Assistive Technology for Computer Access

slipperhangingAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

109 views

Assistive Technology for
Computer Access

Unlocking the Mind with the Keys of Understanding!



Carolyn P. Phillips & Liz Persaud

Tools for Life

Georgia Assistive Technology Program

phone: 404
-
638
-
0390


email:
carolynpphillips@mindspring.com

email:
lizpersaud@mindspring.com

www.gatfl.org


Considering Computer Access:
What Works for the Individual

Why Assistive Technology?


For a person without
a disability,
technology makes
things easier….



For a person with a
disability,
technology makes
things possible.


Assistive Technology Matching:


A TEAM APPRAOCH


The Person with the disAbility


Circle of Support


Family of Choice


Case Managers


Technologist


Occupational Therapist


Speech & Language Pathologist


Physical Therapist


Engineer



Human Activity Technology
(HAAT) Model


Human
: represents the skills and abilities of the
person with a disability


Activity:

a set of tasks to be performed by the person
with a disability


Context
: the setting or social, cultural and physical
contexts that surround the environment in which the
activity must be completed


Assistive Technology
: devices or strategies used to
bridge the gap between the person’s abilities and the
demands of the environment


Developed by Cook & Hussey

Promoting Strengths &
Managing Weaknesses

A Holistic Approach



Selection of an AT Device

Depends on an analysis of the following
conditions:



Prior experience or knowledge, and interests;


The individual’s specific strengths, weaknesses;


The specific device (reliability, ease of operation, technical
support, cost)


Usefulness across settings


Usefulness over time as symptoms manifest!

Most Effective

Technological Products


Able to level out the playing field


Work in cross
-
settings


Portable


Easy to maintain


Affordable to replace and/or maintain


Good and reliable technological support


Accessible training format


Staying off the FAST
Track!






Frustration



Anxiety



Stress



Tension

“Technology gives me
hope & I need a lot of
Hope!"

~ Earnestine


Universal design principles



equitable use


flexibility in use


simple and intuitive to use


perceptible information


tolerance for error


low physical effort


size and space for approach and use


http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/univ_design/princ_overview.htm

Multi
-
modal


Multi
-
modal systems


use more than one sense (or mode )
of interaction


e.g. visual and aural senses: a text processor
may speak the words as well as echoing them
to the screen


Challenge


Very hard to design a product for everyone


What happens when you can’t?


“Design for all” vs. “Design for most”


Assistive technology


Any item, equipment or system, that is used to
increase, maintain, or improve functional
capabilities of a person with a disability

Considerations…


Function


absence of a limb


paralysis



tetraplegia/quadriplegia


all four limbs


paraplegia


lower limbs only


Strength


Tremor/Accuracy


Slowness


Speech & Conversation


Conversation is “a dialogue in which the one
taking breath is called the listener”


150 words/minute


High
-
speed input for people with limited
manual dexterity


Predictive interface, stored phrases, iconic boards


Chat


Acceleration Techniques


Create macros


Use Word prediction


Abbreviations


Word Completion

Windows’ Accessibility Features


Mouse: pointers, speed and trails



Display: resolution settings, high contrast etc., Magnifier (XP)



Cursor: repeat rate or delay and blink rate



Keyboard options: sticky keys, filter keys and toggle keys,
onscreen keyboard (XP).



SoundSentry: screen sounds for VI




Narrator
-
Screen Reader (XP)



Accessibility Wizard Windows ME and above: for setting
features in control panel based on user need


Software Modifications


Sticky keys


Slow keys or disable auto
-
repeat


Modify keyboard mappings


On
-
screen keyboards


Possible Switches


Foot pedal


“Leaf” switch


highly sensitive


Sip and puff


Dual switch (can be used for Morse code)


Joy stick


Muscle switch


Neural implant


Eye gaze


Switches for Access

1.

Jelly Bean Red Switch by Ablenet

2.

Buddy Button switch by TASH

3.

Leaf Switch by Enabling Devices

4.

Frog Switch by Enabling Devices

5.

Untouchable a Proximity Single Switch

6.

Grasp Switch

7.

Voice Activated Switch by Enabling Devices

8.

Activation Pressure Adjustable Switch by Penny and Giles

9.

Ultimate Switch (with mount included) by Enabling Devices

10.

Switch Tray for switch mounting by Maxess

11.

Universal Switch Mount by Ablenet

12.

Switch and Latch Timer for switch use by Ablenet

13.

Battery Adapter (adapts battery operated toys to single switch) by Ablenet


Mouse alternatives


Trackball


Proportional joystick


Switched joystick or cursor keys


Head sensor or mouth stick


Eye
-
gaze


Keyboard only

Cursor Control

1.

Microspeed trackball.

2.

Standard trackball.

3.

Penny and Giles joystick with keyguard.

4.

Penny and Giles trackball.

5.

Trackball from Crayola.

6.

Trackball from Penny and Giles.

7.

Hand mouse.

8.

Mouse with switch interface from Logitech and Mini mouse (for small
hands).

9.

Glidepoint touch pad by Cirque

10.

Graphite Tablet with stylus for drawing.



Switch Interfaces for Computers

Access

1.

Macintosh Switch Interface by Don Johnston

2.

USB Switch Interface by Quizworks

3.

Switch Adapted Mouse by Logtec

4.

SAM trackball mouse by Microspeed

5.

IntelliKeys USB board by Intellitools

Keyboard Modifications


Keyguards


Alternative layouts


Reduce movement


One
-
handed keyboards, possible chords


Membrane surfaces (minimize required
pressure)

Onscreen Keyboards

Alternative Input Devices


Speech input


Dictation versus control

Typing Sticks

What is a Direct

Brain
-
Computer Interface?

… a system that captures signals directly from the
human brain, providing a channel to control
computers and other devices.




The GSU BrainLab Mission

is to pioneer
real
-
world

applications research for
biometric technologies to improve the quality of life
for people with severe disabilities, and to explore
mainstream applications.

Brain Signal Detection
Techniques

Invasive: implanted
electrodes (single neuron)

Noninvasive: scalp
electrodes (EEG)

Restoring Motion
-

Neural
Prosthetics

Brain “re
-
learns” how to move limbs via
an artificial


nervous system


Simulation



Virtual reality hand

Restoring Physical Motion



Robotic arm

The “Aware ‘Chair”


Integrated communication and environmental control



Intelligent, neurally controlled wheelchair



Conversation and environmental control prediction



Learns users habits and context



Provides emotional expression

Take Aways!


Think about universal design principles


helps all users, not just people with
disAbilities



Technology can help provide access and
control of computer



Wide range of solutions



Try before You Buy!



Nothing About Us without Us
-

Work with
users!


The Starfish


There was a young man walking down a deserted beach just before dawn.

In the distance he saw a older woman

appear to be dancing.

As he approached the woman,

he saw her picking up stranded

starfish and throwing them back into the sea.

The young man gazed in wonder

as the woman again and again

threw the small starfish from the sand to the water.

He asked, “Why do you spend so much energy doing what seems to be a waste of time.”

The woman explained that the

stranded starfish would die

if left in the morning sun.

“But there must be thousands of

beaches and millions of starfish!”

exclaimed the young man.

“How can you make any difference?”

The woman looked at the small starfish

in her hand and as she threw

it to the safety of the sea, she said,

“It makes a difference to this one!”.


For Your Time & Interest!


We Want to Hear from You!