Network Operating Systems

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Dec 4, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Network Operating Systems


A.

NOS
-

A Definition

The term "NOS" stands for network operating system. A NOS contains protocol stacks as
well as device drivers for network
hardware... .

B.

Windows Networking

Essential networking topics for the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems such
as dial
-
up networking, remote access, and connection sharing.

C.

Linux Networking

Samba, firewall security, Web serving, and related features of the open
-
source Linux
operating system.

D.

Macintosh Networking

Networking capabilities of Macintosh computers including connectivity in Windows
environments.

E.

NetWare Networking

Novell NetWare has been used for basic file
/print serving for many years; NetWare today
also includes Web
-
based networking capabilities.

F.

OS/2 Networking

The OS/2 network operating system supports TCP/IP, peer
-
to
-
peer, firewalling, an
d other
conventional LAN technologies.

G.

Special
-
Purpose Operating Systems

These operating systems appeal to specialized or "niche" audiences. Some servers and
routers use these operating

systems, for example.

H.

Which NOS is Right for You?

Which network operating system is the "best" one? This article provides the resource
information you need to make an informed de
cision, including links to discussions
amongst the experts on our message board.

I.

Crash
-

A Definition

The term "crash" refers to a critical failure in a network device. Tradit
ionally, network
operating systems have been a primary source of crashes.

J.

More About Basic Networking

Our full list of basic computer networking resources including beginners' gui
des, glossary
pages, and online quizzes.





Windows Networking

http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/windowsnetworkin1/ht/client4msnet.htm



Windows Networking
-

Client
for Microsoft Networks





The Client for Microsoft Networks is an essential networking software component for the
Microsoft Windows family of operating systems. A Windows computer must run the Client for
Microsoft Networks to remotely access files,
printers and other shared network resources. These
step
-
by
-
step instructions explain how to verify the client is present and, if not, how to install it.



Here's How:

1.

Navigate to the Windows Control Panel.

2.

If the computer runs Windows 2000, Windows XP or
newer, locate and right click "My
Network Places" in the Start Menu and choose Properties from the menu that appears. A
new window titled "Network Connections" opens. In this window, open the "Local Area
Connection" item.

3.

If the computer runs any older ver
sion of Windows, like Windows 95 or Windows 98,
locate and right
-
click on Network Neighborhood, then choose "Properties" from the
menu that appears. Alternatively, navigate to Control Panel and open the "Network" item.

4.

If the computer runs Windows 2000, Wi
ndows XP or newer, view the General tab and
verify the checkbox next to Client for Microsoft Windows is unchecked. This confirms
the component has not already been installed. If the network is currently active, you may
not see any checkboxes in the window.

In this case, click the "Properties" button one
more time to reach the full General tab.

5.

If the computer runs any older version of Windows, view the Configuration tab and
verify the Client for Microsoft Windows does not appear in this list. This confirms
the
component has not already been installed.

6.

If the computer runs Windows 2000, Windows XP or newer, first click the checkbox next
to Client for Microsoft Windows, then click the "Install..." button to begin the process of
installing this component.

7.

If th
e computer runs any older version of Windows, simply click the "Add..." to begin the
process of installing Client for Microsoft Windows.

8.

For all versions of Windows, select "Client" as the type of component from the list in the
new window that appears. Cli
ck the "Add..." button to continue.

9.

For all versions of Windows, next choose "Microsoft" from the list of manufacturers
shown on the left of the active window. Then, choose "Client for Microsoft Windows"
from the list of Network Clients on the right side o
f the window. Click the "OK" button
to continue.

10.

Complete the installation by clicking the "OK" button to close the window, then proceed
to reboot the computer. After the computer has restarted, Client for Microsoft Windows
will be installed.





Windows Networking
-

Naming Computers


When networking Windows computers, each computer name must be set properly. Computers
having names that violate Windows guidelines may

fail to network with their peers for various
technical reasons. Follow these rules to ensure your computers are named appropriately.


When setting up a peer
-
to
-
peer Windows network, each computer name must be configured
properly. Computers having names that violate Windows guidelines may, for various technical
reasons, fail to network with their peers on the
LAN
. Ensure your computers are named
appropriately according to the following rules:



No two computers can possess the same computer name. Ensure all computer names are
unique.



Ensure each computer name is
no longer than 15 characters.



Ensure no computer name contains spaces. Windows ME and earlier versions of
Windows do not recognize computers having space characters in their name.



Avoid special characters in computer names. Whenever possible, do not use an
y of these
characters when naming Windows computers: /
\

* , . " @



Avoid using lower
-
case letters in a computer name whenever possible. On Windows
Vista, the case of letters (upper or lower) is ignored. Older versions of Microsoft
Windows, however, treat c
omputer names as case sensitive. Entering computer names in
all upper case is recommended to avoid possible name conflicts that would prevent
Windows computers from identifying each other.

