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Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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Virtual Environments
ELG5124/CSI5151 –Fall 2013
Jochen Lang
SITE, University of Ottawa
Canada
Jochen Lang
Virtual Environments
Definition according to
Burdea and Coiffet:
“A high-end user-
computer interface that
involves real-time
simulation and interaction
through multiple sensorial
channels.” (vision, sound,
touch, smell, taste)
Jochen Lang
Opposing View: Fred Brooks, Jr.
Realities essential to my broad definition:
•Real time —viewpoint changes as head moves
•Real space —3-D worlds, whether concrete or abstract
•Real interaction —direct manipulation of virtual objects
Not essential to the broad definition, in my
view:
•Head-mounted display
•Sound display
•Force display
Brooks, Jr., F.P., 1994: "Is There Any Real Virtue in Virtual Reality?"
Public lecture co-sponsored by the Royal Academy of Engineering
and the British Computer Society, November 30, London
Jochen Lang
Virtual Reality Triangle
Burdea and Coiffet
Interaction with the virtual
objects through navigation
and manipulation
Immersion into a virtual
reality giving the
sensation of being there
Human imagination = human ability and
willingness to accept the contribution of
the virtual reality application to solve real
world problems
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Jochen Lang
Virtual and Real Reality?
Mixed Reality Continuum
Augmented Reality
•Tom Caudell, Boeing: Overlay virtual screens on real
workpieces during assembly or repair.
P. Milgram and F. Kishino, "A Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays",
IEICE Transactions on Information Systems, Vol. E77 D pp. 1321-1329,
1994.
Jochen Lang
Artificial Reality?
Virtualized Reality
•“Like VR, Virtualized Reality dynamic event models
allow viewers to see whatever they want to, but unlike
VR, this "other world" is actually a real event, and the
views of this event are photorealistic.”, P. Rander
–Is this (just) dynamic Image-Based-Modelling and
Rendering?
T. Kanade , P. J. Narayanan , P. W. Rander, Virtualized reality: concepts
and early results, Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Representation of
Visual Scenes, p.69, June 21-21, 1995
Jochen Lang
History of VR -Sensorama
Simulator
•United States Patent
3050870, pub. 08/28/1962,
granted to Morton L. Heilig
–3-D motion picture
–smell,
–stereo sound,
–vibrations of the seat,
–and wind in the hair
•See
http://www.mortonheilig.com
Jochen Lang
History of VR -Ultimate Display
Ivan E. Sutherland
•Sketchpad (Ph.D. Thesis, 1963)
•Ultimate Display (1965)
–“The ultimate display would, of course, be a room
within which the computer can control the
existence of matter. A chair displayed in such a
room would be good enough to sit in. Handcuffs
displayed in such a room would be confining, and a
bullet displayed in such room would be fatal. With
appropriate programming such a display could
literally be the Wonderland into which Alice
walked.”
[I. E. Sutherland, "Ultimate Display," In Proc. of IFIP(15) Congress, pp. 506-508, 1965.]
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Jochen Lang
History of VR –Sutherland’s
HMD
1968
•Optical see-through
head-mounted
display
Jochen Lang
History of VR –Fred Brooks, Jr.
Grope project 1 to 3
•Started in 1967
•Haptic feedback
•Simulation for molecular docking
James J. Batter and Frederick P. Brooks Jr.: GROPE-1: A Computer
Display to the Sense of Feel, Proc. IFIP Congress (1) 1971: 759-763
Jochen Lang
History of VR –NASA I
Virtual Visual Environment Display
system (ViVED, pronounced "vivid")
•Michael McGreevy (with Jim Humphries,
Saim Eriskin and Joe Deardon)
•First low-cost, wide field-of-view, stereo,
head-tracked, head-mounted display
NASA's virtual environment workstations
First complete system: Combination of ViVED with a DEC PDP-
11/40 computer, an Evans and Sutherland Picture System 2
with two 19" monitors, a Polhemus head and hand tracker,
video cameras and custom video circuitry.
Jochen Lang
History of VR –NASA II
•“Virtual Interface Environment Workstation” (VIEW) in
1989.
•Motivated by large simulation and training needs
•Applications: planetary terrain exploration,
computational fluid dynamics, and space station
telerobotics.
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Jochen Lang
History of VR -Dataglove
VPL Research
•Jaron Lanier and Thomas Zimmerman
•First VR Company 1985
•Data Glove
•Term: Virtual Reality
•1987 Article by Jim Foley
Jochen Lang
ELG5124/CSI5151
Course Organization
Marking Scheme:
•4 Assignments 20 marks
•Project Proposal 5 marks
•Project and Project Presentation 35 marks
•Exam 40 marks
Academic Fraud and Plagiarism
•Any form of plagiarism or fraud on any assignment will
result in an automatic zero for all assignments in the
course. Any form of plagiarism or fraud on the project will
result in an automatic zero for the project.
