AGRICULTURAL COOPERATION, FINANCE AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

slipalaskaManagement

Nov 20, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

80 views


1
AGRICULTURAL COOPERATION, FINANCE AND
BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

AGRICULTURAL FINANCE

Prof. U K Pandey
Department of Agricultural Economics
CCS Haryana Agricultural University
Hissar – 125 004

CONTENTS

Meaning, scope and significance of agricultural finance Basics of Credit

Classification of Credit

Role of Credit in agriculture

Economic Principles in Capital acquisition and use decisions

Factor-product relationship

Factor-factor relationship

Product-Product relationship

Decision for farm loan through partial budgets

Determining the amount of money to be borrowed through principle of equity
and increasing risk

Preparation and analysis of financial statements

Cash flow statement

Balance Sheet

Financial tests and ratios

Income statement or profit and loss statement

Investment appraisal/loan appraisal

Returns from an investment: The first R of credit

Risk bearing ability

Loan repayment plans

Selected further readings


Meaning, scope and significance of agricultural finance

Agricultural finance deals with the financial aspects of the farm business. It includes both
macro and micro finance aspects of an agricultural economy. Various scholars considered
agricultural finance as under:

“Agricultural finance is the economic study of the acquisition and use of capital in
agriculture. It deals with the supply of and demand for funds in the agricultural sector of the
economy.” Warren F. Lee, Michael D. Boehlje, Aaron G. Nelson and William G.
Murray (1980)

“Agricultural finance is the study of financing and liquidity services credit provides to farm
borrowers. It is also considered as the study of those financial intermediaries who provide
loan funds to agriculture and the financial markets in which these intermediaries obtain their
loanable funds.” John B. Penson, Jr. and David A. Lins (1980)

2

“Agricultural finance is a branch of agricultural economics which deals with the provision
and management of bank services and financial resources related to the individual farm
units.” R.K. Tandon and S.P. Dhondeyal (1971)

“The investment on a farm is the combination of “ability to invest” and “willingness to
invest”. “Ability to invest” is production finance while willingness to invest the
development finance. The credit agencies which provide liberal credit for production
purposes induce ability to invest. Moreover certain level of infrastructure is essential to
absorb the production-oriented loan, thereby making development finance as a pre-requisite
for the production finance”. U.K. Pandey (1990)

Farm financial management involves the farm as a whole for taking financial decisions.
Indeed, the term farm financial management refers to the acquisition and use of financial
resources in the individual farm-firm together with the protection of equity. Capital earnings
are very crucial to the farm-firm as greater proportion of farm earnings are required to pay for
the purchased inputs on the one hand and also for meeting the increasing amounts of
consumption expenditure due to the rising population on the other. Financial management has
both “macro” and “micro” aspects. The “macro-financial management” pertains to the
overall aspects of finance, i.e., various sectors of the economy, agriculture, industry, lending
institutions, rural and urban society, etc while “micro-financial management” mainly
confines to the farm finance with a view to manage the individual farm-firm. In fact, the
macro-financial management includes those aspects of finance which provide the overall
frame work in which the individual farm-firm also functions. Since Indian agriculture is
capital intensive, the farmer’s dependence to lending institutions so as to supplement the
farm-finances has considerably risen. Thus, the lending institutions together with society set
the overall framework in which the individual farmer has to manage his finances.

The relationship of farm finance with the production, marketing and consumption aspects of
agricultural economy determines its scope. Farm assets are partly available in the beginning
balance sheet and partly supplemented through lease or hiring in. Quite often, additional
assets are also purchased through savings along with or without borrowing. These farm assets
in conjunction with labour, management and appropriate technologies produce farm
commodities of which partly retained for family and farm requirements while partly available
for sales. Moreover, the farm enterprises combination depends mainly upon farmers’ home
requirements, availability of market infrastructure, etc. These farm produced commodities on
medium and large farms are stored which though involve storage costs yet generate higher
returns by selling in lean periods and also help in liquidity management. Some farmers sold
their farm produce for cash or for “receivables” that may be liquidated within a year or
carried forward to the ending balance sheet. Farm inventories, receivables and cash provide
liquidity which ultimately helps in taking decisions pertaining to production, marketing or
consumption. Yet, the cash generated through marketed surplus can be used for repaying old
debt, meeting current consumption and other social obligations and the remainder goes for
savings. These farm savings are either used for the purchase of assets or for hiring in the non-
farm capital assets, both with or without credit. It ultimately provides the ending balance
sheet.

Agricultural finance possesses its usefulness to the farmers, lenders and extension workers.
The economic principles of farm financial management facilitate in obtaining control over
capital and its efficient use. The investment analysis pertaining to income, repayment

3
capacity and risk bearing ability determine the amount of capital a farm business can
profitably and safely use. Hence, the farmer can determine his credit worthiness and can put
forth his loan application with confidence to lender.

The knowledge of lending institutions, their legal and regulatory environment helps in
selecting the appropriate lender who can adequately provide the credit with terms and related
services needed to finance the farm business. The cash flow analysis helps the farms in
determining the period wise quantum of loans needed and cash surpluses generated which
can be used for repayment purposes, i.e., it reduces the interest burden and also checks
diversion of farm earnings towards non-productive uses. These farmers can also take the
temporal investment decisions with the help of capital budgeting.

The lenders not only earn the profit from their loaned funds rather also want to minimize the
risk of loss from their loan advances. The principles of agricultural finance may help lender
in assessing the borrower’s credit worthiness (who has applied for loan) and determining the
quantum of loan to be lent safely. The lender may also enhance the repaying capacity of the
borrower either by participating in his production planning and management or by adjusting
the time period of loan repayments.

Agricultural finance provide exposure to the extension worker about the structure and
functioning of lending institutions which in turn helps him to guide the borrower to choose
the cheap lender in acquisition of credit. Besides, he can also advise on most efficient use of
credit, i.e., to maximize the returns to limited capital resources. Thus, the extension advisory
service has vital role in the production planning with the farmers on the one hand while on
consequential plans for the acquisition and use of limited funds on the other. Therefore, the
lending agency would depend upon extension advisory service not only for establishing the
soundness of credit to be advanced rather also for its effective and efficient uses on most
productive purposes thereby reducing the risk of misutilization.

Basics of Credit

The word “credit” comes from the Latin word “credo” which means “I believe”. Hence,
credit is based upon belief, confidence, trust and faith. Thus, borrowing depends upon the
ability to command capital or services currently with a promise to repay it in future date, i.e.,
borrowing involves obtaining certain amount of funds to be repaid as specified in
agreement. The loan is based upon the confidence of borrower’s future solvency and
repayment. Hence, credit means ability to command the other’s capital in return for a promise
to re-pay at some specified time in future. Besides, credit is the combination of “ability to
borrow” and “willingness to borrow”. Infact, credit is an individual’s borrowing capacity,
oftenly being considered as an “economic good” to be produced, managed and
marketed.

There are four C’s of credit, viz, character, capacity, capital and condition, that must be
considered in lending or using. The term character implies here the credit character related to
those qualities of an individual which make him conscious about his debt. These characters
may include borrower’s moral qualities like honesty, integrity, sense of responsibility and
trust worthiness. If a person has been borrowing the loan and also timely repaying the debt, it
reflects that he possesses ideal credit character and vice-versa. Quite often, an individual may
possess ideal character in usual sense, but rank low on credit character or vice-versa.
Character is one of the basic cornerstones in assessing the risk bearing ability. A man of high

4
credit character can withstand unforeseen events and may save himself from becoming
insolvent. Character has also a bearing on returns and repayment capacity.

The term capacity means the ability to pay his debt as and whenever it becomes due. Since
payments usually depend upon income, the capacity is a function of income rather than
savings. Moreover, income alone does not indicate capacity. The term capital refers to the
equity or net worth of an individual or business. It assures that funds are available to repay
the loan, if character and capacity prove to be inadequate. Hence, capital represents as one of
the cornerstones for measuring the risk-bearing ability. The term condition also signifies the
financial condition of the borrower which has direct relevance with the risk bearing ability.

These are seven P’s of credit, viz, purpose, person, productivity-planning scheme or
projections, phased disbursement, proper utilization, payment of instalment or repayment and
protection security. All these characters determine the soundness of credit, i.e. generating
adequate income (relates to purpose and productivity planning scheme or projections),
repaying the same whenever falls due (payment of instalment or repayment) and maintaining
risk-bearing ability (person and protection-security).

Classification of Credit

Credit can be classified on the basis of time, purpose, security, lender and borrower.

