History 297, Section 12 Colonial North America CRN 36309

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History 297, Section 12

Colonial North America

CRN 36309



Professor Contact Information and Office Hours


David J. Silverman

Department of History, 321 Phillips Hall, djsilver@gwu.edu, (202) 994
-
8094

Office Hours:

Thursdays 2
-
4:30pm

Mailbox in 335
Phillips Hall



Class Time and Location


Thursdays, 5:10
-
7:00pm, Phillips 413


Description


This course introduces students to the complex, turbulent, contested world of colonial North
America from the late sixteenth to the late eighteenth century. It emp
hasizes cutting
-
edge
scholarship rather than classics. As such, it is organized around themes such as Indian
-
colonial
affairs, Atlantic World connections, imperial conflict, and the emergence of race
-
based
colonial
societies.
It pays substantial attentio
n to Native Americans, Africans, and colonists of French,
Spanish, Dutch, and
German de
scent
, not just the English
. New Mexico, New France, and New
Netherland share the stage with New England, and the Great Plains are treated as well as the
Great Awakenin
g.


Learning Objectives


The goals of this course are to train students for the following:


1. To be able to
express

in conversation and writing the main events, themes, and problematics
of colonial American history.


2. To be able to identify and
critique leading historiographical debates in the field.


3. To be able to compare the colonies of the major European empires in the Americas.


4. To be able to interpret and narrate colonial American history from multiple perspectives,
including an Indi
an
-
centered view of colonialism and an Atlantic World perspective.


5. To be able to
discuss

colonial developments within the context of major European events.


6. To understand the various kinds of sources used by scholars in the field and the challen
ges of
interpreting them.

2



7. And, not the least of all, to consider which themes from colonial history should appear in
different kinds of history courses, including the American and World history surveys.



Course Requirements and Grading Breakdown


1.

Participation
--
60 percent


The bulk of each student’s grade is based on seminar participation. The standard for evaluating
that participation is explained in the appendix to this syllabus, but the basic rule is that students
need to come to class with th
e readings complete

and

informed
comments and questions at the
ready. Merely showing up will not suffice.


2.
Response papers
--
20 percent


Each
week,
students will write
a two to three paragraph
response to the week’s readings. The
goals of these papers

are to identify the main them
es in the week’s readings and

raise issues for
discussion. These papers should be posted on Blackboard by 9pm the evening before class.


3
.
Term
Paper
--
20 percent


By the seme
ster’s end, each student is responsible for a project
no more than fifteen pages to be
designed
in c
onsultation with the instructor. Such projects might include, but are not limited to,
the following:



1) A historiographical review essay of
three books

and a few articles
.

2) A primary research paper of

a manageable topic
.

3) An
undergraduate lecture

of an hour in length
.

4) A research paper prospectus, including a discussion of the topic, historiography, and relevant
primary sources. This assignment

is recommended for students who intend to pursue early
American topics
in a thesis or dissertation.


One of the main criteria for evaluating these projects will be engagement with class themes.


These papers are due no more than
two

weeks after the last

class meeting
--
no exceptions
.



Readings


The following books are available for purchase at the G.W. Bookstore




Trevor Burnard,
Mastery, Tyranny and Desire: Thomas Thistlewood and His Slaves in the
Anglo
-
Jamaican World

(
Chapel Hill,

2004
)
.



Colin G. Calloway,
One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West before Lewis and
Clark
(Lincoln, 2003).


3




Alan Gallay,
The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South,
1670
-
1717

(New Haven, 2002).


Alison Games,
The Web
of Empire: English Cosmopolitans in the Age of Expansion

(New
York, 2008).



Evan Haefeli and Kevin Sweeney,
Captors and Captives: The 1704 French and Indian Raid
on Deerfield
(Amherst
., 2003).




Thomas S. Kidd,
The Great Awakening: The Roots of Evang
elical Christianity in Colonial
America

(New Haven,
2007).



Karen Ordahl Kupperman,
Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America

(Ithaca, 2000).




Mary Beth Norton,
In the Devil’s Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692

(
New York,
2002)
.



Carla Gardina Prestana,
The English Atlantic in an Age of Revolution, 1640
-
1661

(Cambridge,
Mass, 2004).



Jenny Hale Pulsipher,
Subjects Unto the Same King: Indians, English, and the Contest for
Authority in Colonial New England

(Philadelphia, 2005).



Peter Silver,
Our Savage Neighbors: How Indian War Transformed Early America

(New
York, 2008).



Stephanie Smallwood,
Saltwater Slavery: A Middle Passage from Africa to American
Diaspora

(Cambridge, Mass., 2007).



Richard White,
The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes
Region, 1650
-
1815
(New Yor
k,
1991).


Individual articles and chapters are available on electronic reserve on Blackboard unless
otherwise noted.


There is no textbook for this course.
Students who want an overview of the field should consult
A
lan Taylor,
American Colonies

(New York, 2001).


The major journals in the field are the

William and Mary Quarterly

and
Early American Studies
.
They are

published, respectively, by the two main or
ganizations in the field, the Omohundro
Institute of Early American History and Culture

(housed at the College of William and Mary)
,
and the McNeil Center for Early American Studies

(at the University of Pennsylvania)
.
Students
should consult these journa
ls regu
larly to keep up with scholarly
developments.
Check the
websites of the sponsoring organizations for updates on seminars, conferences, colloquia
,
fellowships,
and book publications
:
www.wm.edu/oieahc
; and
www.mceas.org



Reading Assignments


January 14:

Outward Thrusts


Alison Games,
The Web of Empire: English Cosmopolitans in the Age of Expansion

(New
York, 2008), entire book.



Colin G. Calloway,
One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West before Lewis and
Clark
(Lincoln, 2003), chaps. 1
-
2.



4


Recommended Reading
:



Peter C. Mancall,
Hakluyt’s Promise: An Elizabethan’s Obsession for an English America

(New Haven, Conn., 2007).



William D. Phi
llips Jr. and Carla Rahn Phillips,
The Worlds of Christopher Columbus

(New
York, 1992).



Alden T. Vaughan,
Transatlantic Encounters: American Indians in Britain, 1500
-
1776

(New
York, 2006).



J.H. Elliot,
The Old World and the New, 1492
-
1650

(New York, 1
970).



