What is ubiquitous computing?

slipperhangingAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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1

Application Areas

Lecture 17

Date: 6
th

April

2

Overview of Lecture


Application areas:


CSCW


Ubiquitous Computing


What is ubiquitous computing?


Major themes in ubicomp


Related topics


3

Ubiquitous Computing


What are the main ideas in Weiser’s 1991 paper?


The disappearance of technology


The opposite of virtual reality


More humanizing, more human interaction


More “natural” interaction, less fiddling


Wireless, interconnected devices


Constant, but unobtrusive, availability


A range of different sizes


Context
-
aware behavior


Privacy considerations must be addressed


but no solutions
proposed


This work really started several years before 1991. After more
than a decade, we are not much closer to dealing with the
privacy issues but at least now there is a lot of interest in the
topic.




Ubiquitous Computing

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Ubiquitous Computing

Ubiquitous Computing

5

Technology Trends in

Ubiquitous Computing


Displays



very small (inches) to very large (walls)


Processors:


cheap, small, dedicated, microprocessors


Low Power


small batteries, solar (?)


Wireless


Wireless ethernet, infrared, mobile standards, Bluetooth (in
-
room), in
-
building, metropolitan


Operating systems


Linux on a chip, Windows CE, …


Packaging


non
-
conventional devices




Ubiquitous Computing

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Ubiquitous Computing

3 major themes in ubiquitous computing:


Desire for natural interfaces


Need to be context
-
aware


Automate capture and access



Ubiquitous Computing

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Desire for Natural Interfaces


Physical interactions will be less like current
desktop/keyboard/mouse display paradigms, more like
real human interactions



More natural forms of communication:


Speech


Handwriting


Gestures




When used for recognition
-
based tasks,


new

and
more

types of mistakes are introduced


Eliminating errors may not be possible e.g., computer
handwriting recognition will never be perfect



Error handling of recognition
-
based interfaces is a
major area of research


Ubiquitous Computing Themes

8

Need to be Context
-
Aware


Context

refers to the physical and social situation in
which computational devices are embedded


A goal of
context
-
aware

computing is to acquire and
utilize information about the context of a device and
provide services that are appropriate to the particular
people, place, time, events, etc.


Example
: A mobile phone will always vibrate at a
concert and never beep/ring in a concert, if the
system can know the location of the phone and the
schedule of the concert

Ubiquitous Computing Themes

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Need to be Context
-
Aware


The five W’s can be used to define context:


Who
: identity of a particular user


What
: interpretation of human activity


Where
: location of user


When
: time of activity, passage of time


Why
: reason for a person doing something

Ubiquitous Computing Themes

10

Need to be Context
-
Aware

Most common
-
> Location
-
Aware Computing



location
-
based action


nearby local printer, doctor


nearby remote phone


directions/maps


location
-
based information



real


person’s location


history/sales/events


virtual


walkthrough


story of city


augmented


touring machine


Ubiquitous Computing Themes

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Automate Capture & Access


Much time is spent recording events and then trying
to remember important pieces of information from
those events


Most systems have separate capture and access
phases e.g.,
Lecture Browser

focuses on the capture
presentations with attention to capturing arbitrary
program interactions and production
-
quality video
capture from multiple sources

Ubiquitous Computing Themes

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Automate Capture & Access

Challenges


Capture
: most common application areas are in
meeting support & education/training. Other possible
application areas:


Recording of special events


During collaborative design activities


Much of the capture is for raw streams of
information that are captured mainly for direct
playback. It is often useful to derive information to
provide a greater understanding of the live event

Ubiquitous Computing Themes

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Automate Capture & Access

Challenges


Access
: a number of playback activities need
to be provided


While real
-
time access is the most common,
other methods are required


Versioning and time
-
based interactions are
issues in the access phase


As systems move from personalized to more
public settings, privacy concerns for both
capture and access increase


Ubiquitous Computing Themes

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Other Related Topics


Augmented Reality


Tangible Interfaces


Wearable Interfaces


Related Topics

15

Augmented Reality


Augmented reality (AR) refers to computer
displays that add virtual information to a
user's sensory perceptions.


Augmented reality is an environment that
includes both virtual reality and real
-
world
elements.


Example
: an AR user might wear translucent
goggles; through these, he could see the real
world, as well as computer
-
generated images
projected on top of that world




Related Topics

16

Augmented Reality





Most AR research focuses on "see
-
through"
devices, usually worn on the head, that
overlay graphics and text on the user's view
of his or her surroundings


Related Topics

17

Augmented Reality

Related Topics

18

Augmented Reality

Related Topics

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Tangible Interfaces


Tangible interfaces

provide physical form to
digital information and computation, facilitating
the direct manipulation of bits



They

employ physical objects, surfaces, and
spaces as tangible embodiments of digital
information.


Related Topics

20

Tangible Interfaces



These include foreground interactions with
graspable objects and augmented surfaces,
exploiting the human senses of touch and
kinesthesia.



B
ackground information displays use "ambient
media"
--

ambient light, sound, airflow, and water
movement
--

that

communicate digitally
-
mediated
senses of activity and presence at the periphery of
human awareness.

Related Topics

21

Tangible Interfaces

Triangles


When the pieces
connect together, they
can trigger digital
events.


These events can
influence the progress
of a non
-
linear story, or
allow users to organize
media elements in order
to create their own story
space.

Related Topics

22

Wearable Interfaces


Wearable computers has focused on making it
easier to take the desktop PC along



The physical nature of the space and task is
reflected in the design of the hardware and the user
interaction modalities



Computers on body


track body relative movements


monitor person


train person



Wearables will need to become much

smaller and “socially designed”



Related Topics

23

Towards Everyday Computing


Activities rarely have a clear beginning and end


Interruption is expected


Multiple activities operate concurrently


Time is an important discriminator


Associative models of information are required


Related Topics

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Ubiquitous Computing Challenges


Evaluating Ubicomp systems


Finding a human need


Evaluating in the context of authentic use


Task
-
centric evaluation techniques are inappropriate



Social issues


Related Topics

25

Summary of Lecture


What is ubiquitous computing?


Major themes in ubicomp


Desire for natural interfaces


Need to be context
-
aware


Automate capture and access


Related topics


Augmented Reality


Tangible Interfaces


Wearable Interfaces



Summary

26

Terms of Reference


Weiser, M. (1991)
The Computer for the 21
st

Century



Ishii, H. (2004)
Bringing clay and sand into digital
design


continuous tangible user interfaces



Abowd, G. & Mynatt, E. (2000)
Charting Past, Present
and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing



Scholtz, J. (2001)
Ubiquitous Computing Goes Mobile




Milgram & Kishino (1994)


A Taxonomy of Mixed
Reality Visual Display



Benyon, D. et al (2005)
Designing Interactive Systems


References