(i) Time classification:- It classifies credit into three groups, i.e. short, medium and long
term. The “short-term loans” are generally advanced for meeting annual recurring purchases
such as, seed, feed, fertilizers, hired labour expenses, pesticides, weedicides, hired machinery
charges, etc., and termed as seasonal loans/crop loans/production loans. It is expected that the
loan plus interest would be repaid from the income received through the enterprise in which it
was invested. The time limit to repay such loans is a year or at the most 18 months.

“Medium-term loans” are advanced for comparatively longer lived assets such as machinery,
diesel engine, wells, irrigation structure, threshers, shelters, crushers, draught and milch
animals, dairy/poultry sheds, etc., where the returns accruing from increase in farm assets in
spread over more than one production period. The usual repayment period for such type of
loan is from fifteen months to five years.

“Long-term loans” are related to the long lifed assets such as heavy machinery, land and its
reclamation, errection of farm buildings, construction of permanent-drainage or irrigation
system, etc. which require large sums of money for initial investment. The benefits generated
through such assets are spread over the entire life of the asset. The normal repayment period
for such loans ranges from five to fifteen or even upto 20 years.

(ii) Purpose classification:- Credit is also classified based on purpose of loans e.g. crop
loan, poultry/dairy/piggery loan, irrigation loan, machinery and equipment loan, forestry
loan, fishery loan etc. These loans signify the close relationship between time and use as well
as rate of return (or profitability). Some times loans are also classified as production and
consumption loans due to the fact that production loans are diverted for consumption
purposes by the weaker sections. So, the banks have also started financing for consumption
purposes (exclusively for home consumption expenditures) besides financing for the

5
production purposes. The consumption loans are also to be repaid from the sale proceeds of
the crop.

(iii) Security classification:- Security offered/obtained provides another basis for classifying
the loans. The secured loans are advanced as against the security of some tangible personal
property such as land, livestock and other capital assets, i.e., medium and long term loans.
The borrower’s credit worthiness may act much more than the security offered, which if
doubtful may result willful default. Moreover, the secured loans are further classified on the
basis of type of security e.g. mortgage loans, where legal mortgage of some property such as
land is offered to the lender, i.e., loans for intangible property such as land improvement,
irrigation infrastructures, etc. and hypothecated loans, where legal ownership of the asset
financed remains with the lender though physical possession with the borrowers i.e. loans for
tangible property such as tractor, machinery and equipments. The private money lenders,
usually possess items such as gold ornaments/jewellery or land as security, which reminds the
borrower about his obligations of loan repayments. On the contrary, unsecured loans are
generally advanced without offering any security e.g. short-term crop loans.

(iv) Lender classification:- Credit is also classified on the basis of lender such as (a)
Institutional credit e.g. co-operative loans, commercial bank loans and government loans; (b)
non-institutional credit e.g. professional and agricultural money lenders, traders and
commission agents, relatives and friends etc.

(v) Borrower classification:- The credit is also classified on the basis of type of borrowers
(i.e., production or business activity as well as size of business) such as crop farmers, dairy
farmers, poultry farmers, fisherman, rural artisans etc. or agricultural labourers,
marginal/small/medium/large farmers, hill farmers or tribal farmers etc. Such classification
has equity considerations.

Role of Credit in agriculture

The adoption of modern technology, which is capital intensive, has commercialized
agricultural production in India. Besides, the farmer’s income is seasonal while his working
expenses are spread over time. In addition, farmer’s inadequate savings require the uses of
more credit to meet the increasing capital requirements. Furthermore, credit is a unique
resource, since it provides the opportunity to use additional inputs and capital items now and
to pay for them from future earnings. Yet, credit needs vary under traditional and changing
agriculture. In fact, credit has both “static” and “dynamic” characters.

At traditional and subsistence farming, i.e with no marketed surplus and only some financial
income is earned from time to time, no credit can be given due to lack of repaying capacity.
Afterwards, when a small quantum of marketed surplus becomes available, only a very small
amount of credit “can and should” be provided. Here emphasis falls on the word “should”
since credit has still a completely “static” character, i.e., it does not enhance production rather
represents only a burden on the farmer’s budget. The situation, however, becomes more
complicated when the farmer resorts to distress sales, which does not necessarily imply the
existence of a considerable food surplus. This sale itself has the character of disguised credit
transaction. Nevertheless, in such cases the farmer may also apply for institutional credit.
Here, credit is a “double dead weight”. Firstly, the interest which the farmer has to pay to his
institutional credit agencies has not been counter-balanced by any increase in his income.
Secondly, there may be a considerable difference between the sale price and purchase price of

6
food grains, i.e., first marketed and purchased or borrowed afterwards. This kind of “static”
anticipatory credit persisted specially during the pre-technological period. In all such cases,
the quantum of credit supply should, therefore, be as small as possible since it enhances the
agricultural production at a slow rate. However, the small farmer can be saved from the
clutches of money-lenders who charges exorbitantly higher interest rate and makes him
permanently indebted. Credit is, therefore, useful as long as it is administered in appropriate
doses. The modernization of agriculture which shifts upward the production function in
India, would only save the farmer from such forced borrowings.

Agricultural credit begins to show clearly a “dynamic” character when the farmer adopts
improved agricultural production technology. Consequently, the institutional credit is
utilized for increasing agricultural production and proceeds are available for both production
and consumption purposes rather than the payment of old debt. However, under such
circumstances it is essential that institutional credit is not only supplied in due time but also
adequately. The provision of insufficient credit induces the farmer to borrow from the
money-lenders to supplement his institutional loans. As soon as he is dealt by the money
lender, he becomes indebted to such an extent that money-lender hardly leaves enough farm
produce for him to maintain the family. Several studies in India have revealed that the
interaction effects of capital and technology are substantially high in all the categories of
farms. It signifies the fact that credit can play its “dynamic” role only in conjunction with
the agricultural production technology, i.e. in presence of credit absorption capacity.

For assessing the credit needs, the borrower has to first prepare his farm plan which includes
the acreage to be allocated under various crops in the plan, number of livestock enterprises,
farm equipments and machinery etc. The financial institutions possess scales of finance for
crops, size of loan for livestock enterprises as well as for the farm machinery and equipments.
By multiplication, one can determine the short, medium and/or long term credit needs. An
alternative approach to estimate the farmer’s credit needs based on farm plans, which is more
scientific and also recognizes the differences in production potential of individual farm, has
also been suggested. The various empirical studies in India have revealed the inadequate
credit supply through the institutional credit agencies.

Credit in conjunction with modern agricultural technologies has ushered agricultural
development across Indian regions. The liberal credit supply by the lending institutions
enabled rapid infrastructural growth across Indian regions and thereby improved the farm
level credit absorption capacity. Although credit has played vital role in agricultural
development yet regional and farm-category wise disparity has also taken place. Infact, some
of the states with better natural resource base have progressed well while some others lagged
far behind. Like wise, some farmers with better resource endowments and access to financial
and other institutions have marched faster while others could not do so. Furthermore,
multiplicity of lending institutions together with the liberal deployment of credit through
various on going schemes including micro-financing saved rural dwellers from the clutches
of money lenders. Yet, non-institutional credit agents still survive as they follow the canons
of financing.

Economic Principles in Capital acquisition and use decisions

The economic principles form the basis for making decisions pertaining to farm finance.
These principles can be used for selecting the most-profitable enterprises, the amount of
inputs to be used, comparing the cheapest source of farm finance and amounts to be borrowed

7
from each source. Thus, the most profitable use of capital mainly depends upon: (a)
determining the size of each enterprise (factor-product relationship) (b) determining
the most economic production techniques (factor-factor relationship) and (c) selection of
most profitable enterprises or combination of enterprises (product-product relationship). All
these principles help in maximizing the returns from an investment.

Factor-product relationship

Here the objective is to increase the size of an enterprise by equating marginal cost and
marginal return. The relationship can be expressed as below:
∆X
1
.PX
1
+∆X
2
.PX
2
+………………………+∆X
n
PXn = ∆YPy .................(1)

Where, ∆X
1
, ∆X
2
,………. ∆Xn represent marginal units of factors to be used in producing
product Y, the PX
1
, PX
2
,……………………,PXn are prices of various inputs and Py
represents the price of product Y. The above equation can also be written as:
∆C(1+i) = ∆Y. Py…………………………………………………………… (2)

Where ∆C represents the marginal capital excluding cost of capital and “i” the interest rate. If
a borrower gets credit for all inputs from a single source to produce the product Y, or single
lender provides credit for all purposes, then he can expand his enterprise to the optimum size.
However, the cheapest source of credit would be more helpful in expanding the size of an
enterprise.

