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skoptsytruculentAI and Robotics

Nov 15, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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Drew Pearson

Professor
Smith

Solar Jackets


Motor Control

Cruise Control Implementation for
Motor Vehicle Command


Introduction


Cruise control systems provide drivers with automated speed control. These systems work well
for trips with long, straight str
etches of road [1].
Cruise control may be imple
mented on any vehicle that
uses a motor
.
Commercial a
utomobiles are the primary focus of
the
use

of cruise control
.

Specific
applications are conventional automobiles, autonomous vehicles, and trains.

Cruise c
ontrol not only has
the advantage of speed control but also of safety and efficiency.
With the use of cruise control, one can
focus more on steering, set his/her vehicle to travel at the speed limit, and ultimately use less gas.
This
paper
reviews adaptive

cruise control

systems used in commercial applications w
ith
brief mention

of

cooperative adaptive cruise control.


Commercial Applications

of Cruise Control


Cruise control has developed over the years in order to provide drivers with additional safety

an
d
control of his/her vehicle
. The adaptive cruise control
(ACC) system
has been introduced as a means of
accide
nt avoidance.
ACC can automatically adjust a vehicle’s speed in order to keep a safe
, predefined
distance from another vehicle [1].
Automobile co
mpanies are becoming accustomed to this new
technology, so vehicles on the market are
beginn
ing to make ACC available on
new
models.
These
systems were first made available on vehicles such as the Nissan Q45 and FX45, Mercedes S
-
class, Lexus
330 and 430, A
udi A8, and select Jaguar and Cadillac models

[
2
]
.
Presently
,
ACC is available in the 2011
Jeep Grand Cherokee Limited and Overland. Jeep adds $1295 to the price of these vehicles
for Advanced
Warning and Adaptive Cruise

Control [3
]. Ford will install ACC
in the 2011 Ford Taurus Limited or
SHO for $1195

[
4
].

BMW adds ACC to many of its models for $2400

[5
].

Work is also being made
towards implementing Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC), a system in which vehicles
exchange information wirelessly in o
rder to allow for more control of distance between the two vehicles.
This ultimately results in a shorter distance between the two vehicles and smoother traffic flow [6].


T
echnology

behind

a
n Adaptive

Cruise Control System


Adaptive c
ruise control systems

function by way of a controller. The purpose of the controller is
to manage the speed of the vehicle based on
commands

sent by the driver
. According to the command
signal sent by the driver and the feedback signal sent
by

the speed sensor, the controller
regulates vehicle

speed by adjusting the throttle angle to increase or decrease the engine drive force.

A proportional
-
integral
-
derivative (PID) controller can be used to implement the
adaptive
cruise control.
Mathematical
modeling and derivation
of the
fo
rce equation

related to the vehicle’s movement must first be completed
to design the PID controller.
The equation takes in to account the inertia of the vehicle, drag, and
climbing resistance or downgrade force.
The

PID

controller uses a single
-
loop system

configuration with
a linear model.

The controller is designed to augment the open
-
loop function in a manner that produces
the desired closed
-
loop performance characteristics
. Other controllers that can be used are state
-
space
controllers and fuzzy logic c
ontrollers
.

Once the controller has been designed, it will read in the vehicle’s
speed in the form of pulses with a distinct frequency. The controller will compare these with the
frequency set by the driver when he/she chose a certain speed
and distance
fo
r the cruise control. After
making a comparison, the controller moderates the amount of force on the accelerator, keeping the

vehicle at a constant speed

and distance

[7]
.


Implementation of an Adaptive Cruise Control System


ACC systems employ both hardwa
re and software for speed and distance control. A
potentiometer is installed at the accelerator pedal to measure the pedal position. The controller mentioned
earlier can be developed on a single board computer, which will read the
throttle position by way
of the
output voltage of the potentiometer. A 12 V DC servo motor can be put in to control the throttle valve
position, and a Cool Muscle DC servo motor can control the braking. Both motors rely on the controller

to decide whether to
accelerat
e

or decelera
t
e the vehicle
. A distance sensor is installed at the front bumper
of the vehicle. The SICK LMS 291 laser range finder serves as a suitable sensor for the ACC system

[1]
.
All
hardware and software
devices must collaborate according to design in order to en
sure a safe ride.


References

[1]

W. Pananurak, S. Thanok, and M. Parnichkun, “Adaptive Cruise Control for an Intelligent
Vehicle,” In Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and
Biomimetics, 2008, pp. 1794
-
1799. [Online]. Availab
le:
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.www.library.gatech.edu:2048/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=491327
4&tag=1
. [Accessed Feb. 3, 2011].

[2]

A. Girard, S
. Spry, and J. Hedrick, “Intelligent Cruise
-
Control Applications,” IEEE Robotics &
Automation Magazine, pp. 22
-
28, March 2005. [Online]. Available:
http
://ieeexplore.ieee.org.www.library.gatech.edu:2048/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=141141
.
[Accessed Feb. 3, 2011].

[3]

“2011 Grand Cherokee: Build My Own,”
jeep.com
, [Online]. Available:
http://www.jeep.com/hostc/bmo/models.do?modelYearCode=CUJ201103&zipCod
e=30332
.
[Accessed Feb. 3, 2011].

[4]

“Build Your Taurus,”
ford.com
, [Online]. Available:
http://bp2.ford.com/2011
-
Ford
-
Taurus#page=/Interior/
. [Accessed Feb. 3, 2011].

[5]

“Build Your Own 2011 328i Sedan,”
bmwusa.com
, [Online]. Available:
http://www.bmwus
a.com/Standard/Content/BYO/Byohome.aspx?enc=NltiQY043ppNSmD1RBg
eGBmM4oC7kisKFVndUXPrcEc=
. [Accessed Feb. 3, 2011].

[6]

B. Arem,

C. van Driel, and R. Visser,

“The Impact of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control on
Traffic
-
Flow Characteristics,”
IEEE Transacti
ons on Intelligent Transportation Systems
, vol. 7,
pp. 429
-
436, Dec. 2006, [Online]. Available:
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.www.library.gatech.edu:2048/
stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=401945
1
. [Accessed Feb. 4, 2011].

[7
]

K. Osman, M. Rahmat, and M. Ahmad, “Modelling and Controller Design for a Cruise Control
System,” In 2009 5
th

International Colloquium on Signal Processing & Its Applications, 2009, pp.
25
4
-
258. [Online]. Available:
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.www.library.gatech.edu:2048/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=506922
8&tag=1
. [Accessed Feb. 4,

2011].