J.H. Parry,
The Age of Reconnaissance

(Berkeley, 1981).



Nicholas P. Canny,
The Elizabethan Conquest of Ireland: A Pattern Established, 1565
-
1576

(New York, 1976).



Thomas E. Emerson,
Cahokia and the Archaeology of Power

(Tuscaloosa, 1997)
.



Timo
t
h
y R. Pauketat and Thomas E. Emerson, eds.,
Cahokia: Domination and Ideology in the
Mississippian World

(Lincoln, 1997).



Shepard Krech III,
The Ecological Indian: Myth and History

(New York, 1999).



Kathleen J. Bragdon,
Native People of Southern

New England, 1500
-
1650

(Norman, 1996).



Charles Hudson,
Knights of Spain, Warriors of the Sun: Hernando de Soto and the South’s
Ancient Chiefdoms

(Athens, Ga., 1997).



Jarald T. Milanich and Charles Hudson,
Hernando de Soto and the Indians of Florida

(
Gainesville, 1993).



Paul E. Hoffman,
A New Andalucia and a Way to the Orient: The American Southeast during
the Sixteenth Century

(Baton
Rouge
, 1990).



David B. Quinn,
North America from Earliest Discovery to First Settlements: The Norse
Voyages to 16
12

(New York, 1975).


January 21:
Early Contact



Karen Ordahl Kupperman,
Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America

(Ithaca, 2000),
entire book.



James
Axtell, “
At the Water’s

Edge
: Trading in the Sixteenth Century,


in his
After
Columbus:
Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America

(New York, 1988), 144
-
81.

Electronic reserve
.



Alfred W. Crosby, “Virgin Soil Epidemics as a Factor in the Aboriginal Depopulation in
America,”
William and Mary Quarterly
, 3d ser., 33 (1976), 289
-
99.

Electronic reserve
.



Calloway
,
One Vast Winter Count
,
chap. 3.


Recommended Reading
:



Karen Ordahl Kupperman,
Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony

(New York, 1984).



Karen Ordahl Kupperman,
The Jamestown Project

(Cambridge, Mass., 2007).



Joyce Chaplin,
Subject Matter: Technology, the Body, and Science on the Anglo
-
American
Frontier

(Cambridge, Mass., 2001).



Seth Mallios,
The Deadly Politics of Giving: Exchange and Violence at Ajacan, Roanoke, and
Jamestown

(
Tuscaloosa,
2006).



Camilla Townsend,
Poca
hontas and the Powhatan Dilemma

(New York, 2005).



Frederic W. Gleach,
Powhatan’s World and Colonial Virginia: A Conflict of Cultures
,
(Lincoln, 1997).

5




Helen C. Rountree,
Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed
by Jamestown
(C
harlottesville, 2005).



Stuart B. Schawartz, ed.,
Implicit Understandings: Observing, Reporting, and Reflecting on
the Encounters between Europeans and Other Peoples in the Early Modern Era

(New York,
1994).



Alfred W. Crosby, Jr.,
The Columbian Exchang
e: Biological and Cultural Consequences of
1492

(Westport, Conn., 1972).



William Cronon,
Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England

(New York, 1983).



Jared Diamond,
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

(New York, 1998).



Noble David Cook,
Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492
-
1650

(Cambridge,

Mass.,

1998).



Russell Thornton,
American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History since 1492

(Norman, 1987).



David E. Stannard,
American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World

(New York, 1992).



Henry F. Dobyns,
Their Number Become Thinned: Native American Population Dynamics in
Eastern North America

(Knoxville, 1983).


January 28:

The Atlantic Prism



Carla Gardina Prestana,

The English Atlantic in an Age of Revolution, 1640
-
1661

(Cambridge,
Mass, 2004).



John M. Murrin, “Beneficiaries of Catastrophe: The

English Colonies in America,”
in Eric
Foner, ed.,
The New American History

(Philadelphia, 1997), 3
-
30
.
Electronic reserv
e
.


Recommended Reading:



J. H. Elliott,
Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in

America, 1492
-
1830
(
New
Haven
, 2006)



Christine Daniels and Michael Kennedy, eds.,
Negotiated Empires:


Centers and Peripheries
in the New World, 1500
-
1820

(London, 2002)


Jorge Cañizares
-
Esguerra,
Puritan Conquistadores: Iberianizing the Atlantic, 1550
-
1700

(Stanford, Cal., 2006).



Peter E. Pope,
Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century
(Chapel Hill, 2004).



Jon F. Sensbach
,
Rebecca’s Revival: Creating Black Christianity in the Atlantic World

(Cambridge, Mass., 2005).



Alison Games,
Migration and the Origins of the English Atlantic World

(Cambridge, Mass.,
1999).



Nicholas P. Canny, ed.,
Europeans on the Move: Studies on

European Migration, 1500
-
1800

(New York, 1994).



Ida Altman and James Horn, eds.,
“To Make America”: European Migration in the Early
Modern Period

(Berkeley, 1991).



Edmund Morgan,
American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia
(N
ew York, 1975).



Kathleen Brown,
Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and
Power in Colonial Virginia

(Chapel Hill, 1996).

6




James P. Horn,
Adapting to a New World: English Society in the Seventeenth
-
Century
Chesapeake

(Chapel

Hill, 1994).


April Lee Hatfield,
Atlantic Virginia: Intercolonial Relations in the Seventeenth Century

(
Philadelphia
, 2003).


Peter C. Mancall, ed.,
The Atlantic World and Virginia, 1550
-
1624
(
Chapel Hil
, 2007)

♦ John Kugler,
English and Catholic: Th
e Lords Baltimore in the Seventeenth Century

(Baltimore, 2004).



Lois Green Carr, Russell R. Menard, and Lorena S. Walsh,
Robert Cole’s World: Agriculture
and Society in Early Maryland

(Chapel Hill, 1991).



Thad W. Tate and David L. Ammerman,
The Chesap
eake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays
on Anglo
-
American Society

(Chapel Hill, 1979).



Gloria L. Main,
Tobacco Colony: Life in Early Maryland, 1650
-
1720

(Princeton, 1982).



Virginia DeJohn Anderson,
New England’s Generation: The Great Migration and t
he
Formation of Society and Culture in the Seventeenth Century

(New York, 1991).