Factor-factor relationship
It economically combines the factors and minimizes the cost of producing a product.
Algebrically, it can be expressed as below:
Py
∆Y
=
Py

∆Y

Py
∆Y

∆X
1

∆X
2

∆X
n

…….. (3)

PX
1
PX
2
PX
n

Where, Y represents the product produced, Py output price, X
1
, X
2
………….. Xn are the
various factors of production to be used in producing the product Y, and PX
1
, PX
2
…………
PX
n
are the factor prices. To attain above mentioned equalities the farmer has to adjust the
use of various inputs in producing a product. Usually, the borrowings from a single agency so
as to acquire all factors facilitate in adjusting the relative amounts into various factors for
achieving the aforesaid equality. The equation 3 can also be written as:
∆Y. Py
= ∆Y. Py
= ∆Y. Py
………..... (4)
∆X
1
.PX
1
∆X
2
.PX
2
∆X
n
.PX
n

Infact, ∆X
1
.PX
1
, ∆X
2
.PX
2
, etc. represent a certain amount of capital, i.e., ∆C. By using “i” to
represent the interest rate or the cost of capital and subscripts 1,2…….., n as different factors
of production, the above equation can also be stated as:
∆Y. Py
= ∆Y. Py
= ∆Y. Py
……………. (5)
∆C
1
. (1+ ί
1
) ∆C
2
. (1+ ί
2
) ∆C
n
. (1+ ί
n
)

Above equation shows that the rate of interest has direct bearing in optimum allocation of
capital amongst different factors of producing a product. For example, a farmer uses
institutional credit with 12 per cent interest rate for the purchase of fertilizer and custom-

8
hiring. Hence, optimum allocation of these two factors depends upon one rupee worth of
fertilizer for each rupee spent on custom hiring. Another farmer uses institutional credit at 12
percent interest rate for the purchase of fertilizers and non-institutional credit with 24 percent
interest rate for the purpose of custom hiring. In this case, optimum use of two factors
involves 88 paise worth of custom hiring for each rupee worth of fertilizers. Therefore, the
difference in interest rate charges from two sources, shall influence the use of relative
amounts of capital amongst two factors.

Product-Product relationship

Here the objective is to use credit in such a way that the last (marginal) rupee used in each
enterprise produces the same amount of return i.e., equi-marginal return. Thus, maximization
of income shall occur when the following equation holds true:
∆Y
1
Py
1

= ∆Y
2
Py
2
=…….. ∆Yn Pyn
= 1……………… (6)
∆C (1+ ί) ∆c (1+ ί) ∆C (1+ ί)

Obviously, a borrower who gets loan for all inputs from the single lender or lender who
provides loan for all purposes can achieve above equality to his satisfaction. However, the
cheapest source shall further maximize his satisfaction/income.

Before taking a loan, an intelligent farmer would like to know:

1 Whether or not should he take the loan; i.e is it mandatory for him to take the loan or
can he manage without it?
2 What amount of money should he borrow?
3 How should he best utilize the borrowed money?
4 The answers to these three questions may be found with the help of tables1, 2 and 3,
respectively.

Decision for farm loan through partial budgets

Whether or not a farmer should take the loan to buy a buffalo/crossbred cow is illustrated in
table1. The analytical tool that helps in providing a practical solution to this important
question is the partial budget. That is, additional costs on and returns from two or more
substitutable inputs, practices or enterprises are weighed against each other. In table 1, the
additional cost incurred from the purchase of a buffalo (Rs. 42,820) would be more than the
current cost of Rs.33,700 on crossbred cattle by (Rs. 42,820 minus 33,700) Rs.9,120.
Therefore, it would not be advisable to take a loan to buy a buffalo in preference of crossbred
cattle which possess relatively higher milk production potential.

Determining the amount of money to be borrowed through principle of equity and
increasing risk

The amount of money a farmer should borrow depends on his borrowing capacity, repaying
capacity as well as his risk-bearing capacity. The difference between his assets and liabilities
indicates his financial position and borrowing capacity. The repaying capacity is assessed
from the cash returns of the farm in a year. The risk-bearing capacity varies from individual
to individual. However, for all practical purposes, it can be estimated with the help of the
principle of equity and increasing risk. This principle states that decrease in the percentage of

9
equity on a farm increases the risk of income loss. For example, if the equity percentage
declines from 100% to 50%, 25% and 10% (see table 2), the net gain obtained, after repaying
the loan taken and the interest on it, increases from 10% to 11%, 13% and 19%, respectively.
This net gain is obtained when there is a 10% gain on investment. But in the case of a 10%
loss on investment, after repaying the loan and the interest on it, the loss increases from 10%
to 29%, 67% and 181%, respectively. Thus, though a farmer has the chance of gaining more
when he borrows more capital, he runs a greater risk of losing more in the event of loss on
capital investment.

After deciding the amount of money to be borrowed, the farmer should plan for its proper
utilization. For this, he should first prepare an optimal farm plan; i.e. the plan that will give
him maximum returns for his limited resources within the availability of cash and other
resources. Then he should prepare a month wise annual cash flow.

Preparation and analysis of financial statements

It includes the cash flow statement, balance sheet and income statement.

Cash flow statement

It is also called as the sources and uses of funds or flow of funds statement. Both the cash in
flows and out-flows are summarized over a given period of time. Moreover, it is prepared
either for a farm business or to a farm operator’s family. In a cash flow statement the total
cash inflows must equal to the total cash out flows. The total cash in flows include; (i) total
cash available which excludes borrowings, (ii) new operating loans, and (iii) new medium
and long-terms loans as well as the consumption loan. Likewise, the total cash outflows
consist of; (i) total cash required which excludes principal repayments, (ii) principal
repayments and (iii) ending cash balance. In fact, it is the ending cash balance entry which
really balances the account. Table 3 depicts the monthly cash flow statement on 7.5 acre farm
in Haryana during the year 2006.

The problem of untimely repayment of loan instalments can be diagnosed and resolved by the
cash flow statement of a farm business. Infact, an estimation of sourcewise cash income and
monthwise cash expenses provide the monthwise deficit or surplus information. Thus, from
an annual cash flow, a farmer can foresee when he

TABLE 1: ADJUSTMENT ON ACCOUNT OF PURCHASE OF BUFFALO
VIS-À-VIS CROSSBRED COW ON A FARM
Sr. no. Additional Expenditure Rs. Additional returns Rs.
1.


2.


3.


Interest on buffalo loan amount
of Rs.35,000@10%/annum

Depreciation (as buffalo is in Ist
lactation).

Insurance premium @
4%/annum of animal value

3,500.0
Nil
1400.0
Neither there is more
milk production nor
dung production from
buffalo as compared to
crossbred cattle (Rather
buffalo yields less
milk/day and dung
production is more or
less same.)
Nil









10
4.






5.




Shelter
i)Depreciation on shed @ 4%
/annum on shed’s capital
investment (Rs.20,000)
ii) Interest on bank loan for shed
@ 10%/annum

Working capital (on feed,
fodder, labour machines,
etc)/annum

Reduced Returns
Loss due to 760 kg more
lactation yield from crossbred
cattle as compared to buffalo’s
lactation yield which would
have been sold @ Rs.12/Kg.


800.0
2,000.0
26,000.0
9,120.0











Reduced expenditure
i) Depreciation on
crossbred cattle (as cow
is in Ist lactation)
ii) Interest on crossbred
cow loan of Rs.35000
@ 10% per annum
iii) Insurance premium
@ 4% per annum
iv) Depreciation on
cattle shed @ 4% per
annum on the shed’s
investment (Rs.20000)

v) Interest on cattle shed
investment @ 10%/
annum
vi) Working capital (on
feed, fodder, labour,
medicines, etc) per
annum












Nil


3500.0


1400.0

800.0




2000.0


26000.0




Total 42820 Total 33700

TABLE 2: PERCENTAGE OF EQUITY* AND RISK INVOLVED

Category of farms with equity
Particulars
Farm A Farm B Farm C Farm D
Owned capital (Rs) 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Borrowed capital (Rs.) - 10,000 30,000 90,000
Equity (%) 100 50 25 10
Total capital invested (Rs.) 10,000 20,000 40,000 1,00,000
Gain @ 10% on capital 1,000 2,000 4,000 10,000

11
investment (Rs)
Interest to be paid @9% (Rs) - 900 2700 8100
capital at the end of year (Rs) 11,000 11,100 11,300 11,900
Gain in owned capital (%) 10 11 13 19
Loss @ 10% on capital
investment (Rs)
1,000 2,000 4,000 10,000
Interest to be paid @ 9% (Rs) - 900 2,700 8,100
Capital at the end of year (Rs) 9,000 7,100 3,300 -8,100
Loss on capital (%) 10 29 67 181


*Percentage of equity = Owned capital
= X 100
Owned + borrowed capital

will actually need the loan and when he will be able to repay it. This is particularly important
when he is required to pay a high rate of interest and when loans are available at all times. A
cash flow also helps the farmer in checking his farm expenses and in assessing the possibility
of reducing his costs.

