CAOS Presentation: SIGGRAPH 2002 - SIUe

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Wednesday


September 25, 2002

2:00


3:30 PM

Engineering Building 1033

Bill White will present a survey of recent graphics research projects and computer
animations that were demonstrated at SIGGRAPH 2002 in San Antonio this summer.

What’s New in
Computer Graphics?

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Principal Activities:



Courses & Tutorials



Research Papers



Panel Discussions



Technical Sketches



Educators Program



Special Sessions



Computer Animation
Festival

SIGGRAPH 2002

The 29
th

International Conference on
Computer Graphics and Interactive
Techniques

July 21
-
26, 2002

Fields of Interest:



Character Animation



Rendering Nature



Graphical Processors



Programming
Languages



Artificial Intelligence



Computer Gaming



Virtual Reality

Research Paper: “Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation” by
Tony Ezzat, Gadi Geiger, and Tomaso Poggio


Massachusetts
Institute of Technology

Character Animation



An audiovisual recording is
made of a human subject
uttering various words and
sentences.



A discrete set of images is
culled from the recording, with
each visual image associated
with a specific phoneme.



When applying these images
to a different audio recording, a
shortest
-
path algorithm is used
to morph between phoneme
images.

Research Paper: “DyRT: Dynamic Response Textures for Real Time
Deformation Simulation with Graphics Hardware” by Doug L. James
and Dinesh K. Pai


University of British Columbia

Character Animation



Real
-
time simulations of
dynamic deformations are
achieved via precomputed
vibration models that are
stored in graphics
hardware.



This increases the
realism of the scene while
allowing the main CPU to
focus on the simulation of
more complex tissue
models involved in user
contact interactions.

Research Paper: “A User Interface for Interactive Cinematic Shadow
Design” by Fabio Pellacini, Parag Tole, and Donald P. Greenberg


Cornell University

Rendering Nature



Placing shadows to achieve a
desired visual effect can be
difficult, requiring repeated
repositioning of light sources and
shadow
-
generating objects.



This research allows users to
directly manipulate the shadows
themselves, with lights and
objects automatically
repositioned to correspond to the
desired shadow effect.

Research Paper: “Robust Treatment of Collisions, Contact and
Friction for Cloth Animation” by Robert Bridson, Ronald Fedkiw, and
John Anderson


Stanford University and Industrial Light & Magic

Rendering Nature



Since every point on the surface of a cloth has the potential of
colliding with every other point, as well as with the surrounding
environment, the computation required for realistically simulating cloth
animation is massive.



By modeling cloth elements with discrete repulsion forces, collisions
are avoided and complex cloth motion can be efficiently modeled.

Research Paper: “Physically Based Modeling and Animation of Fire”
by Duc Quang Nguyen, Ronald Fedkiw, and Henrik Wann Jensen


Stanford University and Industrial Light & Magic

Rendering Nature



Visually realistic fire animations are produced by modeling the
physics equations for the vaporization of fuel into hot gaseous
products.



The blackbody radiation emitted by such gaseous products is also
graphically modeled, producing smoke and soot effects.

Research Paper: “Animation and Rendering of Complex Water
Surfaces” by Douglas Enright, Stephen Marschner, and Ronald
Fedkiw


Stanford University and Industrial Light & Magic

Rendering Nature



Previous liquid modeling techniques have focused on modeling the
volumetric effects within a mass of liquid, ignoring the surface
interaction between the liquid and its surroundings (e.g., the air).



By modeling the interaction between the two sides of the liquid
surface, this research yields more photorealistic images of the surface
itself.

Panel Discussion: “When Will Ray
-
Tracing Replace Rasterization?”
with Kurt Akeley (Stanford University), David Kirk (NVIDIA), Larry
Seiler (ATI Research), Philipp Slusallek (Saarland University), and
Brad Grantham (SGI)

Graphical Processors

Rasterization: Converting
images into pixel
-
sized
elements for display.



Simple operations that can be
performed quickly in hardware.



Producing realistic images is
hard, requiring many algorithms
to be spliced together.

Ray
-
Tracing: Producing images by
casting rays from the viewer through
the display screen to the scene objects
and light source.



Produces high
-
quality images with
transparency, reflection, and shadows.



Very computation
-
intensive, so
difficult to make interactive.



Ray
-
tracing lends itself to a large amount of parallelism, encouraging
the development of multiprocessor graphics processing units.



In addition, new application programming interfaces (like OpenGL)
need to be developed with built
-
in ray
-
tracing functionality.

Graphical Processors



Sun’s new Scalable
Advanced Graphics
Environment (SAGE)
architecture renders
over 80M fully lit,
textured, antialiased
triangles per second.



New memory devices
are used to implement
high
-
density non
-
uniform supersampling
of up to 16 samples per
pixel.

Research Paper: “The SAGE Graphics Architecture” by Michael
Deering and David Naegle


Sun Microsystems

Programming Languages

This course, conducted by two of SGI’s OpenGL gurus,
examined several “tricks of the trade” for improving
rasterization performance on any hardware platform
supporting OpenGL.

Course: “Performance OpenGL: Platform
-
Independent Techniques”
by Brad Grantham and Dave Shreiner


Silicon Graphics

Programming Languages

This course
examined
the
improvemen
ts in the next
major
release of
OpenGL,
planned for
two years
from now.