To set or change a computer name on Windows XP, right
-
click on My
Computer or open the
System icon in Control Panel, then choose the Computer Name tab.

To set or change a computer name on Windows 2000, open the System icon in Control Panel and
choose the Network Identification tab, then click the Properties button.

On
older versions of Windows, open the Network icon in Control Panel and choose the
Identification tab.


Windows Networking
-

Naming Workgroups and Domains


When netwo
rking Windows computers, each computer belongs either to a workgroup or a
domain. Choosing proper workgroup and/or domain names is essential to avoiding technical
problems in networking Windows computers.


Each Windows computer belongs either to a workgrou
p or a domain. Home networks and other
small LANs utilize workgroups, whereas larger business networks operate with domains.
Choosing proper workgroup and/or domain names is essential to avoiding technical problems in
networking Windows computers. Ensure y
our workgroups and/or domains are named
appropriately according to the following rules.



Ensure each workgroup and domain name is no longer than 15 characters.



Ensure no workgroup or domain name contains spaces. Windows ME and earlier
versions of Windows
do not support workgroups or domains with spaces in their name.



Whenever possible, ensure all computers on the LAN use the same workgroup/domain
name. Using common workgroups/domains makes it easier to browse the network and
avoids some security complicati
ons when sharing files. Note that the default workgroup
name in Windows XP is "MSHOME" but in older versions of Windows is
"WORKGROUP".



Ensure the name of the workgroup/domain is different from the name of any computer on
that network.



Avoid special charac
ters in workgroup and domain names. Whenever possible, do not
use any of the characters when naming Windows workgroups and domains: /
\

* , . " @



For simplicity, avoid using lower
-
case letters in workgroup or domain names.



The workgroup name need not match

the network name (
SSID
) on a Wi
-
Fi LAN.

To set or change workgroup/domain names in Windows XP, right
-
click on My Computer or open
the System icon in Control Panel, then choose t
he Computer Name tab and finally, click the
Change... button to access the workgroup/domain name fields.

To set or change workgroup/domain names in Windows 2000, open the System icon in Control
Panel and choose the Network Identification tab, then click t
he Properties button.

To set or change workgroup/domain names in older versions of Windows, open the Network icon
in Control Panel and choose the Identification tab.



My Network Places
-

Networked Windows Resources

My Network Places is the utility for browsing network resources in Microsoft Windows ME,
Windows 2000 and newer Windows operating systems. My Network Places allows you to add,
search and access both local

and remote network resources.


How to Fix "Network Cable Unplugged" Errors in Windows

If your wired or wireless network is not functioning properly, you may see "A
Network Cable Is
Unplugged" messages appear repeatedly on the Windows desktop. Learn more about this
problem and how to stop these annoying messages from occuring.


Try the following tips to resolve your problem:




Disable the Ethernet network adapter if yo
u are not using it. This applies, for example,
when running a WiFi home network with computers that have built
-
in Ethernet adapters.
To disable the adapter, double
-
click the small Network Cable Unplugged error window
and choose the Disable option.




Check b
oth ends of the Ethernet cable connected to the adapter to ensure they are not
loose.




Replace the Ethernet cable with a different one to verify the cable is not damaged.




Update the network adapter driver software from the manufacturer's Web site.




Change

the Link Speed and Duplex settings (using Device Manager) to use "100 Mbps
Full Duplex" or "10 Mbps Full Duplex" instead of Auto Detect.




Replace the Ethernet network adapter if it is a removable PCI or PCMCIA card. First
remove and re
-
insert the existing

adapter hardware to verify the card is connected
properly. If necessary, also replace it with a different card.




The device your Ethernet adapter is connected to, such as a broadband modem or
network router may be malfunctioning. Troubleshoot these device
s as needed.



How to Fix "Duplicate Name Exists" Errors in Windows

After booting a Microsoft Windows computer, you may see an error message stating a duplicate
name
exists on the network.


"Duplicate name exists" errors prevent a Windows computer from joining the network.
The computer will start up and function in an offline mode only. To resolve this error,
simply change the name of the computer to one that is not us
ed by other local computers
(or Windows workgroups), then reboot.


How To Fix "Limited Or No Connectivity" Errors in Windows

When attempting to set up or make netwo
rk connections on a Windows computer, you may
encounter a Limited Or No Connectivity error message. Follow these steps to resolve this error
condition.


Introducti
on to Windows Firewall

Windows Firewall is a free network firewall software application for Windows XP, introduced in
Windows XP Service Pack 2. Older version of Windows XP contained a different software
firewall called Internet Connection Firewall (ICF).