Since farm plan is prepared at the beginning of a sowing season or a crop year; it
suggests “what should be” or “what ought to be” on the farm if income maximization is the
goal. Research workers prefer to call the farm plan a normative approach to farm income
maximization, the farmer should consider the results in table 3 as alternatives if he wishes to
maximize his farm income.

12
TABLE 3: ANNUAL CASH FLOW ON 7.5 ACRE FARM IN HARYANA DURING THE YEAR 2006
Particulars Total JuneJuly Aug.Sept.October Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. MarchAprilMay
Cash balance (beginning of the
months)
-16001409155198022234 472353825142465245136023588
Total operating sales*
7051816900 193681625018000
Money borrowed 250015001000
Non farm income 2160018001800180018001800 1800180018001800180018001800
Total available (Rs.) 94618340032094851378040934 2164053382056442652225154025388
Operating expenses** 2660313801080246312802800 3400280026001600150028002900
Capital expenditure† 3000030000
Family living and non farm
expenditure
2450018001200140018003000 1900210028002400230018002000
Payment on current year’s
borrowed money
2,5002500
Interest paid on borrowed
money††
130130
Total expenditure (Rs) 83733318022803863308038430 5300490054004000380046004900
Cash balance (end of month)
(Rs.)
-2209299887002504 163404381516426518451802488
*Operating sales is the income expected from the sales of different crops and livestock products.
**Operating expenditure refers to the annual expenses to be incurred on current inputs, such as labour, fertilizer, seeds, chemicals, tractor fuel,
feed purchased and electricity.
† Capital expenditure is the investment required to purchase some capital item, such as machines and livestock, to make some mid-term or long-
term improvement on the farm.
†† Interest rate at 24% on Rs.1500/- for three months and on Rs.1000/- for two months.

13

Balance Sheet

A knowledge of the owner’s equity or of the net worth of the borrower is helpful in assessing
the security of loans and the risk involved in advancing loans. The “balance sheet” also
called as “net worth or financial statement”, is a summery of assets and liabilities of a
business together with the statement of the owners equity or net worth. The term “balance”
here implies that the value of assets must equal to the value of liabilities plus owner’s equity
or net worth. A balance sheet (Table 4) has a common set of characteristics. These are:

1 It pertains to specific point of time, i.e., 31
st
December 2006. In fact, the date should
be chosen such as two successive balance sheets represent the beginning and ending
points of time as covered by the intervening income statement. It may correspond the
agricultural year, calendar year or financial year.
2 It characterizes the three essential components, viz., (a) assets (b) liabilities and (c)
net worth or owner’s equity, the balancing entry in the account.
3 It includes either owned or owed items and does not provide an accurate measure of
total assets controlled, since many assets used in the production may be rented in.
4 The balance sheet can be prepared for a “farm business” or for a “farm operator’s
family” (includes both business and personal items). These assets and liabilities are
presented in order of payments/liquidity. Moreover, the liabilities are written on left
side while assets towards right side.
5 The balance sheet does not indicate the progress or deterioration of the farm business,
unless drawn overtime and net worth is compared.
6 The balance sheet can be constructed on a cost basis/book value (purchase price or
original cost minus depreciation) or current market value basis.
7 Sometimes the physical data is also given to see the changes in inventory value
(quantity of grain or size and number of livestock), changes in unit prices or changes
in both inventories and prices.
TABLE 4: THE BALANCE SHEET OF SRI AJIT SINGH’S FARM AS ON
30
TH
JUNE, 2006 IN HARYANA (
HYPOTHETICAL DATA
)
Liabilities Rs. Assets Rs.
I. Current Liabilities
1. Accounts to be paid
2. Operating loans plus
interest
3. Portion of medium and
long term loans due within
12months

a) Medium term loan
instalment plus interest

b) Long term loan
instalment plus interest


3000.00
9980.00
16200.00
29143.00
I. Current Assets
1. Cash in hand
2. Cash in bank
3. Accounts receiables
4. Crops to be sold
a) Rice
b) Wheat
c) Gur
d) Gram

5. Fertilizers
a) Urea
b) DAP
c) CAN
3800.00
26500.00
10500.00
15000.00 (15qtl.)
6700.00 (9 qtl.)
5500.00 (10 qtl.)
5900.00 (8 qtl)

2650.00 (5 qtl.)
2850.00 (5 qtl.)
1500.00 (4 qtl.)

14
Total current liabilities


II. Medium-term Liabilities

1. Livestock loan (milch and
draught animal loan)
2. Minor irrigation loan
3. Other machinery and
equipment loan

Total medium-term
liabilities

III. Long-term Liabilities
Tractor & its accessories
Total long term liabilities
IV. Total Liabilities

V. Net worth
Total Liabilities plus net
worth
58323.00
26000.00
18000.00
10000.00
54000.00
120000.00
120000.00
232323.00

612177.00
844500.00



Total current assets

II. Medium term Assets

1. Livestock (milch and
draught animals)
2. Heifers
3. Tubewell
4. Other equipments and
machinery.

Total medium term assets


III. Long term assets
1. Land
2. Tractor & its
accessories
Total long term assets
Total Assets
80900.00
45000.00 (2+2)
28600.00 (2)
80000.00 (1)
130000.00
283600.00
360000.00
120000.00
480000.00
844500.00
8 Net worth is placed towards liability side as the owner like creditor has claim against
the business for the assets equal to net worth. In fact it is the liability of the business
which owes that amount to the owner. But net deficit is placed on the asset side to
show the “shortage of assets”. In balance sheet, the liabilities (as listed in the left
side) are presented under three heads; (a) current liabilities, (b) medium-term
intermediate liabilities and (c) long-term liabilities.

Liability: - It represents an amount which is owed to others whether payable in cash, kind
or services.

Current liability:- are debts payable within the operating year (normally 12 months) e.g.
crop loan. Accrued interest on loans owed i.e., short, medium and long term, in the year the
statement is prepared, loan instalments of medium and long term loans due within the next 12
months are considered as the current liability. Just like operating loans, the payments for
medium and long term loans must come from the sale of current assets.

Intermediate/medium-term and long term liabilities:- There are the obligations associated
with the intermediate and long term assets, respectively. One should consider outstanding
principal which is due beyond 12 months as intermediate or longterm liability. Medium term
loans/liability are those whose maturity between 1 and 7 years while long term loans/liability
possess maturity is more than 7 years.


15
Contingent liability:- These become due under specific circumstances, such as capital gain
taxes. Such taxes become due only when the capital asset is sold. Such liabilities are only
accounted for if the balance sheet is prepared on market value basis.

Asset:- These represent the value that are owned and classified according to time
required to convert them into cash with a minimum loss, i.e., current, medium and long-term
assets. Moreover, the assets are listed in sequence of their liquidity.

a) Current assets:- These are consumed within the single year and can be converted
into cash without disrupting the farm business (sale of land disrupts the farm business).

b) Medium term assets:- These assets can not be converted or sold for cash in short
period of time, e.g., milch and draught animals, small equipments, etc. These assets are not
consumed within the year and continue to give returns beyond one year.

c) Long term or fixed assets:- These are also part of production plan but are of
permanent nature. Farm real estate represents the major long term asset on the balance sheet
for most farm operators.

d) Net worth:- The owner’s equity or net worth represents the residual entry in the
account which “balances” the statement.

Net worth in a year will change due to farm earnings, paid up capital, capital gains or losses,
etc. However, an equal increase and decrease in assets, equal increase in assets and liabilities,
equal decrease in assets and liabilities and an equal increase and decease in liabilities will
undoubtedly affect the structure of balance-sheet but net worth would remain unchanged. On
the contrary, an equal increase in assets and liabilities would arise once purchased with credit.
Thus, total assets and liabilities are changed but net worth remains unchanged. Furthermore,
the net worth would be reduced by diverting a part of the loan for consumption purposes.
Infact, loan payments are transactions that lead to an equal decrease in assets and liabilities,
leaving the net worth unchanged. In case long term loans are used to pay off the short term
loans, it would result into an equal increase and decease in liabilities consequently, net worth
would be unaffected since debt has been restructured to improve the liquidity position.

Financial tests and ratios

The financial ratio analysis can also be done based on balance-sheet data which monitors the
financial structure of the farm business or farm operator. These financial ratios provide
information pertaining to extent of risk involved in lending to the farmer and can be divided
as (a) liquidity ratios, and (b) solvency ratios.

(A) Liquidity ratios: - These ratios indicate the ability of the farmer to generate sufficient
cash in order to meet the debt obligations without disrupting his farm business. These are:
(i) Current ratio = current assets

current liabilities

This ratio indicates the extent to which current assets, if liquidated, would cover the current
liabilities, i.e., the value of current assets for each rupee of current liability. The higher
current ratio means more liquidity exists in the farm business.