David Cressy,
Coming Over: Migration and Communication Between England and New
England in the Seventeenth Century

(New York, 1987).



David Grayson Allen,
In English Ways:

T
he Movement of Societies and the Transferral of
English Local Law and Custom to Massachusetts Bay in the Seventeenth Century
(Chapel Hill,
1981).



Richard Archer,
Fissures in the Rock: New England in the Seventeenth Century

(Hanover,
N.H., 2001).



Fra
ncis J. Bremer,
John Winthrop: America’s Forgotten Founding Father

(New York, 2003).



Darren Staloff,
The Making of an American Thinking Class: Intellectuals and Intelligentsia in
Puritan Massachusetts

(New York, 1998).



Michael P. Winship,
Making He
retics: Militant Protestantism and Free Grace in
Massachusetts, 1636
-
1641

(Princeton: 2002).



David D. Hall,
Worlds of Wonder, Days of Judgment: Popular Religious Belief in Early New
England
(New York, 1989).



Charles Lloyd Cohen,
God’s Caress: The P
sychology of the Puritan Religious Experience

(New York, 1986).



Cornelia Hughes Dayton,
Women before the Bar: Gender, Law, and Society in Connecticut,
1639
-
1789

(Chapel Hill, 1995).



Edmund S. Morgan,
Visible Saints: The History of a Puritan Idea

(New York, 1963).



Stephen Foster,
The Long Argument: English Puritanism and the Shaping of New England
Culture, 1570
-
1700

(Chapel Hill, 1991).



Philip F. Gura,
A Glimpse of Sion’s Glory: Puritan Radicalism in New England, 1620
-
1660

(Middletown, Conn.
, 1984).



Harry S. Stout,
The New England Soul: Preaching and Religious Culture in Colonial New
England

(New York, 1986).



Daniel Vickers,
Farmers and Fishermen: Two Centuries of Work in Essex County,
Massachusetts, 1630
-
1850

(Chapel Hill, 1994).



Mar
y Beth Norton,
Founding Mothers and Fathers: Gendered Power and the Forming of
American Society
(New York, 1996).


Feburary 4:

Indians,
Colonists, and the
Challenges

of Coexistence

7




Richard White,
The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in t
he Great Lakes
Region, 1650
-
1815
(New York, 1991), chaps. 1
-
3.



Alfred A. Cave, “Who Killed John Stone: A Note on the Origins of the Pequot War,”
William
and Mary Quarterly
, 3d ser.,

(1992), 509
-
21.
Electronic reserve
.



Evan Haefeli, “Kieft’s War and the Systems of Violence in Colonial America,” in Michael A.
Bellesiles, ed.,
Lethal Imagination: Violence and Brutality in American History

(New York,
1999), 17
-
40.
Electronic reserve
.



Virginia DeJohn Anderson, "King Phil
ip's Herds: Indians, Colonists, and the Problem of
Livestock in Early New England."
William and Mary Quarterly

51 (1994),

601
-
624
.
Electronic
reserve
.



David J. Silverman, “Indians, Missionaries, and Religious Translation: Creating Wampanoag
Christianity
in Seventeenth
-
Century Martha’s Vineyard,”
William and Mary Quarterly
, vol. 62
(2005), 141
-
75.
Electronic reserve
.


Recommended Reading:



Daniel K. Richter,
Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America

(Cambridge, Mass., 2001).



James H. Merrell,
The Indians’ New World: Catawbas and Their Neighbors from European
Contact through the Era of Removal

(Chapel Hill, 1989).



Neal Salisbury,
Manitou and Providence: Indians, Europeans, and the Making of New
England
(New York, 1982).



James Axtell,
The Invasion Within: The Contest of Cultures in Colonial North America

(New
York, 1985).



Peter C. Mancall,
Deadly Medicine: Indians and Alcohol in Early America

(Ithaca, 1995).



Denys Delage, Bitter Feast: Amerindians and Europeans in Northeastern North America,
1600
-
1664, trans. Jane Brierly (Vancouver, 1993).



Matthew Dennis,
Cultivating a Landscape of Peace: Iroquois
-
European Encounters in
Seventeenth
-
Century America

(Ithaca
, 1993).



Alfred A. Cave,
The Pequot War

(Amherst, 1996).



Ann Marie Plane,
Colonial Intimacies: Indian Marriage in Colonial New England

(Ithaca,
N.Y., 2000).



David J. Silverman,
Faith and Boundaries: Colonists, Christianity, and Community Among
the

Wampanoag Indians of Martha’s Vineyard, 1600
-
1871

(New York, 2005).



Colin G. Calloway and Neal Salisbury, eds.,
Reinterpreting New England Indians and the
Colonial Experience

(Boston, 2003).



Peter H. Wood, Gregory A. Waselkov, and M. thomas Hatley, ed
s.,
Powhatan’s Mantle:
Indians in the Colonial Southeast
(Lincoln, 1989).



Donna Merwick,
The Shame and the Sorrow: Dutch
-
Amerindian Encounters in New
Netherland

(Philadelphia, 2006).



Allen W. Trelease,
Indian Affairs in Colonial New York: The Sevent
eenth Century

(Ithaca,
1960).


February 11:
Warfare



Jenny Hale Pulsipher,
Subjects Unto the Same King: Indians, English, and the Contest for
Authority in Colonial New England

(Philadelphia, 2005).

8




Calloway
,
One Vast Winter Count
,

chap.

4
.



White,
Middle Ground
,
chap. 4
.




Recommended Reading
:



Alfred A. Cave,
The Pequot War

(Amherst, 1996).



James David Drake,
King Philip’s War: Civil War in New England

(Amherst, Mass., 1999).



Russell Bourne,
The Red King’s Rebellion: Racial Politics in New

England, 1675
-
1678 (New
York, 1991).



Patrick M. Malone,
The Skulking Way of War: Technology and Tactics among the New
England Indians

(Baltimore, 1991).



Andrew L. Knaut,
The Pueblo Revolt of 1680: Conquest and Resistance in Seventeenth
Century New
Mexico

(Norman, Okla., 1995).



David R. Edmunds and Joseph L. Peyser,
The Fox Wars: The Mesquakie Challenge to New
France
(Norman, Okla., 1993).



