Chapter 2. 3D User

slipperhangingAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Chapter 2. 3D User
Interfaces: History
and Roadmap

Chapter 2. 3D User Interfaces:
History and Roadmap


Describe some of the history of 3D Uis


Present a 3D UI

roadmap


that
positions the topics covered in this
book.

2.1 History of 3D UIs


Prior to 1980 : CUI


Around 1980 : GUI


Several technologies, such as the mouse,
inexpensive raster graphics display, PC,
and etc.


UI design and HCI became a much more
important

2.1 History of 3D UIs


3D UI development


3D graphics technology, augmented reality
(AR), and VE, flight simulator technology


New types of applications, leading to
previously unexplored user tasks, new
challenges in UI design, and unforeseen
usability issues.

2.1 History of 3D UIs


Ivan Sutherland (1968)


First head
-
tracked, head
-
mounted display


First Virtual Environment


Jim Foley

s article in Scientific American(1987)


3D stereoscopic computer graphics, miniature
CRT displays, position tracking systems, and
interaction devices such as VPL DataGlove

Intro.ppt

2.1 History of 3D UIs


Advanced VE


Visualization of 3D scientific data sets


Real
-
time walkthroughs of architectural structures


VE games


Research challenges


Faster, more realistic graphics, more accurate
head
-
tracking, lower latency, better VE software
toolkits


These application relatively impoverished when it
came to user interaction.

2.2 Roadmap to 3D UIs


3 Areas


What types of works are parts of the 3D UI
area


What disciplines and areas make up the
background for 3D UI work


What impact 3D UIs have on other areas


At least one important reference for
most topics.

3D UIs

Areas Influencing
3D UIs

Areas Impacted
by 3D UIs

Th
eoretic and Social
background

Human spatial
perception, cognition,
and action

HCI and UI design

Popular Media

Technical

background


Interactive 3D Graphics

3D Visualiization

3D Input Device

3D Display Devices

Simulator systems

Telepresence systems

Virtual and mixed reality
systems

3D Interaction tech.
and interface comp

Interaction tech.
for universal tasks

Interaction tech.
for complex or
composite tasks

3D interaction
techniques using
2D device

3D UI widgets

3D User Evaluation

Evaluation of
Devices

Interaction
techniques

Complete 3D Uis
or applications

Specialized
approaches

3D UI design approach

Hybrid IT

Two
-
handed
Interaction

Multimodal
Interaction

3D Interaction
aids

3D UI design
strategies

3D UI Software tools

Development tools
for 3D
applications

Specialized
development tools
for 3D interaction

3D modeling tools

Application Areas

Simulation and training

Education

Entertainment, Art

Visualization

Architecture & construction

Medicine and psychiatry

Collaboration

Standards

For interactive 3D
graphics

For UI description

Reciprocal impacts

On graphics

On HCI

On psychology

2.2.1 Areas Informing the Design
of 3D UIs


Theoretical and Social Background



Human spatial perception, cognition, and action


Psychology and human factors knowledge about the spatial perception;
spatial cognition; and human navigation, movement, manipulation in 3D
space contain critical background information for 3D UI design.(P15)



Basic principles of HCI and UI design


A great deal of knowledge, theory has been generated by researchers
in HCI : focused on desktop Uis.


Applicable to 3D UIs (P15)



Popular media


Different source of inspiration and vision for 3D UI


Star Trek: The next generation,

Holodeck



The Matrix


Snow Crash(Stephenson, 1992) :

cyberspace


2.2.1 Areas Informing the Design
of 3D UIs (continue)


Technical Background



Interactive 3D graphics (P16
참조
)


Producing realistic but synthetic 3D images


Interactive 3D graphics


rendered in real time



3D visualization (P17
참조
)


Changing abstract data into perceptual form



3D input devices (Chapter 4)


Tracking device, Multiple
-
DOF joysticks, Isotonic 3D input device



3D display devices (Chapter 3)


Stereo viewing


Immersion


3D spatial sound system



Simulator systems


Before VR, simulator systems pioneered the use of large, interactive displays


Flight simulation, tank and military vehicle simulation, space vehicle simulation, and simulator for
entertainment



Tele
-
presence systems


Allow one user in one real world location to feel as if he were in a different real
-
world location.