16
(ii) Working ratio = Sum of current plus working assets

Sum of current plus working liabilities

Over period, both current and working assets are converted into cash. This ratio reflects that
whether or not the cash derived in this period would be adequate to cover the liabilities of the
same period. Higher ratio, being more than one, indicates that the risk-bearing ability of the
borrower is adequate.
(iii) Debt-structure ratio = Current liabilities

Total liabilities

Lower the value of this ratio, higher is the liquidity position of the farm business.
(iv) Acid test ratio or quick ratio =
Current assets minus inventories and supplies

Current liabilities
This ratio reflects the adequacy of cash, accounts receivable, etc. to cover all current
liabilities.

(B) Solvency ratios:- Solvency is a measure of financial security, i.e. what would be left
in case all the assets are converted into cash and debts are paid.

(i) Leverage ratio or debt-to-equity ratio = Total liabilities

Net worth

If the leverage ratio is higher, the farm operator has larger claims/debt to pay in relation to his
equity.
(ii) Net capital ratio = Total assets

Total liabilities

A greater than one net capital ratio indicates that the liquidation of farm business would
generate adequate cash to repay the total liabilities.
(iii) Equity-to-asset value ratio = Farmer’s equity or net worth

Value of assets

Since total assets = total debt + ower’s equity, leverage ratio, net capital ratio and equity-to-
asset value ratio are alternative ways of expressing the overall leverage position of a farm
business.

Income statement or profit and loss statement

It is a measure of revenue and expenses during a specified accounting period (usually a year).
It provides a fairly good picture of income earning and managerial ability of the farmer, in
case drawn over a number of years. Moreover, an income-statement can be constructed either
for a farm business or of a farm operator. Once prepared for a farm business, it reveals the
success or failure story over time together with the costs and returns associated in the use of
capital and/or credit. Usually, the income statement considers the various types of income
such as (a) cash revenue from sale of crops, livestock and its products, earnings from custom
hiring and cash receivables, (b) kind income such as, value of farm produce consumed by the
family, the rental value of farm dwellings, (c) unrealized income such as inventory changes,

17
(d) miscellaneous sources, if any. However, the non-farm income can also be included in the
income statement, if prepared for a farm operator. Normally, three income level figures, viz.,
net cash income, net farm income and returns to management, are to be considered while
preparing the income statement.

Cash farm operating expenses represent those expenditures of cash which are associated with
the operation of a farm. These include; the purchases of seed, feed, fertilizers, pesticides and
supplies i.e. variable cash expenses are incurred only if production is undertaken. Fixed cash
expenses represent the outlays incurred even in the absence of production, e.g., land revenue,
interest on medium and long-term loans, etc. Expenditures on the purchase of capital assets
such as tractor, bullocks, pumpsets, land, etc., are not considered as a cash expense because
these assets are consumed over the period. In fact, the cost of these capital assets is allocated
over their entire life by including annual depreciation as an expense item. Similarly, the
current principal payment on loans is also excluded as cash expense since repayment of
principal has no effect on profit as liabilities are reduced by an equal amount. However, the
interest payments form a cash expense. These total cash farm expenses are deducted from the
total cash farm revenues to get the net cash farm income.

The inventory of a farm may also differ between the beginning and at the end. Therefore,
these changes may also be accounted for at the time of income measurement. In fact, the
annual net change in crop and livestock inventories, fertilizer and other supplies must be
accounted for if we are interested to measure the accurate profit. In case inventories are
greater at the end of the year as compared to beginning of the year, then addition to farm
income would be positive. Contrarily, if inventories declined during the year, the income
would be reduced while doing non cash adjustments in the income statement. Similarly,
changes in the value of crop and livestock inventories due to the changes in price should also
be reflected when adjusted for the income. The changes between beginning and ending
liabilities such as debt and interest payments may also be considered while preparing an
income statement. The non-farm income represents the net cash earnings of farm operator
and his family from non-farm investments and occupations. This may also be included if we
are preparing the income statement of a farm operator. Likewise, the value of farm produce
consumed by the farmer and his family should be included while measuring the net farm
earnings. By subtracting the imputed value of family labour and interest on the investment (or
working capital) with the net farm earnings, one can get the returns to management of a farm
business (Table 5).

Financial tests and ratios

These ratios can be divided into two categories viz; (a) Efficiency ratios, which relate
expenses to gross income, and (b) Profitability ratios, which relate income to the capital
investment.

TABLE 5: INCOME STATEMENT OF SRI AJIT SINGH’S FARM IN
HARYANA FOR 2005-06 (
HYPOTHETICAL DATA
)
Particulars Amount (In Rs.)
A. Cash Receipts
a) Sale of crops 88650.00

18
b) Sale of livestock and livestock products
c) Custom hiring (camel and cart)
d) Miscellaneous (Pension from military)
Total
B. Cash Expenses
a) Wage payments, hired machinery charges/fuel
expenses and draught animal charges
b) Purchase of material inputs for crops
c) Irrigation/electricity charges
d) Expenses on livestock feed, Veterinary and medicine
expenses.
e) Miscellaneous expenses (such as repair/upkeep of
farm buildings and machinery, land revenue,
depreciation on capital assets, interest on operating
loans, medium and long-term loan instalments plus
interest there of etc.)
Total
C. Net Cash Income
(=Cash receipts(-)cash expenses)

a) Inventory changes (±)*
b) Value of farm produce consumed
D. Net farm earnings
(=Net cash income(±)inventory charges+value
of farm produce consumed)
a) Operator’s family labour and interest on investment
E. Returns to Management
(Net farm earnings minus imputed
value of family labour and interest on the investment or working capital)

32500.00
18600.00
30000.00
169750.00
18900.00
18600.00
8500.00
9800.00
19500.00
75300.00
94450.00
13500.00
20600.00
128550.00
38800.00
89750.00

*It reflects the addition to inventory value minus interest paid on medium and long-term
investment alongwith depreciation amount (if any)
Note: Depreciation amount is Rs.12040.

Efficiency ratios:- These ratios measure the degree to which a farm operator uses his farm
resources in order to obtain the optimum results.
(i) Operating ratio = Total operating farm expenses

Gross farm income

It reflects the proportion of operating farm expenses into the gross farm income.
(ii) Fixed ratio = Total fixed farm expenses

Gross farm income

It represents the share of fixed farm expenses per rupee of gross farm income.
(iii) Gross ratio = Total farm expenses

Gross farm income

It expresses the proportions of gross farm income being absorbed by the total costs.

19
(iv) Expense structure ratio = Fixed cash expenses

Total cash expenses

Higher the value of expense structure ratio, the more inflexible the farm operator is to adjust
quickly and efficiently with the changing market conditions.

The less than one efficiency ratios (i.e. operating, fixed, gross and expense structure ratio)
indicate that the borrowed loan has generated additional return/income.

Profitability ratios:- The rate of return on investment offers one criterion which can be
applied across different types and sizes of farm businesses. Furthermore, income to
investment ratios indicate the efficiency with which capital is being employed in the farm
business.
(i) Capital turnover ratio = Gross income

Total capital investment

It measures the gross farm income generated per rupee of capital investment. It is used to
quickly appraise the efficiency of capital.
(ii) Rate of return on debt and equity capital =
Net return to capital

Total capital investment

It relates to the return from debt and equity capital invested in the farm business to the total
farm business assets.
(iii) Rate of return on equity capital = Return to equity

Net worth

It describes the returns per rupee of equity invested and provides a basis for comparison with
the rates of return on non-farm investments. Greater than one profitability ratios indicate that
borrowed loan has generated the additional returns reflecting thereby the sound investment.

Investment appraisal/loan appraisal

To estimate the rationality of a loan, it is essential to do credit analysis. The considerations of
credit analysis fall into three groups; returns, repayment capacity and risk bearing ability;
these are popularly known as the three R’s of credit. To estimate the rationality of
borrowing, three questions should be carefully examined.

1 Whether investment will provide sufficient returns to cover the principal and
additional costs?

2 Whether the borrower has sufficient repayment capacity to return the loan and the
interest on it when these amounts are due?

3 Whether the borrower has capacity to meet the risk and uncertainties involved in
using the borrowed funds. If the answer to the above questions are “yes”, then there is
a sound case for advancing/taking the loan. If the answer to any of the question is
“no”, then the loan should not be advanced/taken. A negative answer to question (i)

20
indicates that the use of funds, if borrowed, will not be profitable; negative answers to
the questions (ii) and (iii) mean that the borrower may fail to fulfill his obligations.
Hence, in any of these cases, the loan should not be advanced/taken.