José António Brandão,
“Your Fyre Shall Burn No More”: Iroquois Policy toward New
France and its Native All
ies to 1701

(Lincoln, 1997).



Wilcomb E. Washburn,
The Governor and the Rebel: A History of Bacon’s Rebellion in
Virginia

(New York, 1957).



Stephen Saunders Webb,
1676: The End of American Independence

(New York, 1984).



Andrew L. Knaut,
The Pueblo R
evolt of 1680: Conquest and Resistance in Seventeenth
Century New Mexico

(Norman, Okla., 1995).



February 18:
Crises of the Late Seventeenth Century



Mary Beth Norton,
In the Devil’s Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692

(
New York,
2002)
.



Owen S
tanwood, “The Protestant Moment: Antipopery, the Revolution of 1688
-
89, and the
Making of an Anglo
-
American Empire,”
Journal of British Studies
, vol. 46 (2007), 481
-
508.

Electronic reserve.


Recommended Reading
:



Richard Godbeer,
Escaping Salem: The
Other Witch Hunt of 1692

(New York, 2004).



Richard Godbeer,
The Devil’s Dominion: Magic and Religion in Early New England

(New
York, 1982).


Bernard Rosenthal,
Salem Story: Reading the Witch Trials of 1692

(New York, 1993).



John Putnam Demos,
Enterta
ining Satan: Witchcraft and the Culture of Early New England

(New York, 1982).



Carol F. Karlsen,
The Devil in the Shape of a Woman: Witchcraft in Colonial New England

(New York
, 1989).



Allison Gilbert Olson,
Making the Empire Work: London and Americ
an Interest Groups,
1690
-
1790
(Cambridge, Mass., 1992).



Ian K. Steele,
The English Atlantic, 1675
-
1740: An Exploration of Communication and
Community

(New York, 1986).



Jack P. Greene,
Peripheries and Center: Constitutional Development in the Extended

Polities
of the British Empire and United States, 1607
-
1788

(Athens, Ga., 1986).

9




J.M. Sosin,
English America and the Revolution of 1688: Royal Administration and the
Structure of Provincial Government

(Lincoln, 1982).



Richard R. Johnson,
Adjustment t
o Empire: The New England Colonies, 1675
-
1715

(New
Brunswick, N.J., 1981).



David S. Lovejoy,
The Glorious Revolution in America

(Middletown, Conn., 1987).


February 25:

Mid
Atlantic Emerging



Daniel K.
Richter
, “
War and Culture
: The Iroquois
Experience,”

William and Mary Quarterly

3rd Series, vol. 40 (1983),

528
-
559
.
Electronic reserve



Evan Haefeli, “Revolt of the Long Swede: Transatlantic Hopes and Fears on the Delaware,
1669,”
Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography
, vol. 130, no.

2 (April, 2006), 137
-
80.

Electronic reserve
.



Barry J. Levy, “‘Tender Plants’: Quaker Farmers and Children in the Delaware Valley, 1681
-
1735,”
Journal of Family History
, vol. 3 (1978), 116
-
35
.
Electronic reserve



Marianne Wokeck, “Harnessing the Lure of the ‘Best Poor Man’s Country’: The Dynamics of
German
-
Speaking Immigration to British North America, 1683

1783,” in Ida Altman and James
Horn, eds.,
To Make America: European Emigration in the Early Modern Period

(
Berkeley,
1991), 204

43.

Electronic reserve



Kenneth A. Lockeridge, “Overcoming Nausea: The Brothers Hesselius and the American
Mystery,”
Common
-
Place
, vol. 4, no. 4 (January 2004).
Electronic reserve
.



Jack D. Marietta and G.S. Rowe, “Violent Crimes,

Victims, and Society in Pennsylvania,
1682
-
1800,”
Explorations in Early American Culture: A Supplement to Pennsylvania History

66
(1999), 24
-
54.
Electronic reserve



Wayne Bodle, “The Fabricated Region: On the Insufficiency of ‘Colonies’ for Understand
ing
American Colonial History,”
Early American Studies

1 (2003), 1
-
27.
Electronic reserve
.


Recommended Reading:



Daniel K. Richter,
The Ordeal of the Longhouse: The Peoples of the Iroquois League in the
Era of European Expansion

(Chapel Hill, 1992).



Barry Levy,
Quakers and the American Family: British Settlement in the Delaware Valley,
1650
-
1765

(New York, 1988).



Oliver A. Rink,
Holland on the Hudson:


An Economic and Social History of Dutch New York

(Ithaca
, 1986).



Joyce Goodfriend,
Before the
Melting Pot: Society and Culture in Colonial New York City,
1664
-
1730

(Princeton, 1992).



Donna Merwick,
Death of a Notary: Conquest and Change in Colonial New York

(Ithaca
,
1999).



Donna Merwick,
Possessing Albany, 1630
-
1710: The Dutch and English Ex
periences

(New
York, 1990).



Ned C. Landsman,
Scotland and its First American Colony, 1683
-
1765

(Princeton, 1985).



Brendan McConville,
Those Daring Disturbers of the Public Peace: The Struggle for
Property and Power in Early New Jersey

(Ithaca,
1999).



Aaron Spencer Fogelman,
Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political
Culture in Colonial America, 1717
-
1775

(Philadelphia, 1996).

10



Aaron Spencer Fogelman,
Jesus is Female: Moravians and the Challenge of Radical Religion
in Early Ame
rica
(Philadelphia, 2007).



A.G. Roeber,
Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British
America

(Baltimore, 1993).



Patrick Griffin,
The People with No Name:


Ireland's Ulster Scots, America's Scots Irish, and
the Creation of a B
ritish Atlantic World, 1689
-
1764

(Princeton, 2001).



Gary B. Nash,
Quakers and Politics: Pennsylvania, 1681
-
1726

(1968; Boston, 1993).



Patricia U. Bonomi,
A Factious People: Politics and Society in Colonial New York

(New
York, 1971).


March 4:


Southern Cauldron



Alan Gallay,
The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South,
1670
-
1717

(New Haven, 2002),
chaps. 2
-
6, and 10
-
afterward.


Steven J. Oatis,
A Colonial Complex: South Carolina’s Frontiers in the Era of the Ya
masee
War, 1680
-
1730

(Lincoln, 2004)
, chap. 5.
Electronic reserve
.


