DSL) illustrates how a useful desktop Linux distribution,
which includes full network connectivity and some useful productivity app
lications,
can fit in a very small space. The basic DSL desktop live image is only 50MB in
size. From there, you can add an array of prebuilt packages to tailor the exact Linux
system you want. You can download Damn Small Linux from here:

http://www.damnsmalllinux.org/download.html


SystemRescueCd

Like INSERT, SystemRescueCd is a bootable Linux that includes a variety of
tools for checking and fixing your installed computer systems. It includes to
ols for
managing and fixing file systems, checking for viruses, monitoring the network, and
checking whether a machine has been cracked. You can get SystemRescueCd from
here:

http://www.sysresccd.org/Downloa
d

Finding

more

Linux

distributions

There are literally dozens, if not hundreds, of Linux distributions available
today. Some are general
-
purpose Linux systems, while others are specialized for
running live or managing specialty devices. A good place to fi
nd different Linux
distributions today is the Distrowatch site:

http://distrowatch.com


From the Distrowatch homepage, you can get a sense of which Linux
distributions are popular by viewing the page hit rankings in
the right column.

Preparing

for

Linux

Certification

As noted in the
Linux Bible, 8th Edition
, almost all of the content needed to
pass Red Hat Certification programs (RHCE and RHCSA) is cover
ed

in the book.
However, simply because of the constraints of spa
ce, not every topic you would need
to pass the RHCE exam, in particular, is fully covered. If you are preparing to take
the RHCSA and/or the RHCE certification exams, the next section describes which
topics you need to study so you can be fully prepared fo
r all content you may see in
those exams.

Preparing

for

a

Red

Hat

Certified

System

Administrator

(RHCSA)

exam

The RHCSA exam (EX200) tests the basic skills needed to become a Linux
system administrator. Refer to the following the RHCSA exam objectives page

for a
complete list of topics you need to know to be able to pass an RHCSA exam:

http://www.redhat.com/training/courses/ex200/examobjective


Keep in mind that the test is a “hands
-
on, practical exam,” which means that
you need to expect to carry out tasks on a Linux system directly, rather than just
answer questions about it. Read through the bullet items on the exam objectives page
and make sure you can understand the topics and do

the exercises associated with
each bulleted item. You should be able to find nearly every topic in the
Linux Bible,
8th Edition
.

Coverage of RHCSA exam objectives is fairly complete in the book, with the
exception of the area of virtualization. Fedora, RH
EL, and other Linux systems are
capable of working as virtual hosts. What that means is that guest operating systems
can run as virtual machines on a virtual Linux host.

The RHCSA exam objectives don’t ask you to be able to configure a virtual
host. Howev
er, you should be able to open virtual consoles from a virtual host and
start and stop virtual machines. For information on how to use the Virtual Machine
Manager in Red Hat Enterprise Linux, refer to the Red Hat Virtualization
Administration Guide:

http://docs.redhat.com
/docs/en
-
US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html
-
single/Virtualization_Administration_Guide/index.html#chap
-
Virtualization_Administration_Guide
-
Managing_guests_with_the_Virtual_Machine_Manager_virt_manager

Preparing

for

a

Red

Hat

Certified

Engineer

(RHCE)

exam

To pass an RHCE exam (EX300), you are expected to have basic RHCSA
skills (the ability to work from the command
-
line shell, work with users and file
systems, install packages, and do basic system administration). Most of the
additional skills you need to
pass the RHCE are related to configuring and managing
servers, as well as securing those services. Refer to the following site to see the
RHCE exam objectives:

http://www.redhat.com/
training/courses/ex300/examobjective


Although the security features in Linux, such as iptables, SELinux, and TCP
wrappers, are well covered in the
Linux Bible
,
8th Edition,

not all of the servers you
would need to configure for an RHCE exam are described

there. Here is the bullet
list of servers from the RHCE exam objectives along with suggestions on how to you
should extend your study for the RHCE exam beyond what is included in the
Linux
Bible
, 8th Edition
:



HTTP/HTTPS

Chapter 17 covers all the topics li
sted in the RHCE
exam objectives for configuring a web server (HTTP and HTTPS). Topics
include configuring a virtual host and private directories, deploying CGI
applications, and configuring group
-
managed content.



DNS

A Domain Name System server translates

hostnames into IP
addresses (and vice versa). In most Linux systems, including Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, the Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) software
project is available to configure as a DNS service.

In RHEL, the
bind

package provides the component
s you need to
configure a BIND DNS server. As the RHCE objective states, you don’t
have to configure a full master or slave DNS server. You only have to be
able to configure a caching
-
only name server and enable forwarders.

In the
bind

package is the
/usr/
share/doc/bind
-
*/named.conf.default

file. You can copy that file to
/etc/named.conf

or
/var/named/chroot/etc/named.conf

(if you are running it in a
chroot

environment) and edit that file as
needed (type
man named.conf

for details). Then enable and start th
e
named service.



FTP

Chapter 18 describes everything you need to know to meet the
RHCE exam objectives for configuring an FTP server. In particular, you
need to be able to configure an anonymous
-
only download.



NFS

Chapter 20 describes what you need to kno
w to configure an NFS
server. In particular, you need to configure network shares to specific
clients and configure shares for group collaboration.



SMB

Chapter 19 covers how to configure a Samba (SMB) server. As
with NFS, you need to be able to configure n
etwork shares to specific
clients and configure shares for group collaboration.



SMTP

There is no information on configuring an SMTP (e
-
mail) server
in the book. Red Hat Enterprise Linux provides the
sendmail

and
postfix

packages for configuring an SMTP ser
ver. When you start the
sendmail

or
postfix

services, they only listen on localhost. To make
either service accept inbound e
-
mail, you need to edit the configuration
files for the one you choose (
/etc/mail/sendmail.mc

or
/etc/postfix/main.cf
).

The other ob
jective listed for an SMTP service is to be able to
configure
sendmail

or
postfix

to forward (relay) e
-
mail through a
smart host. Editing the configuration file, enabling the service, and starting
the service are the basic steps you need to complete any of

those
objectives.



SSH

Commands related to the Secure Shell (SSH) service (
ssh
,
scp
,
rsync
, and so on) are installed by default in Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
The SSH server is installed by default as well (
openssh
-
server

package). On the client side, the RH
CE requirement is to be able to do
key
-
based authentication (described in the “Using key
-
based
(passwordless) authentication” section of Chapter 13).

On the SSH server side, you need to be able to configure different
features of the
sshd

service. For that,

read the
sshd_config

man page.
Type
man sshd_config
.



NTP

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) server is included in Red Hat
Enterprise Linux by way of the
ntp

package. Although the book doesn’t
describe how to configure this service, there is a simple graphica
l tool for
configuring NTP.

To install the Date/Time Properties window, install the
system
-
config
-
date

package (if it is not already installed) and run the
command of the same name. Select the Synchronize date and time over
the network box, and then add th
e NTP servers you want to synchronize
with.


For each of the services just listed, practice configuring the service. Then
configure security services to make sure you can restrict or allow access to the
service in various ways.

Linux

Bible

Corrections

As w
e find problems that need to be corrected, we will add those corrections
to
the website
. If you have found a problem with the
Linux Bible, 8th Edition
, please
send an e
-
mail to me at
linuxcricket@gmail.c
om

and I’ll do my best to respond and
post the correction on the website.