Returns from an investment: The first R of credit

The returns from an investment, the first test of credit, has great significance to both creditor
and borrower. It requires that both borrower and lender are satisfied about the returns from
credit which cover the principal and interest. Furthermore, the basic question pertaining to
returns analysis is whether or not the use of credit generates adequate income and is most
profitable use. Thus, even though the use of credit may be profitable it should also be
examined whether or not it is the most profitable. Similarly, the examination of returns from
an investment in terms of generating adequate incomes to compensate for the contribution of
family labour and management as well as building owner’s equity is also essential. Hence,
overall profitability of a farm business must be evaluated to assess the possibility of earning
income from most profitable enterprise to compensate the loss from another. Thus, the
problem of determining the most profitable use of capital is a part of decision making and
involves, (a) the selection of most profitable enterprises (product-product relationship), (b)
determining the most economical production techniques(factor-factor relationship), and (c)
determining the size of each enterprise (factor-product relationship). However, the following
points may be kept in mind while calculating the expected returns from the borrowed funds.

1 Estimate the gross returns by multiplying average yields with its corresponding
expected average prices, the conservative prices should be used for safety purpose.
These gross returns should be worked out both with and without borrowed funds.
2 Estimate the total cost both with and without borrowed funds, these costs should be
slightly on higher side to take into account the risk.
3 Estimate the additional cost and additional returns from the investment, do not use
average cost and average returns.

The use of credit becomes an economically sound proposition, if the net cash income is more
due to the use of borrowed funds, with a sufficient margin for income variability.

Repayment capacity: The second R of credit

It should also be taken into consideration while extending/borrowing a loan. In fact, it is not
only sufficient for a loan to be productive rather it should also generate adequate returns so
that loan instalments can be repaid. It is quite possible that a loan may be productive but may
not generate adequate income after meeting the family and farm expenses to regularly pay the
loan instalments.

The repaying capacity is the amount of money that a farm family would be able to spare from
their total earnings so as to repay the loan after meeting his farm and family expenses. Ability
to repay a loan is influenced by the income generating capacity of the farm business, off farm
earnings, the liquidity of the farm as reflected by the balance sheet and the cash flows on the
farm (with due consideration for farm and family obligations). Furthermore, the ability to
repay may be influenced by numerous factors but willingness to repay a loan is quite
essential. In short run, the current assets must be able to repay the current liabilities.

21
However, in long run the sufficient income must also be available (after meeting operating
expenses, family living expenses and expenses for the farm-firm growth) so that debt
obligations can be repaid. In this contest, the cash flow analysis of a farm business depicts the
complete picture of repayment ability, i.e., the period of cash inflows so that loan terms and
payment dates can be tailored with it.

For maximization of the net returns from an investment, the credit is to be used upto the point
where additional (marginal) net income equals to that of additional (marginal) cost.
Therefore, the repayment of principal and interest depends upon the type of loan taken by the
farmers, viz., self-liquidating and non-liquidating or partially liquidating loans.

Self-liquidating loans:- These are loans to acquire goods or services that are completely
used up in one production season or in annual production process. These are, infact, the short-
term loan (operating expenses) which become a part of working expenses in the single
production process. In estimating repaying capacity the borrowed funds are not deducted as
costs are included in working expenses. The repaying capacity for such loans should be
determined as below:

Repaying capacity = (Gross income including off-farm income) minus (living expenses +
working expenses excluding proposed loan +taxes and L.I.C. premiums + other loans and
repayments due).

Non-liquidating loans:- These are loans where resources acquired are not expended or
consumed up in a single production process, i.e. the acquired resources are consumed over a
number of years. Such loans do not completely become a part of the first year’s costs and
returns from such investments are spread over a number of years. A loan for the purchase of
tractor or land reclamation is an example of non-liquidating loan, i.e., all the medium and
long term loans are non-liquidating loans. These loans may contribute indirectly to the
repayment capacity by enabling the farmer to produce more net income than otherwise would
be possible without the use of such resources. The repaying capacity for such loans is worked
out as:

Repaying capacity = (Gross income including off farm income) minus (working expenses
including seasonal loans + living expenses +taxes and LIC premiums + repayment of other
loans due).

The poor debt-servicing capacity can be due to:

1 Small operational land with inadequate infrastructures on these farms ultimately result
into the lower gross returns.
2 Lack of appropriate avenues for off-farm income in the area/region.
3 Poor yield of crops due to factors such as poor land, inadequate/erratic rainfall,
salinity/alkalinity problems, disease and pest infestations, low adoption of improved
technology, etc. Similarly, rearing of low yielder milch animals, small herd size, lack
of adequate feed and fodder, veterinary facilities, in-efficient milk marketing etc. may
result lower returns from milch animals.
4 Sale of crop produce during the post harvest months (also through in-efficient
channel), distress sales and poor market infrastructures.

22
5 High production costs due to high input prices (also due to in-efficient purchase of
farm inputs).
6 Diversion of loans for unproductive purposes, and
7 High cost of living.

Above listed, the first four factors reduce the gross returns while the last three factors
increase expenses. All these factors reduce the net cash income and there by ability to repay
the loan or debt servicing capacity. However, to strengthen the debt-servicing capacity the
following factors may be kept in mind:

1 Improving net worth of the farm business through savings. The net farm income can
be increased by cultivating high yielding crop varieties and rearing high yielder milch
animals, optimum combination of crop and livestock enterprises, selecting least cost
combination of inputs, most profitable level of input use, removing imbalances in the
resource availability and in its use, ploughing off farm incomes, etc.
2 Adjustments in the time period of loan repayment, i.e., larger the number of
instalments better would be the debt-servicing capacity and vice-versa.
3 Adjustments of type of loan, i.e. use of more self-liquidating loans as compared to the
non-liquidating loans.
4 Adequate supply of institutional credit at cheaper rate of interest alongwith the
consumption loan.
5 Non-diversion of production loan to the unproductive purposes.
6 Efficient sale of farm produce and also the purchase of farm inputs.
7 Reduction in the cost of living and working expenses.
8 Improving managerial skill of the farmer through Farm Advisory Service or
Trainings.
9 Use of cash flow statement to adjust the repayments with cash inflows.

Risk bearing ability

Risk bearing ability, the third R of credit, determines the quantum of credit which can be
safely used by the farm-firm. It means the ability of borrower to withstand the unexpected
low incomes, unpredictable losses and expenses and to continue the farming. It provides the
“last line of defence” in the use of credit. It is quite possible that a loan may be productive
and may also generate adequate repaying capacity but borrower may not be able to afford the
shocks of probable financial losses due to poor/inadequate risk-bearing ability. The
assessment of risk bearing ability is, therefore, essential since both returns and repayment
capacity are based on average estimates of production, prices and costs, which seldom hold
true. Farming is exposed to the many natural hazards such as, attack of insects, pests and
diseases and also to the price fluctuations. Instability in farm income is more common as
compared to the stable farm income. Consequently, most of the farmers are risk- averter
rather than the risk preferer. Hence, the variability in gross incomes has to be accounted for
before arriving at a fairly stable and also reliable estimates of the level of repayment capacity.
The stable repayment capacity, based on deflated gross returns, may be worked out to
account for risk-bearing ability of the borrower. For this purpose, the general variability
coefficients of the area may be considered due to non-availability of these coefficients for an
individual borrower in developing countries. From deflated gross income, deductions should

23
be made for farm and family expenses and the loans due. The balance would indicate the
repayment capacity for the relevant period.

Stable repayment capacity = (Deflated gross returns minus working expenses plus family
living expenses plus old debt payments plus L.I.C. premium, etc.)

The stable income or financial position though determines the borrower’s ability to bear the
financial shocks yet the risk bearing ability of a borrower depends upon the following factors:

1) Ability and willingness to save.
2) Ability to borrow, i.e., credit worthiness of the borrower as a person, especially in
bad times.
3) Ability and willingness to adjust and withstand the adverse conditions, i.e.,
reducing both operating and living expenses in bad periods.
4) Equity and net worth, the backbone of risk bearing ability.The risk bearing ability
can be enhanced by certain measures such as:
a) Taking crop, livestock and other insurances.
b) Adoption of financial strategies (e.g. internal cash or asset rationing,
internal and external credit rationing and reducing farm and family
expenses.)
c) Adoption of suitable marketing strategies (such as hedging, forward
contracts for sale of farm products and purchase of input supplies to reduce
price risk).
d) Adoption of suitable production strategies (such as flexible production
programmes, use of plant protection, weedicides and other farm practices,
growing less risky or more stable farm enterprises, diversification of farm
production programmes).
e) Building up of owner’s equity or net worth through savings and personal
credit through fair dealings.