Recommended Reading:



Verner W. Crane,
The Southern Frontier, 1670
-
1732

(1928).



James H. Merrell,
The Indians' New World: Catawbas and Their Neighbors from European
Contact through the

Era of Removal

(Chapel Hill, 1989).



Steven J. Oatis,
A Colonial Complex: South Carolina’s Frontiers in the Era of the Yamasee
War, 1680
-
1730

(Lincoln, 2004).



James Taylor Carson,
Searching for the Bright Path: The Mississippi Choctaws from
Prehistory to Removal

(Lincoln
, 1999)



Patricia Galloway,
Choctaw Genesis, 1500
-
1700

(Lincoln, 1995).



Kathryn E. Holland Braund,
Deerskins and Duffels: Creek Indian Trade with Anglo
-
America,
1685
-
1815

(Lincoln, 1993).



Robbie Ethridge and Charles Hu
dson, eds.,
The Transformation of the Southeastern Indians,
1540

1760


(Jackson,
2002).



William L. Ramsey,
The Yamasee War: A Study of Culture, Economy, and Conflict in the
Colonial South

(Lincol
n
, 2008).



Steven C. Hahn,
The Invention of the Creek Nat
ion, 1670
-
1763

(Lincoln
,
2004).



Paul Kelton,
Epidemics and Enslavement: Biological Catastrophe in the Native Southeast,
1492
-
1715

(Lincoln, 2007).



Joshua Piker,
Okfuskee: A Creek Indian Town in Colonial America

(Cambridge, Mass., 2004).


March 11:

New France and Imperial Rivalry



Evan Haefeli and Kevin Sweeney,
Captors and Captives: The 1704 French and Indian Raid
on Deerfield
(Amherst
, 2003).



Brett Rushforth, “‘A Little Flesh We Offer You’: The Origins of Indian Slavery in New
France,”
Willi
am and Mary Quarterly
, vol. 60 (2003), 777
-
808.
Electronic reserve
.



Calloway,
One Vast Winter Count
,

chap. 5.


White,
Middle Ground
, chap. 5.

.


11


Recommended Reading:



James Pritchard,
In Search of Empire: The French in the Americas, 1670
-
1730

(New York,
2004).



Daniel H. Usner, Jr.,
Indians, Settlers, and Slaves in a Frontier Exchange Economy: The
Lower Mississippi Valley before 1783

(Chapel Hill, 1992).



Carl J. Ekberg,
French Roots in the Illinois Country: The Mississippi F
rontie
r in
Colonial
Times

(Urbana, 1998
).



W.J. Eccles,
The French in North

America
, (East Lansing, 1998).



Peter Moogk,
La Nouvelle France: The Making of French Canada: A Cultural History

(East
Lansing
, 2000).



Allan Greer,
Mohawk Saint: Catherine Tekakwitha a
nd the Jesuits

(New York, 2005).



Susan Sleeper
-
Smith,
Indian Women and French Men: Rethinking Cultural Encounter in the
Western Great Lakes

(Amherst, 2001).



Geoffrey Plank,
An Unsettled Conquest: The British Campaign Against the Peoples of Acadia

(Ph
iladelphia, 2001).



Ian K. Steele,
Warpaths: Invasions of North America

(New York, 1994).



Douglas Edward Leach
, Arms for Empire: A

Military History of the British Colonies in North
America, 1607
-
1763

(Cha
pel Hill, 1986).


March 25:

Slaving



Stephanie Smallwood,
Saltwater Slavery: A Middle Passage from Africa to American
Diaspora

(Cambridge, Mass., 2007).



David Eltis, “The Volume and Structure of the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Reassessment,”
William and Mary Quarterly
, vol. 58 (2001), 17
-
47
.
Electronic reserve.



John Thornton, “African Dimensions of the Stono Rebellion,”
American Historical Review
,
vol. 96 (1991), 1101
-
13.
Electronic reserve.


Recommended Readin
g
:



Robin Blackburn,
The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern,
1492
-
1800
(New York, 1997).



David Eltis,
The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas
(
New York, 2000).



Marcus Rediker,
The Slave Ship: A Human History

(New York, 2007).



Philip D. Curt
in,
The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census

(Madison, 1969).



John Thornton,
Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400
-
1680

(New
York, 1992).



Linda M. Heywood and John K Thornton,
Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the
Foundations o
f the Americas, 1585
-
1660

((New York, 2007).



Hugh Thomas,
The Slave Trade: A Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440
-
1870

(New York,
1997).



Hilary McD. Beckles,
White Servitude and Black Slavery in Barbados
, 1627
-
1715

(Knoxville,
1989).



Michael A. G
omez,
Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African
Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South

(Chapel Hill, 1998).



William and Mary Quarterly

vol. 58, no. 1 (2001). Special issue on the transatlantic slave
trade.

12





April 1:
Slave Regimes



Trevor Burnard,
Mastery, Tyranny and Desire: Thomas Thistlewood and His Slaves in the
Anglo
-
Jamaican World

(Chapel Hill,

2004)
.



April Lee Hatfield, “Chesapeake Slavery in Atlantic Context,” in
Atlantic Virginia:
Intercolonial Relations i
n the Seventeenth Century
(Philadelphia, 2004), 137
-
168.
Electronic
reserve
.



Ira Berlin,


Time, Space, and the Evolution of Afro
-
American Society on
British Mainland
North America,”

American Historical Review
, Vol. 85, No. 1, (Feb.1980), 44
-
78.
Electro
nic
reserve.


Recommended Reading:



Ira Berlin,
Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America

(Cambridge, Mass., 1998).



Philip D. Morgan,
Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth
-
Century Chesapeake
and Low
Country

(Chapel Hill, 1998).



William and Mary Quarterly

vol. 54, no. 1 (1997). Special issue on constructing race.



Alden T. Vaughan,
Roots of American Racism: Essays on the Colonial Experience

(New
York, 1995)



Richard Sheridan,
Sugar and Slavery:

An Economic History of the British West Indies, 1623
-
1775

(Baltimore, 1974).



Richard S. Dunn,
Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter class in the English West Indies
(New York, 1972).



Hilary McD. Beckles,
White Servitude and Black Slavery in Barba
dos
, 1627
-
1715

(Knoxville,
1989).



