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Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Sara Amsalem

BIO Review Sheet


CHAPTER ONE:


(
BIO
-

life) (
LOGY
-
study of)
:


Biology
-

the study of living organisms


There are many jobs that have to do with biology

1. Molecular Biologist
-

deals with molecules

2. Cellular Biologist
-

deals with cells


SCIENTIFIC METHOD:

1. Question/Observe

2. Hypothesis

3. Experiment/Procedure

A) Observed Experiment

B) Controlled Group (what you keep the same)


Independent

V
ariable
-

factor that scientists change


Dependent Variable
-

result

-
Changes according to the inde
pendent variable

4. Data
-

analyzed

5. Conclusion

6. Repetition

7. Theory


UNITS:

Kilo (K) = One
Thousand

Centi

(C) = .01

Milli (M) = .001



Length
-

Meter


Mass
-

Gram


Volume
-

Liter


GRAPHS
:


Y AXIS
-

Goes up and down ; X AXIS
-

Goes across


Graphs you need to know


Line Graph, Bar Graph, Pie Chart


ASPECTS OF LIFE:


1. Cellular Organization:


Cells are the basic building blocks of life


2. Metabolism:


Total sum of all chemical reactions in the living organism (energizes you)

3.
Responsiveness:


The way an organism responds to the environment


4. Homeostasis:


Staying the same


5. Reproduction:


Creating new life through many different ways


6. Heredity:


Inheriting traits through genes


7. Growths and Development


CHAPTER TWO:


Health/Medicine:


Disease
-

A disorder of structure in a living organism


Pathogens are an agent that cause diseases


Pathogens are made out of germs (mostly bacteria)


Cholera Bacteria
-

A disease that is caused by ingesting food or water that contains
the
bacteria


This

bacteria contains pathogens


Lives on tiny
animals called
Copepods


How it works
-

the bacterium clusters around the eggs of the copepods (edges of the
copepods). The bacterium then opens the eggs, feed on them, then the copepods
feed on the
plankton.


The number of copepods then increases and a cholera outbreak can occur


Virus
-

An infective agent that consists of a nuclei
molecule (basically
-

infects your
cells)


Too small to be seen by a microscope


Can multiply within the living cell


Vacc
ination
-

A medical procedure that allows a person to resist infection by a
disease


How it works
-

The vaccination puts a little bit of the virus into your body so that
your cells can get used to the virus



BIOTECHNOLOGY:


Assistiv
e Technology: Technology
that he
lps people with disabi
lities


Example
-

prosthetics: fake limbs


Battlefield Technology: One of the newest fields of medicine

Example:

Remote Surgery
-

Surgery from very far away


A doctor in the army might not be able to do the specific surgery that

a soldier
needs so he can do it through several electronic devices and guide him through the
surgery


Robot Surgery: When a machine does a surgery and a surgeon controls the remote


Genetic Engineering: A technology where genes in a cell can be changed


E
xample: CORN


Corn has been changed, and now contains a gene that can kill the crop
pesticides

in it


PROS:


No pesticides


Won’t effect humans


CONS: (very hard to be tested)


Can maybe effect the healthiness of corn?


Can affect the taste


DDT
-

One of th
e first things created to clean pesticides


HAD TWO MAJOR PROBLEMS:


It caused cancer


It was polluting the earth


Scientists modify bacteria to make natural medication faster


Examples:


1. Insulin
-

injected for diabetes


Controls the break down of sugar


2. Growth Hormones
-

HGH


Inserts hormones in your body so that you can grow faster


Biomimetics: Biological processes to solve design and engineering problems


Scientists look at natural stuff and learn from them to create new stuff

Examples:


1. Velcro=P
rickly Birks

2. Glue=Sap

3.Submarine=Fish

4.Planes=Birds

5. Bats=Sonar


Biometrics: The use of biological traits to determine the person


Examples:

1. Fingerprints

2.Hair DNA),

3. Iris Scans

4. Retina Scan (Eye Scan)


ECOLOGY:
The study of interactions
with human organisms with one another and
their environment


Lost Species: Animals that are becoming instinct


We need these animals to advance in technology


Satellite Tracking: Experimenting through different technology such as cameras and
satellites


G
IS mapping
-

being able to compare the navigation


Effect: BIOLOGY
-------

NON LIVING


Human Factors:


Pollution
-

air, water

Hunting
-

killing animals

Human Habitation
-

cutting down the forests