Cost of credit

Rate of interest is the price or cost of servicing a loan which is to be paid by the borrower
while using it. The various factors associated with the cost of credit include; the cost of
obtaining loanable funds (which usually depends upon the sources, demand for and supply of
capital in the market), a risk premium i.e. both default risk ( a loan may not be fully repaid as
and when it falls due and interest rate) or market risk (the possibility of changing interest rate
once a loan has been sanctioned), administration’s servicing costs associated with the size
and term of loan (sometimes overhead costs are very high both on small and large loans) and
inflation (the real value of principal payments made in future may be less than the real value
of loan received today). Besides, the lender has to take care of abstenence while increasing
deposits/savings. Hence, the lender would like to be compensated for their cost of funds,
inflation, risk, administrative expenses and also for abstenence.

Concepts about interest rate

Interest rate, being the price of money loans is usually determined by the supply and demand
for money. On the one hand, the rate of interest depends upon the supply of money available

24
to the community; on the other, it depends on the demand for that money, i.e., liquidity
preference. In general, as supply of money increases/rises in relation to demand the interest
rate falls and vice-versa.


(a) Simple and compound interest:-

The simple interest is the product of principal, the time in years and the annual rate of interest
e.g. the interest of Rs.10,000/- for one year with 10 per cent rate of interest equals Rs.1000
and only one payment of interest is made when loan matures. When simple interest is
computed for part of a year then time in years is a fraction, with numerator being the term of
loan in days and the denominator is days in a year. The amount is called “exact” simple
interest when 365 days or 366 days in a leap year, are used in the denominator of the fraction.
But when 360 days are used as denominator of the fraction, the amount is called as
“ordinary” simple interest which is slightly greater than the “exact” simple interest.

Compound interest:- Here the interest is periodically “converted into the principal” i.e.
annually, biannually, quarterly, etc. The interval between successive conversion is called the
“conversion period” and amount due at its end is called the “compound amount”. The
“compound interest” is difference between the compound amount and the beginning
principal while “compound interest rate” is the rate per conversion period charged on
outstanding balance at the beginning of that period.

The amount of interest charged increases with the frequency of compounding and it is very
much liked by the lender but disliked by the borrower. The periodic rate or rate per
conversion period, referred to as the “compound rate”, is the “True or actuarial rate”. Thus,
true rate is charged against the principal in each conversion period and it decreases as the
frequency of compounding increases. The annual rate referred as a true rate only when
interest is compounded annually.

(b) Nominal and effective rates:-

The “nominal annual rate or nominal rate” is the periodic rate converted on an annual basis
(under the situations of converting interest to the principal more than once in a year). On the
contrary, the rate of interest actually earned per annum is called the “effective annual rate”
and is obtained by compounding the true rate for a period of one year. The nominal rate
though provides a fairly good basis for comparing loans, yet the effective rate is more
precise.

(c) Interest on beginning balance:-

For computing the interest on beginning balance there are two methods:

i) Discount method:- The total interest charges are subtracted or discounted from the
beginning principal amount and then loan instalments are fixed e.g. with 10 percent interest
rate on Rs. 20,000 for a period of 3 years the interest would be Rs.6000/-. Thus, the borrower
will receive only Rs.14,000 and instalments would be computed by dividing Rs.20,000
through total number of payments.


25
ii) Add-on-method:- Here the total amount of interest is added to the principal amount
borrowed and borrower initially receives the full amount. The periodic instalments/payments
are computed by dividing the principal plus total interest by the total number of payments.

Loan repayment plans

A borrower may have good repaying capacity but defective repayment plan proposed by the
lender would render him to become defaulter. It is, therefore, essential to chalk out well
thought repayment schedules/plans. The most commonly used repayment plans for repaying
the medium and long-term loans are discussed below:

i) Straight end Lumpsum repayment plan:- The entire loan is repaid on the expiry of
the term but interest amount is paid every year. This plan has advantage of using existing
capital where the borrower feels high marginal productivity of capital. Furthermore, this plan
assumes that the good year shall balance out the bad year and at the end sufficient repaying
capacity would be available to repay the entire loan. However, it happens quite often that at
the end sufficient repaying capacity is not left and chances of defaulting the loan become
high.

ii) Partially amortized loan repayments:- An “amortized loan” is one which is repaid
in a series of payments/instalments to cover both interest and principal amount. The term
“amortization” means “killing by degrees”, i.e., the repayment of principal loan in a series of
instalments.

The partially amortized loan involves small principal payments every year of the repayment
term and remaining unpaid principal balance become due at the end as a lump sum or balloon
payment. This payment term is slightly better than the earlier one as entire principal loan is
not left for repayment at the end.

iii) Amortized even/level repayment plan:- Here the equal total payments are made
every year i.e. a larger proportion of each succeeding principal amount/instalment and a
smaller amount representing the interest. As interest payment decreases, the principal
payment increases over the life of the loan to make equal total payment. This repayment plan
is more suitable where income flow is constant over the entire period of asset, e.g., tractor or
pump set, etc. The following equation is used to calculate the annual repayment instalment on
even/level repayment basis.
P=B 1

nךi

a

Where, “P” represents the amount of annual instalment i.e., principal plus interest, “B” is the
face value of the loan, “n” is the number of years for which loan has been given and “i” the
annual interest rate. The term “1/ a
nךi
” is read as “1 divided by a sub n at rate i” and
represents the annuity that “1” will buy/purchase for “n” years with an annual interest rate
“i”.

iv) Amortized decreasing repayment plan:- It involves the constant principal payment
and the declining interest payment on outstanding balance. Consequently, total instalments
decline in every succeeding year till the loan is not repaid. The decreasing repayment plan is
appropriate when borrower is able to pay the higher initial instalments. This plan is well

26
suited for farm machinery and equipment loan as a nominal amount of money is needed in
initial years for repair and maintenance which helps the borrower to pay the heavy
instalments in the beginning.

v) Graduated loan amortization plans:- It assumes lower instalments for the
repayment of loan during early years as compared to conventional level/even repayment plan.
When borrower’s income increases, the repayment amount also increases.

vi) Flexible or variable repayment plan: - Since amortized repayment plans do not
account for income variability overtime, the borrower may become defaulter during the
draught year. In variable repayment plan, the higher amounts are repaid in good years while
small or no repayment is made in bad years. It is a flexible repayment plan and fits well into
the variable nature of farm incomes.

Access to Agricultural Credit Facilities by Women

Development of women received attention of the Government of India in the First Plan
(1951-56), with the welfare of disadvantaged groups like destitute, disabled, aged, etc. The
Sixth Plan (1980-85) adopted a multi-disciplinary development approach with special thrust
on the three core sectors of health, education and employment of women. In the Seventh
Plan (1985-90), the developmental programmes continued with the major objective of raising
their economic and social status and bringing them into the mainstream of national
development. The Eight Plan (`1992-97) played a very important role in the development of
women. It promised to ensure that benefits of development from different sectors do not by
pass women, implement special programmes to complement the general development
programmes and to monitor the flow of benefits to women from other development sectors
and enable women to function as equal in the development process. The “Empowerment of
women” became one of the nine primary objectives of the Ninth Plan (1997-2002). To this
effect the approach of the plan was to create an enabling environment where women could
freely exercise their rights both within and outside home, as equal partners alongwith man.
The approach to Tenth Plan (2002-07) for empowering women was distinct from that of
earlier plans, as it now stands on a strong platform for action with definite goals, targets and a
time frame. Accordingly, a sector-specific 3 fold streategy for empowering women, based on
the prescription of the National Policy for Empowerment of Women, included:

a) Social Empowerment: To create an enabling environment through various
affirmative developmental policies and programmes for development of women besides
providing them easy and equal access to all the basic minimum services so as to enable them
to raise their full potentials.

b) Economic Empowerment: To ensure provision of training, employment and income-
generation activities with both “forward and backward” linkages with the ultimate objective
of making all potential women economically independent and self reliant; and

c) Gender Justice:- To eliminate all forms of gender discrimination and thus, allow
women to enjoy not only the de-jure but also the de-facto rights and fundamental freedom
on par with men in all spheres, viz, political, economic, social civil, cultural, etc.


27
Women and Micro-credit:- The Tenth Plan recognized the need for a comprehensive
credit policy to increase women’s access to credit either through the establishment of new
micro credit mechanisms or micro-financial institutions or strengthening the existing ones. In
this context, expansion of the activities of Rashtriya Mahila Kosh have received special
attention with adequate financial support in the Tenth Plan. Efforts are made to draw lessions
from the success stories of various voluntary organizations which have already established
their credentials in the field of micro credit for women and encouraged them to expand their
activities, both within and outside their states. Efforts are made to equip all States/Union
Territories with Women’s Development Corporations to provide both “forward” and
“backward” linkages of credit and marketing facilities to women entrepreneurs, besides being
active catalyst for empowering women economically.

