Interactive Systems Technical Design

slipperhangingAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Interactive Systems Technical Design

Seminar work: Virtual Reality





Teemu Laukkarinen

Juha Mustonen

Pekka Mäki
-
Asiala

Introduction
-

Definitions

Virtual Reality
-
> Virtual Worlds
-
>
Virtual Environment


Artificially created believable
impression

of objects, environment or
space that doesn’t exist in reality.


To measure the degree of virtuality we can use three gauges :


autonomy
-

modelling objects and processes


interaction
-

possibility to interact with the environment


presence
-

deceiving
all senses

to believe it is real


Immersion :


Loss of consciousness of the outside world; feeling of being
surrounded by a completely other reality.


Immersion is psychological
-

relates to individuals.

Motivation
-

Where & Why

Entertainment


gaming industry


interactive virtual worlds


theme parks

Visualization


architecture, chemistry, CAD


arts and tourism


acoustics

Simulation & training


military, civillian (police, firefighters),


medicine, handicap aid


robots (remote control)


Implementation
-

needs/ways?

Implementing a virtual
environment

starts by defining needs.

What is the level of
immersion?


Visual



Audible


Smell and taste
-

No technologies at the moment
.


Tactile feedback
-

force feedback


Sense of balance
-

location and position detection



Visual (1/3)

Sight is the most important channel of sensory

Our eyes are :

accurate
-

real world details vs. computer generated resolution

accommotative
-

adapts to different distances

adaptive
-

lighting conditions

Fooling the eye

field of vision
-

180
o

x 120
o
, must be covered totally

motion detection
-

perspective and texture changes

stereopsis
-

perseption of depth

Immersive VR displays

1.
Head
-
Mounted Display (HMD)

2.
Virtual Model Display (VMD)

3.
Spatially Immersive Display (SID)

Visual (2/3)

VMD (Virtual Model Display)

Example: ImmersaDesk

Huge monitor, stereo vision (shutter glasses)

Possibly head tracking

+
Multi
-
user possibility

-
low immersion

HMD (Head
-
Mounted Display)

User wears a helmet that projects separate image for both eyes


Head orientation tracking
important!

+

Relatively cheap

-

Field of view limited (resolution)

-

Uncomfortable to wear

Visual (3/3)

2.
Curved wall setup

1.
one curved wall

SID (Spatially Immersive Display)

User is surrounded physically by the display

1.
CAVE
-
type setup

3
-
6 ”walls”

2.
curved overhead screen

3.
sphere


Audible

We hear with our ears and with our body

3D
-

sound is produced using

multiple speakers with/or dsp

headphones
-

HMD


Sensing the direction of sound


differences between sound pressure


delays
-

between ears


shape of our ears


Other factors


reflections, absorption
-

acoustics, dsp


visual and audible synchronization


doppler
-

is the object approaching?

Tactile & force feedback

Very primitive ways compared to visual and audible feedback

Cutaneous and Vestibular Senses (touch and balance)

Skin, joints, muscles, inner ear, internal organs

Tactile feedback helps to identify objects and shapes

Force feedback is essential part in developing many
entertainment and industrial applications

Techniques


electrical
-

vibrating crystals


magnetical
-

changing magnetic fields


hydraulics
-

compressed liquid


pneumatics
-

sense of pressure


SMA (Shape Memory Alloy)

Location and position detection


Detecting location, movement and position of :


head
-

adjusting graphics, frames, delays
-

important


hands
-

data gloves (e.g. virtual surgery)


body
-

virtual suits, exoskeletons (e.g. entertainment)

Location trackers

performance can measured

resolution and accuracy,
-

measured value vs. real value

response time
-

update rates and latency

repeatability
-

variations between measurements

1.
mechanical
-

accurate, low latency, restricts movement

2.
magnetic
-

accurate, inexpensive, high latency

3.
optical (camera + tracking point)
-

accurate, expensive, line of sigth

4.
acoustic (ultrasound)
-

inexpensive, line of sight

5.
inertia and non
-
inertia
-

inexpensive,

Applications
-

CAVE

Vision:



Shutter or polarization glasses high resolution CRT projectors

Sense of hearing:



Multi channel sound (n x speakers)

Sense of balance:



Head location and position detection

Multi
-
user option:


One room many participants

User is inside (immersion in reality):


User’s body is visible all the time

CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) SIGGRAPH 1992


Cube
-
shaped room with floor, 3
-
6 walls, (optional ceiling)

HUTCave

HUT (Helsinki University of Technology)
www.tcm.hut.fi

Telecommunications and Multimedia Laboratory (TML)


4
-
sided cave, three walls and a floor,


Hardware :


Main computer : Onyx2 InfiniteReality
-

SGI
www.sgi.com


Projectors (CRT) : 4 x Electrohome Marquee 8500 LC


Crystal Eyes CE2 stereoglasses



Audio :


Pentium 4 Linux PC


Korg 880 D/A converter


15 Genelec 1029A speakers


Tracking (magnetic tracking) : Ascension Motionstar


Input device : Surfman radio mouse

HUTCave
-

Architecture

The CAVE room layout, side view.


The CAVE room layout.

Things to consider:


Ventilation and cooling


Power consumption


Lighting (relates to contrast)


Acoustics (absortion, echo…)


Wiring (hidden
-

maintenance)

CAVE
-

Strengths


Comfortable for user


No need to wear heavy equipment


Turning the head is very natural


Very immersive


Multi
-
user option


The most popular solution for SID setup these days


Lots of info of ”how and why”


Compared to curved wall setups (possible exception
-

sphere)


Cheap


Many applications (universities, industry etc.)

CAVE


Problems


Expensive
-

not for consumer


Takes a lot of space
-

projection distance, wall size, operating system


Permanent installation
-

moving is not easy


Projector calibration (CRT) and seams of displays


Stereo vision with shutter glasses
-

Synchronization of screens


Full 6
-
sides
-

Wiring and air conditioning problems


Floor


Direct projection: Undesirable shadows


Back projection: Material of the floor cannot be the same as walls

CAVE
-

Fakespace video

Selected Industrial Players


http://www.fakespacesystems.com


Development and worldwide deployment and service of VR
technology for business applications since 1988



Products


WorkWalls


one or more large projection screens


stereographic images


WorkSpaces


CAVE, RAVE II


WorkDesks


Desks utilizing stereographic images


WorkTools


The CubicMouse, Pinch Gloves etc.


WorkStations


Value Added Reseller of HP and SGI

Rave II at Army Research Laboratory in Aberdeen, Maryland

ImmersaDesk R2

Selected Industrial Players


WorkTools



Pinch Gloves


-

Allows users to pinch and grab virtual objects or initiate
actions with hand gestures


-

Detects contact between fingers




The CubicMouse


-

Allows specification of coordinates in virtual spaces


-

Three control rods, one for each axis (x,y,z), which can be
pushed, pulled and rotated


-

Also the position and rotation of the controller itself can be


taken into account


VIDEO:
cubicmouse_medical.mov


Selected Industrial Players


Fakespace’s customer examples


Manufacturing


US Army TARDEC/National Automotive Center (NAC)


CAVEs for evaluating virtual prototypes and design problems


Oil and gas


World Oil / Murphy Oil


Products used to speed and enhance geophysical and geological data interpretation


Education


Sun™ Center of Excellence for Visual Genomics


CAVE used to immerse scientists in three
-
dimensional models of biological systems


Government


GM Defense Group


CAVE, WorkWall and ImmersaDesk solutions used in designing and marketing of Light
Armored Vehicles (LAV)

Selected Industrial Players


http://www.flogiston.com



Flogistation 2001 and 2002




Features a "bubble
-
hood" display, motion base, hand controller, and
a six
-
channel sound/vibration system