•For any plagiarism or fraud the university policy on
academic fraud applies. The plagiarism rules of the
University of Ottawa apply. Please familiarize yourself with
them.
Jochen Lang
ELG5124/CSI5151
Course Organization
Course Notes
•Slides are on Virtual Campus
Assignment and Project Submission
•Virtual Campus only
Office Hours:
•Wednesdays at 11:00-12:00 or by appointment.
•Office: CBY-A516
E-mail: jlang@eecs.uottawa.ca
Tel: x6317
Jochen Lang
ELG5124/CSI5151 Textbook
•No textbook is required for the course.
•General Texts on Virtual Environments
–Gerard Kim, Designing Virtual Reality Systems:
The Structured Approach, Springer, 2005.
–Chapters 1-4, 6-11 (available from the library
on-line)
–GrigoreC. Burdeaand Philippe Coiffet, Virtual
Reality Technology, Wiley, 2nd ed., 2003.
–Mario Gutierrez, F. Vexo, Daniel Thalmann,
Stepping into Virtual Reality, Springer 2008.
(available from the library on-line)
–Philippe Fuchs, Guillaume Moreau and Pascal
Guitton(eds), Virtual Reality Concepts and
Technologies, A.K.Peters/CRC Press 2011
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Jochen Lang
ELG5124/CSI5151
List of Topics
Introduction
•Virtual Environments; definitions and examples
•Sensor and display devices
Physics-based Modellingand Animation
•Kinematic modelling
•Review: spatial transformations
•Kinematic chains, forward and inverse kinematics
(Assignment)
•Human body model
•Particle systems (Assignment)
•Newtonian dynamics
•Collision detection and response
Jochen Lang
ELG5124/CSI5151
List of Topics
Human sensing
•Visual sensing
•Haptic sensing
•Auditory and other sensing
Haptic Modellingand Rendering
•Introduction, devices, methods and application
•Basic rendering algorithms (Assignment)
•Reality-based modelling
Visual Modellingand Rendering
•Graphics rendering pipeline
•Viewing; perspective projection, camera models, stereo
•3D acquisition pipeline
•Data structures for geometry representation
Jochen Lang
ELG5124/CSI5151
List of Topics
Sound Modellingand Rendering
•Geometric methods
Project presentations
Jochen Lang
Project proposal
•Describe a scenario which you would like to address
with a Virtual Environment.
•At the proposal stage you should prepare a high-level
description of the environment. In later stages of the
project you will not need to implement your complete
environment but rather you will have to implement a
specific aspect.
Your proposed virtual
environment
Your implementation
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Jochen Lang
Project Proposal (cont’d)
•The proposal should focus on the benefits which the
environment will provide to its users and what kind of
modalities, e.g., vision, sound, haptics, etc., are
needed to create these benefits.
•You will need to work in groups of 2!
Jochen Lang
Proposal Tasks
•Describe the scenario (e.g., Training simulator for commercial
aircraft pilots) Discuss what sensing modalities are important for
the scenario.
•Describe a design for a virtual environment assuming that you
had infinite resources. Research what real devices exist and
describe which ones you would like to use (but may not have
access to).
•Describe and discuss a (small) aspect of the environment which
you will implement. This aspect has to be a research problem
(e.g., real-time physical simulation of rigid bodies). State what
resources you will need to address the research problem.
•Cite at least a few (3-5) research articles related to your
proposed implementation.
•Create a document (as pdf) with a maximum of 3 pages.
•Hand in your document on Virtual Campus by Wednesday,
September 25th, 2013.
Jochen Lang
Virtual Reality Today?
Research
•Virtual reality research is specialized
–user interfaces
–graphics for dedicated displays
–3D TV
–frameworks
–applications
•Many applications
–training, medicine and rehabilitation, design,
entertainment, …
Jochen Lang
Homework
Read:
•F.P. Brooks, Jr., What’s Real About Virtual Reality?
IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 19 (6), pp.
16-27, 1999.
•Question:
–What has changed 14 years later?
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Jochen Lang
Credits, References
•Emil Petriu, Virtual Reality Introduction, Lecture slides
for ELG5124, University of Ottawa, 2008.
•Seungmoon Choi, Introduction to Virtual Reality,
Lecture slides for EECE511, POSTECH, 2008.
•G. C. Burdea and P. Coiffet, Virtual Reality
Technology, 2
nd
ed., Wiley, 2003.
•http://www.mortonheilig.com
•Janice Searleman, Virtual Environments: Principles &
Applications, Lecture slides for CS461/561, Clarkson
University, 2008.
•Henry Fuchs, Evolution of Graphics Hardware: 40
years since Sutherland’s HMD, Invited Lecture,
Graphics Hardware, Sarajevo, 2008.