Windows Firewall provides one
-
way network protection only. It blocks incoming traffic as
configured, but it will not block any outgoing traffic. This behavior is by design, as Microsoft and
various security experts recommend controlling outgoing traffic th
rough a separate network
device such as the
broadband router
. On the other hand, alternative software firewall products on
the market today usually support traffic bloc
king in either direction. Modern
trojans

and spyware
applications can easily disable these outbound firewall traffic blocks, however. Overall, the lack
of outbound traffic b
locking in Windows Firewall detracts very little from its power.


Workgroup

In computer networking, a workgroup is a collection of computers on a local area network
(LAN) that
share common resources and responsibilities. The Microsoft Windows family of
operating systems supports assigning of personal computers to named workgroups.


Workgroups are designed for small LANs in homes, schools, and small businesses. A
Windows
Workgrou
p
, for example, functions best with 15 or fewer computers. As the number of
computers in a workgroup grows, workgroup LANs eventually become too difficult to administer
and should be replaced with alternative solutions like domains or other client/server a
pproaches.



Windows Host Files


A hosts file is a list of computer names and their associated IP addresses. Hosts files are
used by Microsoft Windows and other network
operating systems as an optional means to
redirect TCP/IP traffic in special circumstances. These files are not required to use
ordinary network and Internet applications.


WINS
-

Windows Internet Naming Service


The Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) supports name resolution, the automated
conversion of computer names to network addresses, for Windows networks.
Specifically, WINS converts NetBIOS names to IP addresses

on a LAN or WAN.


Like DNS, the Windows Internet Naming Service employs a distributed client/server
system to maintain the mapping of computer names to addresses. Windows clients can be
configured to use primary and secondary WINS servers that dynamically

update
name/address pairings as computers join and leave the network. The dynamic behavior of
WINS means that it also supports networks using DHCP.


UNC
-

Universal Naming

Convention

Microsoft Windows uses the UNC notation standard to identify server, share and file names.

UNC names identify network resources using a specific notation. UNC names consist of
three parts
-

a server name, a share name, and an optional file path
. These three elements
are combined using backslashes as follows:

\
\
server
\
share
\
file_path



NetBIOS
-

Network Basic Input/Output System

NetBIOS is a protocol for computer

communication services on local networks used by
Microsoft Windows.



APIPA
-

Automatic Private IP Addressing

APIPA allows DHCP clients to obtain addresses even in cases w
hen the DHCP server cannot
provide one.


Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS)

Microsoft IIS implements Web server functionality that integrates with other Microsoft serve
r
networking technologies.



Windows XP







Windows 2000 Server











Linux Networking
-

Network Linux Computers


The Linux computer operating system and Linux networking continues to gain in mainstream popularity
with businesses and families.
Explore Linux network technology and tools.

Samba for Linux Networking

Samba supports sharing of files and printers across different operating systems using the
Session
Message Block (SMB) protocol. Many Linux environments use Samba to share resources with Windows.


Windows, Mac and Linux PCs on the Same Network

Enable the machines on your cros
s
-
platform network to access and share the same files and resources.

Windows:
Sharing files and printers on Windows XP systems is disabled by default in Service Pack 2, but
enabling this feature is pretty easy. Right
-
click
My Network Places
, choose
Propert
ies
, right
-
click the
network connection through which you want to share files, select
Properties

again, check
File and Printer
Sharing for Microsoft Networks
, and click
OK

(see FIGURE 1


Macintosh:
To share your Mac's files and printers with other computers, launch
Sharing

in System
Preferences, select
Services
, enter a descriptive name for the computer in the Computer Name field, and
check
Windows Sharing
. To share your Mac's Public folders only wit
h other Macintosh computers, check
Personal File Sharing

instead. If you'd like to specify the printers you want to share, open
Print & Fax

in
System Preferences, check
Share these printers with other computers
, and select the appropriate
printers.





L
inux:

To share files and printers in SuSE 9.3 with KDE 3.4, use the YAST configuration utility. Simply
open the program, enter the root password when prompted, select
Network Services

in the left pane,
and click
Samba Server
. After YAST detects your config
uration, enable or disable your preferred shared
resources (such as printers and home directories), click the
Start Up

tab, select
On
--
Start Service when
Booting
, and click
Finish
. The next time you boot Linux, your file and printer shares will become avai
lable
to other computers on the network.









IPCop

IPCop is a smal Linux operating system distribution designed to be installed on a network firewall.

Linux Wireless Networking Overview

This tutorial covers Linux wireless local area networking technologies including Bluetooth, GPRS, GSM,
and IrDA.