NABARD’S Exclusive schemes for women:-

1. ASSISTANCE TO RURAL WOMEN IN NON-FARM DEVELOPMENT
(ARWIND)


This scheme has objective of encouraging lending to rural women, preferably organized in
groups and supported by Voluntary Associations (VAs)/Non-Governmental Organizations
(NGOs), Women Development Corporations, Khadi Village and Industries Commission
(KVIC)/Khadi and Village Industries Board (KVIB), Co-operative Societies, Trusts, etc. The
scheme has both credit and grant components. It is envisaged that women groups organized
or sponsored by a suitable agency could avail of bank credit normally not exceeding
Rs.50,000/- per woman member for an individual activity or a group activity with 100%
refinance support from NABARD.

NABARD considers need-based grant assistance subject to availability of promotional funds
to meet the sponsoring agency’s expenditure for organization of groups, sensitisation,
training and other related expenditures. In case, the sponsoring agency provides services such
as supply of raw materials, quality control, marketing, etc., such services undertaken by it, are
also eligible for financial assistance under NABARD’s credit linked promotional schemes,
viz., Mother Units/Common Service Centres.

2. ASSISTANCE FOR MARKETING OF NON-FARM PRODUCTS OF RURAL
WOMEN (MAHIMA):-


In this scheme the objective is of extending credit and credit linked promotional assistance to
agencies dealing with marketing of non-farm products of rural women with a view to giving a
fillip to their efforts for creating a “niche” or “pro-women” market. The credit is extended by
way of refinance, i.e., 100% refinance upto Rs.10 lakh promotional grant. The ceiling on
quantum of promotional assistance is 25% of the project outlay of Rs.10lakh, i.e., Rs.2.5 lakh
or 25% of the minimum sales turnover, which ever is lower.

The loan assistance through banks is upto Rs.10 lakh by way of refinance and 100% through
refinance support. The ratio of grant to refinance is 1:3. Soft loan assistance to agencies for
margin money (interest free loan) is provided. The bank will, however, levy a service charge
of 3%. Furthermore, it is expected that the Voluntary Associations/Non-Governmental
Organizations and other project proponents would be willing to contribute atleast 10-15% of
the project outlay by way of their share therein.

28

DEVELOPMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH AREA PROGRAMME (DEWTA)


Development of Women Through Area Programme (DEWTA) is an approach to promote
women specific activities and clusters with the objective of generating employment through
entrepreneurship and assisting in setting up of sustainable enterprises. The programme aims
to address various needs of women, identified by women themselves, through capacity
building, networking and convergence of services for focused implementation and visible
impact.

WOMEN’S SELF-HELP GROUPS:-

Micro-finance initiatives of NABARD through its SHG-bank linkage programme has passed
through various phases, viz., pilot testing (1992-95), mainstreaming (1996-1998) and
expansion (1998 onwards) and has assumed the shape of a Micro-finance movement in the
country. The programme has started making inroads in resource poor regions of the country
as well. Its main features are:

(i) The VAs, NGOs and other Self Help Promotional Institutions (SHPIs) including a
few banks who play the role of facilitator.
(ii) SHGs should be in existence for at least six months actively promoting savings and
lendings amongst their members.
(iii) SHGs are normally informal groups.
(iv) The size of the group is not to exceed 20.
(v) Banks will finance the SHGs in proportion to the savings mobilized by the group. The
proportion of savings to loan could vary from 1:1 to 1:4 (or) even more depending upon the
assessment by the bank.

NABARD provides 100% refinance assistance to banks.

RURAL WOMEN’S CLUBS:- NABARD encourages banks to form informal groups of
farmers, artisans, etc. and even exclusively of rural women for propagating principle of
“Development through Credit” (WDCs) inculcating repayment ethics and promoting
people’s participation in the process of development. The assistance is available on selective
basis for launching clubs for rural women, farmers, artisans, etc., at the rate of Rs.3000/- per
club per year towards maintenance expenses to the designated Service Area Bank for three
years. Clubs are formed for building up mutually beneficial relationships between banks and
women borrowers, farmers, etc., in the village covered by the clubs. Such clubs, if run in
association with VAs/NGOs, the VAs/NGOs are entitled for additional administrative grant
to the extent of Rs.2000/- per club per annum for a period of three years. NABARD also
extends maintenance expenses at the rate of Rs.3000/- per annum for three years to the clubs
maintained by VAs/NGOs. Various training programmes have been designed for the benefit
of rural women folk in the club areas which include training in farm/non-farm, service
activities, income generating activities, women development programmes, etc., with the help
of designated banks, VAs/NGOs.




29
SETTING UP OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT CELLS (WDCs) BY
RRBs/SCBs/DCCBs/SCARDBs:-


The objective is to provide promotional assistance to SCBs/DCCBs/SCARDBs and RRBs for
setting up “Women Development Cells” to pay focused attention for the economic
empowerment of rural women through improved and increased flow of credit to them
through “relationship banking” and formulation of appropriate operational strategies thereof.

The WDCs are constituted by the banks concerned with one or two lady officers to deal with
project preparation, appraisal, monitoring, evaluation exclusively for women’s economic
development and other related aspects. The lady officer should be a bank employee or a
deputationist from sponsor bank (in case of RRBs) or Government Department (in case of co-
operative bank) and should have graduate or post graduate qualifications preferably in social
science, management, rural development, with experience in project formulation, appraisal,
financing and monitoring and should have been specifically earmarked for the purpose.
NABARD would arrange sensitization training for such officers. The banks concerned should
agree to maintain the cell on a long term basis.

NABARD’s assistance is in the form of “grant” to cover 50% of the salary comprising pay
and allowances of the designated lady officer(s) plus additional expenditure not exceeding
10% towards supporting staff/or overheads and conveyance charges of key personnel upto
Rs.5000/- subject to a maximum of Rs.1, lakh per cell per annum. The balance expenditure
will have to be met by the banks concerned. The NABARD’s duration of assistance is
initially for a period of 3 years from the date of sanction of the WDC, which shall be
extended for another 2 years on merit by NABARD.

The job chart for the “key personnel” of WDC also exists. These are: (i) WDC lady officer
will identify the potential areas for development of women either on individual or group (ii)
Assist the bank in the preparation of Action Plan for financing women borrowers (iii) The
Action Plan should be in consonance with the Sub-Plan for Women/gender planning for the
district (iv) Identify agencies (NGOs, VAs, etc) for net working for dispensation of credit to
women through bankable schemes, (v) Help rural women in the availment of loan assistance
from the bank (vi) Sorting out issues relating to credit and other support services to women
and initiate the process of better gender awareness amongst banks and communities (vii)
Modify internal policies for enhancing the credit, (viii) Strengthening the data base for gender
disaggregated figures for planning (ix) Initiate innovative schemes for development of
women and help to increase the flow of credit to women (x) Acting as a nodal officer
between the bank and the women clients or agencies dealing with women, (xi) Act as a
resource person for women related/women specific issues, (xii) Suggest measures for their
overall well-being and co-ordinate other agencies in the field.

0
Selected further readings
1 Barry, P.J., J.A. Hopkin and C.B. Baker, “Financial Management in Agriculture,” Danville, Illinois:
(The Inter State Printers and Publishers, 1979).
2 Johl, S.S. and C.V. Moore, “Essentials of Farm Financial Management,” (Today and Tomorrow’s
Printers and Publishers, 22B/5 Original Road, Karol Bagh, New Delhi-5).
3 Johl, S.S. and T.R. Kapur, “Fundamentals of Farm Business Management” (Kalyani Publishers, Delhi-
Ludhiana, Ch.11)
4 Jones, Lawrence, A. Vivian Wiser and W.A. Fred Woods, “History of Agricultural Finance Research in
the Economic Research Service, “Agricultural Finance Review, 35 (1974). 1-9.
5 Lee,F. Warren, Michael, D. Boehlje, Aaron G. Nelson and W.G. Murray, “Agricultural Finance,”
(Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, 1980).
6 Pandey, U.K, “An Introduction to Agricultural Finance,” (Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi – Ludhiana),
1990, P. 196.
7 Pension, (Jr.); John, B. and David, A.Lins, “Agricultural Finance: An Introduction to Micro and Macro
Concepts,” (Prentice Hall of India, Private Ltd., New Delhi, 1980).
8 Reddy S. S. and P.R. Ram, “Agricultural Finance and Management” Oxfor & I.B.H. Publishing Co.
Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1996, P.256.
9 Tandon R.K. and S.P. Dhodyal, “Principles and Methods of Farm Management,” (Nirbal-Ke Bal Ram
Press, 16/8A, Civil Lines, Kanpur), 1971. ch. 15.