Course: “OpenGL 2.0” by Randi J. Rost (3Dlabs), Bill Licea
-
Kane (ATI
Research), and Evan Hart (ATI Research)



Improved vertex processing
(transformations, shading, texture
coordinates, lighting)



Streamlined data retrieval and storage
(unpacking and packing)



New fragment processing (pixel shading, fog
effects, texture application)



Expanded set of data structures to improve
shading, texturing, and storing graphical data.

Artificial Intelligence



To ensure that interactive synthetic
characters (e.g., game NPCs) are
compelling over time, these researchers
are attempting to get them to “learn”
from experience.



Virtual dog training is used to test this
technique, with the trainer interacting
with an animated puppy via a
microphone (for whistles and uttered
keywords) and a gamepad controlling
two virtual hands (the left holding a
clicker, the right for luring and for head
-
petting rewards)

Research Paper: “Integrated Learning for Interactive Synthetic
Characters” by Bruce Blumberg, Marc Downie, Yuri Ivanov, Matt
Berlin, Michael Patrick Johnson, and Bill Tomlinson


MIT Media Lab

Artificial Intelligence



In this research, “low level”
intelligence is modeled in an
animated character via object
persistence, in which a character
can “deduce” where a tracked
object is, even when the object is
no longer in sight.



“Low level” character animation
involves subtle, emotion
-
based
reactions, such as eye motion,
gaze control, and facial expression.

Technical Sketch: “’Low Level’ Intelligence for ‘Low Level’ Character
Animation” by Damian Isla and Bruce Blumberg


MIT Media Lab

Computer Gaming

The International Game Developers Association’s Education Committee is
developing a framework for a curriculum in game development, design, and
analysis.

Educators Program: “Game Development, Design and Analysis
Curriculum” with Jason Della Rocca (IGDA), Robin Hunicke
(Northwestern University), Warren Spector (ION Storm), and Eric
Zimmerman (gameLab)

Game Criticism, Analysis & History



Theoretical and practical analysis
of electronic and non
-
electronic
games from a Humanities point of
view.

Games & Society



Ways of understanding games,
drawn primarily from the Social
Sciences.

Game Systems & Game Design



Conceptual and practical
concerns that offer a design
-
centric look at how games create
experiences for players.

Interactive Storytelling,
Writing & Scripting



Traditional storytelling as
well as the challenges of
interactive narrative.

The Business of Gaming



Economic, legal and policy
aspects of games.

People & Process
Management in Game
Development



Practical challenges of
managing game
development.

Technical Skills,
Programming & Algorithms



Aspects of traditional
Computer Science, modified
as necessary to address the
technical aspects of gaming.

Visual Design



The many aspects of
creating the visual
components of games.

Audio Design



Creating game sound
environments.

Computer Gaming

Raph Koster

Sony Online

Entertainment

Head Designer:

Star Wars Galaxies

Special Session: “The Fate of Play: Game Industry Revolutionaries
Speak Out”

Lorne Lanning

Oddworld Inhabitants

Creator:
Oddworld:

Munch’s Oddyssee

Scott Miller

3D Realms

Designer:

Duke Nukem

Warren Spector

ION Storm Austin

Studio Director:

Deus Ex

Will Wright

Maxis

Creator:

The Sims

The Consensus:



Games are experiencing the same problem as the movies: too much
emphasis upon fancy graphics, not enough on content!



Gaming is an interactive medium with new, preferably user
-
created,
content; developers shouldn’t overemphasize storytelling, but should provide
character development opportunities!

Virtual Reality

Technical Sketch: “MasterMotion: Full Body Wireless Virtual Reality for
Tai
Chi
” by Philo Tan Chua, Rebecca Crivella, Bo Daly, Ning Hu, Russ Schaaf,
David Ventura, Todd Camill, Jessica Hodgins, and Randy Pausch


Carnegie
Mellon University



Full
-
body optical motion capture,
wireless audio/video broadcast,
belt
-
worn electronics, and
lightweight head
-
mounted displays
are combined to provide a wide
-
area untethered virtual
environment.



A
Tai Chi

training application has
been developed, with on
-
line
feedback and correction provided
to students, whose movements are
compared to those of the teacher.

Computer Animation Festival

“Carl & Ray”

Tippett Studio

“It’s Not The End

Of The World”

Duran Duboi

“Panic Room”

BUF Compagnie

“Passing Moments”

Ringling School Of Art &
Design

“Polygon
Family,

Episode 2”

Polygon
Pictures

“Puppet”

Ringling School Of Art &
Design

“Sprout”

PDI/DreamWor
ks

The SIGGRAPH Student Volunteers Program provides full access to programs
and events seen by conference attendees, sneak peaks at conference events,
special opportunities at the SIGGRAPH 2003 Career Center, and admission to all
programs, receptions, and many special programs.


This is available to high school, undergraduate, and graduate students who are
enrolled full time for at least one semester during the 2002
-
2003 school year.
Students can apply to work either 20 or 35 hours during the conference.
Volunteers from outside the San Diego area willing to work at least 35 hours can
also receive complimentary housing in San Diego for the week. In addition, all
applicants are eligible to apply for the Travel Grant program, which offers
monetary assistance to accepted Student Volunteers to offset the costs of travel to
and from the conference.


On
-
line application submissions (at www.siggraph.org/s2003/cfp/) begin in early
November, with a final submission deadline of February 26, 2003.