Wesley Frank Craven,
The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1607
-
1689

(Baton
Rouge, 1970).



Betty Wood,
The Origins of American Slavery: Freedom and Bondage in the English
Colonies

(NY, 1997).



Allan Kuliko
ff,
Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Culture in the
Chesapeake, 1680
-
1800

(Chapel Hill, 1986).



Peter H. Wood,
Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 Through the
Stono Rebellion
, new ed. (1974; New York, 1996).



Jeffery Robert Young,
Domesticating Slavery: The Master Class in Georgia and South
Carolina, 1670
-
1837

(Chapel Hill, 1999).



Jon A. Sensbach,
A Separate Canaan: The Making of an Afro
-
Moravian World in North
Carolina, 1763
-
1840

(Chapel Hill, 1998).



Ro
bert Olwell,
Masters, Slaves, and Subjects: The Culture of Power in the South Carolina
Low Country

(Ithaca,
1998).



S. Max Edelson,
Plantation Enterprise in Colonial South Carolina

(Cambridge, Mass., 2006).



Betty Wood,
Slavery in Colonial Georgia, 1730
-
1775

(Athens, Ga., 1984).



Mechal Sobel,
The World They Made Together: Black and White Values in Eighteenth
-
Century Virginia

(Princeton, 1987).

13




A. Roger Ekirch,
“Poor Carolina: Politics and Society in Colonial North Carolina, 1729
-
1762
(Chapel Hill,
1981).



Peter Charles Hoffer,
The Great New York Conspiracy of 1741: Slavery, Crime, and Colonial
Law

(Lawrence, 2003).



Jill Lepore:
New York Burning: Liberty, Slavery, and Conspiracy in Eighteenth
-
Century
Manhattan

(New York, 2005). Be sure to also read Brendon McConville’s review in
Reviews in
American History
.



John Wood Sweet,
Bodies Politic: Negotiating Race in the American North, 1730
-
1830

(Baltimore, 2003).



William and Mary Quarterly

vol. 54, no. 1 (1997). Special issue on constructing race.



April 8:

Provincial America



Thomas S. Kidd,
The Great Awakening: The Roots of Evangelical Christianity in Colonial
America

(New Haven, 2007).



T.H. Breen, “An Empire of Goods: The Angl
icization of Colonial America,”
Journal of
British Studies

25 (1986), 467
-
99
.
Electronic reserve
.


Recommended Reading
:



Patricia U. Bonomi,
Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial
America
(New York, 1986).


Jon Butler,
Awa
sh in a Sea of Faith, Christianizing the American People

(Cambridge, Mass.,
1990).



Frank Lambert,
Inventing the “Great Awakening”

(Princeton, 1999)



Richard Bushman,
From Puritan to Yankee: Character and the Social Order in Connecticut,
1690
-
1765

(Cambridge, Mass., 1970).



Jon Butler,
Becoming America: The Revolution Before 1776

(Cambridge, Mass., 2000).



Ned C. Landsman,
From Colonials to Provincials: American Thought and Culture, 1680
-
1760
(New York, 1997).



Jack P. Greene,
Pursuits of Happ
iness: The Social Development of Early Modern British
Colonies and the Formation of American Culture

(Chapel Hill, N.C., 1988).



Jack P. Greene and J.R. Pole, eds.,
Colonial British America: Essays in the New History of
the Early Modern Era

(Baltimore,
1984).



Richard Beeman,
Varieties of Political Experience in Eighteenth Century America

(Philadelphia, 2004).



Richard Godbeer,
Sexual Revolution in Early America

(Baltimore, 2002).



Michael Warner,
The Letters of the Republic: Publication and the Publ
ic Sphere in
Eighteenth Century America

(Cambridge, Mass., 1990).



Christopher Grasso,
A Speaking Aristocracy: Transforming Public Discourse in Eighteenth
-
Century Connecticut

(Chapel Hill, 1999).



Laurel
Thatcher
Ulrich,
A Midwife’s Tale: The Life of M
artha Ballard, Based on Her Diary,
1785
-
1812

(New York, 1991).



Joyce E. Chaplin,
An Anxious Pursuit: Agricultural Innovation and Modernity in the Lower
South, 1730
-
1815

(Chapel Hill, 1993).



Rhys Isaac,
The Transformation of Virginia, 1740
-
1790

(Chapel

Hill, 1982).

14




E. Jennifer Monaghan,
Learning to Read and Write in Colonial America

(Amherst, Mass.,
2005).



Sharon Block,
Rape and Secular Power in Early America

(Chapel Hill, 2008).



Richard Bushman,
The Refinement of America: Persons, Houses, Cities
(New York, 1992).



John J. McCusker and Russell R. Menard,
The Economy of British America, 1607
-
1789

(Chapel Hill, 1985).



April 15:

Empire and its Discontents



Peter Silver,
Our Savage Neighbors:
How Indian War Transformed Early America

(New
York, 2008),
intro.
-
chap. 7



Brendan McConville, “The Passions of Empire,” in
The King’s
Three Faces: The Rise and Fall of
Royal America, 1688
-
1776

(Chapel Hill, 2004), 105
-
141
.
Electronic reserve
.


White,
Middle Ground
,
chaps. 6
-
7
.


Recommended Reading
:



Brendan McConville,
The King’s Three Faces: The Rise and Fall of Royal America, 1688
-
1776

(Chapel Hill, 2006).



Richard Bushman,
King and People in Provincial Massachusetts

(Chapel Hill, 1985).



Jane T.

Merritt,
At the Crossroads: Indians and Empires on a Mid
-
Atlantic Frontier, 1700
-
1763

(Chapel Hill, N.C, 2003).



Michael N. McConnell,
A Country Between: The Upper Ohio Valley and Its Peoples, 1724
-
1774
(Lincoln, 1992).



Eric Hinderaker,
Elusive Empir
es: Constructing Colonialism in the Ohio Valley, 1673
-
1800

(Ithaca, 1997).



Gregory Evans Dowd,
A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle for Unity,
1745
-
1815
(Baltimore, 1992).



Peter C. Mancall,
Valley of Opportunity, Economic Culture

Along the Upper Susquehanna,
1700
-
1800

(Ithaca, N.Y., 1991).



Timothy Shannon,
Indians and Colonists at the Crossroads of Empire: The Albany Congress
of 1754
(Ithaca, N.Y., 2000).