Sensors (cameras, microphone), display (visual, auditory, haptic), and interactive controls



Virtual Reality systems


Sutherland

s HMD system


VPS

s HMD and DataGlove


The Cave Automatic Virtual Environment(CAVE)

2.2.2 3D UI Sub areas

(1) 3D Interaction Techniques & Interface
Components


Just 2D UIs are built from components like
windows, scrollbars, menus, and drag
-
and
-
drop, 3D UIs are built from large number of
techniques and components


Interaction techniques for universal tasks


Interaction techniques for complex or composite
tasks


3D interaction techniques using 2D devices


3D UI widgets

2.2.2 3D UI Sub areas


Interaction techniques for universal tasks
(chapters 5
-
9)


Selection, travel, wayfinding, system control, and
system input are common and low
-
level user tasks.



Interaction techniques for complex or
composite tasks


More complex tasks in 3D UIs are composed of the
universal tasks described above.

2.2.2 3D UI Sub areas



3D interaction techniques using 2D
devices (chapter 5, section 5.4.7)



In a 3D modeling programs running on
desktop computers, we need a way to map 2D
mouse input to the 6 DOF of a 3D object.


3D UI widgets (Chapter8, section 8.3)


Virtual knife


Small icon

2.2.2 3D UI Sub
-
areas

(2) 3D UI Design Approaches


We need higher
-
level approach or
strategies for building 3D interfaces : from
low level interaction techniques and
interfaces components



Hybrid interaction techniques



Two
-
handed interaction



Multimodal interaction



3D interaction aids



3D UI design strategies

2.2.2 3D UI Sub
-
areas


Hybrid interaction techniques


HOMER manipulation techniques from ray
-
casting
and arm extension


Two
-
handed interaction (Chapter 10, section
10.2.3)


Allow the user to use both hands in a
complementary way


Multimodal interaction (Chapter 8, section 8.7)


Combining hand
-
based gestures with speech input


3D interaction aids


Physics: Forces, collisions, etc.


Constraints: snapping, grouping, etc.


3D UI design strategies (Chapter 10)

2.2.2 3D UI Sub areas

(3) 3D UI Software Tools


Tools are needed to turn conceptual UI
design into concrete prototypes and
implementations.



Development tools for 3D applications



Specialized development tools for 3D
interfaces



3D modeling tools

2.2.2 3D UI Sub areas


Development tools for 3D applications


Software Libraries, Toolkits, application
programming interfaces (APIs) and IDEs


PL such as C++, APIs for OpenGL, etc.



Specialized development tools for 3D
interfaces


VRML, Extensible 3D(X3D)



3D modeling tools


AutoCAD, 3D Studio Max, and Maya.

2.2.2 3D UI Sub areas

(4) 3D UI Evaluation


helps designers pursue good ideas and reject poor ones,


compare two or more alternatives for a particular UI
components,


validate the usability of a complete application, and more.



Evaluation of devices



Evaluation of interaction techniques



Evaluation of complete 3D UIs or applications



Specialized evaluation approaches



Studies of phenomena particular to 3D UIs

2.2.2 3D UI Sub areas


Evaluation of devices


Evaluation of interaction techniques


When there are many possible techniques for a particular task, a
comparative evaluation can reveal the tradeoffs in usability and
performance between techniques.


Evaluation of complete 3D UIs or applications


Specialized evaluation approaches


Generic methodologies for evaluating the usability of 3D interfaces.


Testbed evaluation: Chapter 11, section 11.6.1


Studies of phenomena particular to 3D Uis


Presence


Cybersickness


Precise definitions and methods for measuring it, and metrices are
beginning to emerge.

Immersion.ppt

2.2.3 Areas impacted by 3D UIs


Application Areas



Simulation and training



Education



Entertainment



Art



Visualization



Architect and construction



Medicine and psychiatry



Collaboration

Application.ppt

2.2.3 Areas impacted by 3D UIs


Standards



For interactive 3D graphics



For UI description

2.2.3 Areas impacted by 3D UIs


Reciprocal Impacts



On graphics



On HCI


On psychology

2.3 Scope of this book