Impact of technology on scientific visualization techniques used ... - Njit

slipperhangingAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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“Seeing is Knowing”


The i
mpact of technology on
visualization techniques used in
cartography

Presenter: Jolanta Soltis

Class: CIS 679

Professor: Merry Turoff

“The nature of maps and of their use in science and
society is in the midst of remarkable change

change
that is stimulated by a combination of new scientific
and societal needs for geo
-
referenced information
and rapidly evolving technologies that can provide
that information in innovative ways. A key issue at
the heart of this change is the concept of
‘visualization.’”

MacEachren (2002)


OUTLINE

1.
Introduction to visualization

2.
Introduction to scientific visualization

3.
The past

4.
Technological advancement in
visualization techniques

5.
The role of visualization in cartography

in
today’s world

6.
Examples

7.
The evolution of GIS and Visualization

8.
Challenges

9.
The future

Introduction to
visualization


Introduction to visualization


Visualization allows scientists to:


understand

the meaning of millions
of pieces of information in a visual
form


interpret

the meaning of this
information


Through the use of multi
-
dimensional,
animated depictions of data, it is
possible to extrude previously
unvisible information



What is Visualization?


Is
visualization

an activity carried out
by human beings?


Is
visualization an activity carried out
by
computer?



Visualize
:


“To form a mental image or vision of …



“To imagine or remember as if actually
seeing.



The purpose of data
visualization



To c
onvey information to people quicker


Visualization is a term with many meanings

(MacEachern, 1995).


"Visualization" may mean two things.


Use graphical element to display results


Use 2 or 3dimensional graphics to diaplay data.


More possibilities


Interaction


zooming

Visual Variables


Position


Size


Value


Color


Texture


Orientation


Shape…

Static visual variables


Size (used to show changes in value


Value


Texture/Grain and Color


used as a
accent or change in perspective


Orientation


Form


Dynamic visual variables


Moment


Duration (unit of time a frame is
displayed)


Frequency (numbers of time forms
are displayed)


Order (time sequence)


Rate of change


Synchronization (correspondence of
series)

2D or 3D?

Cartographic
animation

Two
-
dimensional

Three
-
dimensional

Spatially dynamic

-
re
-
expression

-
emphasizing location

-
emphasizing
attributes

-
zoom and pan


Same as 2D plus:


Fly=by


Walk
-
through


Rotation

Temporally dynamic

Change in location

Change in attribute

Same as 2D

Spatially and
temporally dynamic

2D spatio
-
temporal
change

3D spatio
-
temporal
change









Person

Feedback


Computer


Display


Interaction


Collaboration

Introduction to scientific
visualization


What is scientific visualization?

"Visualization, is the process of
transforming raw data into a
displayable image.”


Visvalingam (1994 )


To visualize is “to form a mental image
or vision of…”

Spence (2001)


Scientific visualization serves two
purposes:


Help scientists and engineers solve
problems.


Explain and promote a particular
science to a wide audience.

Visualization solutions


Mental model


visualization


global
translation


Invisible could be seen


Error detection


Interactivity and engaging different
audiences


Immersion

Web map classification

The past






A little history…


Development of motion
-

about
100 years


Mobile sculpture


20 years


Video art


20 years


Animated maps


begin in the
1930’s, but were not developed
until 1959


Computer animated maps:
1990’s


Maps from the past

The oldest known map:

Konya town,6200 BC

Anaximader’s Map of the World

The
Ptolemy world map
,
written circa
150
BCE
.

Napoleon's 1812 March to Moscow

Multi
-
dimensional map shows size of the army, location,
direction of movement, time and temperature.

Static but…dynamic

Dynamic maps…


In 1959 Thrower mention the of
audio
-
visual communication
possibilities.


Walter Tobler developed first
animation by using 3
-
D computer
generated map

Technological advancement in
visualization techniques


Technological advancement in
visualization techniques


Impact of computer


Increased processing power


Internet


High quality graphics


VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling
Language)


Animation


Examples

Visual geospatial data exploration

An interactive map as index of
other information

Views from an electronic
multimedia atlas


Examples from Microsoft’s Encarta 2000

Overijssel in a VRML environment

The role of visualization in
cartography

in today’s world

The role of visualization in
cartography


Communication


Exploration


Processing

Communication


Cartographic visualization relies on
the use of maps to communicate
cartographic ideas.

Exploration



Our dominate sense
-

sight allows us
to explore data sets.


Use of cognitive process of the mind

Processing

The evolution of GIS and
Visualization


G
I
S


Geographic Information System
(GIS) is a combination of operation
and tools for exploring and
geospatial analysis of data.


It is used to build maps in real time


Multicast Backbone Internet traffic using 3D
globe to represent data.

Geovisualiztion


Representation of geospatial
information


Integration of computational and
visual methods


Effective interface designs for
geovisualization tools


Usability of geovisualization


Levels of GIS and Visualization


Rudimentary: minimal data sharing


Operational: consistency


Functional: transparent
communication


Merged: one environment


Automatic Derivation of Electronic
Maps from X3D/VRML Worlds

Use of web
-
base tools like:


VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling
Language)


High
-
end systems:


Mmersive workbenches, CAVEs, Power Walls


3D “worlds”



Advantages: creating virtual “supper
environments”


Factors that contribute to the
virtuality of the “supper
environments”


Immersion (sensation of being in)


Interactivity (virtual experience)


Information intensity (details)


Intelligence (realism)

Challenges


How to show a mass of data


How to show multiple information


Exploration of data


Cumbersome productions of animation


Data registration


Development of virtual environment that could
lead to immersion on a geographic scale


Balancing abstraction and realism


Intelligence of objects


Collaboration


The future


Internet


VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling
Language) and GeoVRM:


Animation


Personalized maps

Example of GeoVRML visualization

Geovisualization is use to solve
traffic problems

References


Spencer, R.
Information
Visualization.

, (2001),

New York,
NY: ACM Press Books


Visvalingam M, (1995), “Visualization
in GIS, cartography and ViSC”,
Visualization in Geographical
Information Systems, Chapt 3, p18