April 22:

The
Colonial West



Calloway
,
One Vast Winter Count
,
chap. 6
,

376
-
426.



Steven W. Hackel,
Children of Coyote, Missionaries of Saint Francis: Indian
-
Spanish
Relations in Colonial California, 1769
-
1850

(Chapel Hill, 2005),
chap. 3.


Electronic reserve
.



Pekka Hämäläinen
,

“The Rise and Fall of Plains Indian Horse Cu
lture,”
Journal of American
History
90 (Dec. 2003), 833
-
62.

Electronic reserve
.



James Brooks, “‘This Evil Extends . . . Especially to the Feminine Sex’: Negotiating
Captivity in the New Mexico Borderlands,”
Feminist Studies

22 (1996), 279
-
310.
Electronic
reserve.


Recommended Reading
:



James Brooks,
Captives and Cousins: Slavery, Kinship, and Community in the Southwest
Borderlands

(Chapel Hill, 2002).

15




Ned Blackhawk,
Violence over the Land: Indians and Empires in the Early American West
(Ca
mbridge, Mass., 2006).



Juliana Barr,
Peace Came in the Form of a Woman: Indians and Spaniards in the Texas
Borderlands

(Chapel Hill, 2007).



Pekka Hämäläinen,
The Comanche Empire

(New Haven, 2008).



Gary Clayton Anderson,
The Indian Southwest,
1580
-
1830: Ethnogenesis and Reinvention

(Norman, OK, 1999).



Steven W. Hackel,
Children of Coyote, Missionaries of Saint Francis: Indian
-
Spanish
Relations in Colonial California, 1769
-
1850

(Chapel Hill, 2005).



Albert L. Hurtado,
Intimate Frontiers:

Sex, Gender, and Culture in Early California

(Albuquerque, 1999).



David Weber,
The Spanish Frontier in North America

(New Haven, 1992
).



Ramón A. Gutiérrez,
When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sex, and
Power in New Mexico, 1500
-
1846

(Stanford, 1991).



Ramón A. Gutiérrez

and Richard J. Orsi, ed.,
Contested Eden: California before the Gold
Rush

(Berkeley, 1998).



Kathleen DuVal,
The Native Ground: Indians and Colonists in the Heart of the Continent

(Philadelphia, 2006).




16



Appendi
x A

Writing History

(courtesy of James Axtell and Andrew Isenberg)


I. Organization



There is no mystery about writing history. Writing is simply the transfer of thought to
paper; both writing and thinking are done in words. To be able to write clearl
y is to be able to
think clearly
--
and vice
-
versa.



The purpose of writing is to communicate information, ideas, opinions, or feelings to
other people. Unless the other people “get the message” you intend to convey, you have failed to
communicate effectiv
ely. Thus, as a writer you have two major tasks. The first and most
difficult is to establish clearly in your own mind what you want to say. The second task is to
find the most effective way to convey your message to the reader.



The first task
--
stra
ight thinking
--
can be greatly aided by an outline. After you have
completed your research, put your notes aside. On a separate set of small cards jot down
--
one
point to a card
--
all the points you need to make. Divide the cards into piles
--
one pile for e
ach
group of points closely related to each other. Arrange your piles of points into a sequence:
which points are most important or come chronologically first, which should be saved for last?
Which must you present before others in order to make the oth
ers understandable? Now, within
each pile, do the same thing
--
arrange the points in logical, understandable order. This simple
procedure will give you an outline, needing only a title, introduction, conclusion, and transitions
between sections.



A title

should, if possible, be like a line of poetry
--
capable of saying a great deal with
hardly any words. In should in some way express the whole work, its themes, and even
something of its outcomes.



An introduction, like a title, should “hook” the reader and engage his or her attention and
interest right away, in the opening sentence if possible. The introduction should contain a thesis
statement that expresses the idea, the argument, you want to com
municate in your paper. The
thesis carries the paper from the introduction to the conclusion. If you read a paper with a
clearly articulated thesis, the central argument of the paper sticks with you after you put the
paper down. By contrast, a paper wit
h a weak or unclear thesis wanders, leaving the reader
without a clear sense of the author’s argument.



In the body of your text, each paragraph should represent a complete, coherent idea, such
as the top card in the aforementioned piles. The first sen
tence of the paragraph, the topic
sentence, makes a statement. The sentences following provide evidence to support that
statement. The full paragraph should contain at least four sentences. The concluding statement
rephrases the argument of the paragrap
h and provides a transition to the next paragraph. Ideally,
it also demonstrates to the reader how the paragraph relates to the main thesis.

17




Your conclusion should actually conclude your argument, not merely repeat earlier
material. Although no new m
aterial should be introduced, a conclusion should present a new
perspective on the points already covered or suggest future directions for thinking about the
subject.


II. Principles of Writing History


Accuracy: “In the realm of History, the moment w
e have reason to think we are be given fiction
instead of fact, be the fiction ever so brilliant, our interest collapses like a pricked balloon.”
(G.M. Trevelyan).


Clarity: “The written word should be clean as bone, clear as light, firm as stone . . .”
(Anon.)


Conciseness: “. . . two words are not as good as one.” (Ibid.)


Vigor: “Dull history is bad history to the extent to which it is dull.” (Jack Hexter)


III. Do’s and Don’ts


--

Find yourself a trusted proofreader, ideally someone who is reasona
bly intelligent and
educated, but not an expert in your field. Have him or her read
--
or better yet, listen
--
to the final
product. If he or she does not understand your argument or find your account compelling, you
should go back to the writing block.


--

Do not assume that your reader knows anything about your topic. Introduce your characters,
give dates and locations, and define terms that would be unknown to a college aged reading
public (sachem,
encomienda
, New France, etc.).


--

Do not assume that yo
ur reader knows the meaning of the profession’s jargon and
catchphrases, such as contextualize, racialize, discourse, gendered, subaltern, imagined
community, invention of tradition, middle ground, etc.


--

Use the simple past tense and an active voice. P
assive construction (e.g. The soldiers were
ordered by their commander to attack the Cheyennes. Dozens of men, women, and children
were killed. Later, it was admitted that mistakes were made.) obscures agency and causation.
The above example should read
: The soldiers’ commander ordered them to attack the
Cheyennes. They killed dozens of men, women, and children. Later, the soldiers admitted that
they made mistakes.