Originally developed as a training system for astronauts and funded
by NASA


Has starred in a couple of movies, the most famous appearance in
The Lawnmower Man

Flostation 2001

Selected International Research Groups
and Projects (EVL)


Electronic Visualization Laboratory (EVL)
-

University of
Illinois,Chicago
-

http://www.evl.uic.edu


A graduate research laboratory specializing in virtual
reality and real
-
time interactive computer graphics


Research on


VR devices (home of the CAVE)


Develops compelling prototypes for improvement and reproduction by the
commercial/industrial sector


VR Software (software libraries, toolkits)


VR Applications


Tele
-
immersion



Collaborative virtual reality over networks“


Networking


Tele
-
immersion as ‘application driver’ for developing high
-
performance broadband networks


Utilizing VR for artistic purposes

Selected International Research Groups
and Projects (Presence
-
research.org)


Aims to offer up
-
to
-
date and relevant information and resources on
(tele
-
)presence


Lists research labs, resources, on
-
going projects and people
concerning VR and telepresence


News Archive


Conference dates

Selected International Research Groups
and Projects (HIT Lab)


http://www.hitl.washington.edu/

(HIT Lab)


Research and development lab in virtual interface technology


Affiliated with the College of Engineering at the University of
Washington in Seattle


Project examples


VR pain control


VR therapy for spider phobia


Motion sickness in VR environments


Virtual prototyping of medical robotic interfaces


Selected International Research Groups
and Projects (HIT Lab)


VR pain control and therapy for spider phobia


Pain requires a conscious attention, being drawn into another world drain a
lot of attentional resources, leaving less attention available to process pain
signals


Technology derived from the similar spider phobia project


Especially used during woundcare of patients with severe burns

Selected International Research Groups
and Projects (HIT Lab)


Since patients with severe burns often report re
-
living their original burn
experience during wound care, SnowWorld was designed to help put out the
fire


Patients fly through an icy canyon with a river and frigid waterfall. Patients
shoot snowballs at snowmen and igloos (with animated impacts)

Researchers in Finland


Helsinki Arena 2000


Virtual city


Elisa Communications & City of Helsinki


Lumeportti


Low
-
cost visualization environment


VTT

Helsinki Arena 2000


Project started 1996


one milestone 2000


Aim to provide services
also in the digital media


Leading city of the
Europe when it comes to
culture and services


Provide wider possibilities
in interaction and
communications

Helsinki Arena
-

Services


Panorama tour in centrum


19 different places


Links to other worth
-
to
-
see
-

places

Helsinki Arena
-

Services

Virtual Helsinki
-

Services

Helsinki Arena
-

Technologies


WWW pages


Rich media


JAVA applets


IBM Hot Media


Panorama view


360
°


Zoom


VRML97 models


TRIDENT


Virtual telephone book


When traditional methods will fade out
-
> 3D
Directory services competitive solution

Lumeportti


Project in VTT


Low cost visualization environment


Can be used for meetings, training
and entertainment

Lumeportti
-

Technologies


Networked PCs and video projector


All the participants can interact on
project data with electronic pens or
other interaction devices.

Resources


Virtual Helsinki


http://www.virtualhelsinki.net


http://www.arenanet.fi


http://www.helsinkiarena2000.fi


http://www.trident3d.net


Lumeportti


http://mango2.vtt.fi:84/tte/projects/vr
-
cluster/kuvia/Lumeportti_taitto4.pdf

Future developments

A few years ago, Virtual Reality was treated as the immediate future by the

media, and then dismissed when technology could not evolve fast enough
to be comfortable, affordable, and useful.



3D user interfaces
-

monitors with shutter glasses


Home theaters


Immersive large displays, stereoscopic image, 3D sound


Mobile phones, wearable computing
-
> mixed reality

Thank you

Questions?