--

Be specific and direct rather than general or abstract. “The aborigines of New Eng
land could
not contain their mirthful appreciation of the invaders,” really means “The Indians laughed at the
Puritans.”


18


--

Refer to people, not books our sources. Not, “the
Jesuit Relations

tell us . . .”
but

“In 1642
Father Paul Le Jeune noted . . .”


--

Avoid unspecific referents (this, it, they). “The snow covered the cabin. It lasted all week.”
(and then, presumably, collapsed . . .)


--

Avoid textual references to yourself. Use of “I” does not lend itself to objective distance, nor
does use of “
we” to refer to groups in the past (“our nation”; “we” instead of “Americans,” etc.).
And as Mark Twain said, “only kings, editors, and people with tapeworm have the right to use
the editorial ‘we.’”


--

Avoid the generic male. Use inclusive language.


--
No prepositions (for, to, with) at the end of a sentence.


--
Avoid over
-
reliance on block quotations and certainly never use more than one per paragraph
(or per five pages for that matter). Avoid ending a paragraph with a block quotation.


--
Always

make sure the source of the quotation is clear:

Not
: Indians believed that powerful spirits inhabited nature. “The Indian’s world was filled with
superhuman and magical powers which controlled man’s destiny and nature’s course of events”
(Martin, 1974).

But rather
: Indians believed that powerful spirits inhabited nature. As the historian Calvin
Martin writes, “The Indian’s world . . . .”


--

Conceal your scaffolding. Avoid “this paper will prove . . .,” “as I argue below,” and similar
references to yo
ur own writing act. Just prove and argue your points without fanfare.


--

Occasionally integrate quotations into your prose and vary your introductions. “George
Washington said . . . ,” and “Martha Washington said . . . ,” over and over again is boring.

More
interesting is: “The nation,” George Washington exclaimed, “runs the risk of dissolution.” The
first time your introduce a speaker, give her or his full name and a brief identification.



--

Minimize the use of “very,” which is unspecific.


--

Cle
rgymen:
F
ather Leclerq (Catholic), but the
f
athers. Protestant clergymen have honorific,
not ecclesiastical, titles: thus, the Reverend Hugh Johnson, but not Rev. Mather.


--

Dates: In the text centuries must be written out in lower case letters: “the

seventeenth
century,” not “the 17
th

Century.” If the date is a modifier, it is hyphenated as if one word:
“fifteenth
-
century chivalry.” Decades
do

not

get apostrophes: e.g. 1650s.


--

Avoid contractions: can’t, don’t, wasn’t, they’re, etc.


--

Do not

use “feel” when you mean “think.”


19


--

Avoid slang: “After all the
head
-
banging

at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, the Confederate Army
was
wickedly

reamed
.”


--

Avoid ethnic clichés and outdated euphemisms: When the
braves

could stand no more, they
went on the warpath against
the

white man
.
The

red man
, unlike
the

Negro
, had the resources to
fight back.


--

Ellipses ( . . . ) are not needed in a quotation unless you omit something from the middle or
end of a complete sente
nce that begins with a capitalized word. Ellipses warn the reader that
something (perhaps vital) is missing. You may use any fragment of a quotation without ellipses
at the front and back because the lack of a capitalized first word announces its incompl
eteness.


--

In anything shorter than a book, thesis, or dissertation, a bibliography is unnecessary.
Footnotes are sufficient. Make sure citations are in accordance with the
Chicago Manual of
Style
.


--

Proofreading is the essential last act of writing.

Do it with a dictionary in hand and do not
depend upon your computer’s word or grammar check.



20


Appendix B:

Grading Guideline


I. Papers



An
A

or
A
-

paper is one that is good enough to be read aloud in class. It is clearly written
and well organized.

It demonstrates that the writer has conducted a close and critical reading of
the texts, grappled with central issues raised in the course, synthesized the readings, discussions,
and lectures, and formulated a perceptive, compelling, independent argument.

The argument
shows intellectual originality and creativity, is sensitive to historical context, is supported by a
well
-
chosen variety of specific examples, and, in the case of a research paper, is built on a
critical reading of primary material.



A
B+

o
r
B

paper demonstrates many aspects of A
-

level work but falls short of it in either
the organization or clarity of its writing, the formulation and presentation of its argument, or the
quality of research. Some papers or exams in this category show flash
es of insight into many of
the issues raised in the course. Others give evidence of independent thought, but the argument is
not presented clearly or convincingly.



A
B
-

paper demonstrates a command of course or research material and understanding of
his
torical context but provides a less than thorough defense of the writer’s independent argument
because of weakness in writing, argument, organization, or use of evidence.



A
C+
,
C
, or
C
-

paper offers little more than a mere summary of ideas and informatio
n
covered in the course, is insensitive to historical context, does not respond to the assignment
adequately, suffers from frequent factual error, unclear writing, poor organization, or inadequate
primary research, or presents some combination of these pro
blems.



Whereas the grading standards for written work between A and C
-

are concerned with the
presentation of argument and evidence, a paper or exam that belongs to the D or F categories
demonstrates inadequate command of course material.



A
D

paper demonstrates serious deficiencies or severe flaws in the student’s command of
course or research material.



An
F

paper demonstrates no competence in the course or research materials. It indicates
a student’s neglect or lack of effort in the course
.


Late papers
: Students will be penalized two
-
thirds of a letter grade (e.g. from a B+ to a
B
-
, a B
-

to a C, etc.) for every day an exam is late.





21


II. Class Participation




A student who receives an
A

for participation in discussion typically comes
to class with
questions about the readings in mind. An
A

discussant engages others about ideas, respects the
opinions of others, and consistently elevates the level of discussion.



A student who receives a
B

for participation in discussion typically does

not come to
class with questions about the readings in mind. A
B

discussant waits passively for others to
raise interesting issues. Some discussants in this category, while courteous and articulate, do not
adequately listen to other participants or rela
te their comments to the direction of the
conversation.



A student who receives a
C

for discussion attends regularly but is an infrequent or
unwilling participant in discussion.



A student who fails to attend class regularly and adequately prepared for d
iscussion risks
the grade of
D

or
F
.