Socializing New Professionals: Leading the Way to a Smooth Entry

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Nov 16, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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2012 NASPA Annual Conference
s

Phoenix, Arizona
s

March 10

14, 2012


Socializing New Professionals:
Leading the Way to a Smooth Entry

Tuesday, March 13, 10:15 am

Kara Lombardi

Interest in Topic


12 + years in Career Services


Experience with graduating seniors as they
engage in the job search process


Work with new student affairs professionals

Turnover in Student Affairs


Turnover is well documented (Bender, 1980;
Holmes,
Verrier
, & Chisholm, 1983; Ward,
1995)


Early departure attributed to lack of fit, poor
career decisions, and unrealistic expectations
(
Barham

& Winston, 2006;
Lorden
, 1998;
Winston & Creamer, 1997)

Organizational Socialization

“the social knowledge and skills necessary to
assume an organizational role” (Van
Maanen

&
Schein, 1979, p. 211).


“Socialization is the process by which new members
of an organization come to understand, appreciate,
and adopt the customs, traditions, values, and goals
of their profession and their new organization”
(
Tull
,
Hirt
, & Saunders, 2009, p.
x
).

Importance of Socialization


Increases job satisfaction and commitment


Reduces uncertainty, which decreases
turnover


Increases identification with organization


(Allen
, 2006; Bauer,
Bodner
,
Erdongan
,
Truxillo
, & Tucker,
2007
;

Boehman
, 2007;

Feldman, 1976a, 1976b; Jones,
1986
;
Klein, Fan, & Preacher, 2006; Myers &
Oetzel
, 2003;
Saks
&
Ashforth
, 1997;

Waldeck

& Myers, 2007;
Wanous
,
1980)

Stage Models of Socialization


Stage models provide a framework to examine
socialization


Jablin

(1987, 2001) provides a four stage
model:


Anticipatory socialization


Encounter


Metamorphosis


Exit

Socialization Stages from the Student
Affairs Perspective


Pre
-
hire, pre
-
arrival, the first six months and
ongoing after entry (Mather, Bryan, &
Faulkner, 2009)


Pre
-
employment and orientation, transition,
and settling in (
Renn

& Hodges, 2007)


Anticipatory, formal, informal and
personal(Collins, 2009)


Stage Model


Stage models provide a useful framework, but:


Difficult to determine when one stops and the
next begins


Difficult to test without longitudinal studies


Do not account for individuality


Do not recognize that as one is joining, they are
also exiting some other organization

Anticipatory Socialization


Vocational


Organizational


Graduate school


Recruitment/selection


Pre
-
entry communication


Importance of Anticipatory
Socialization


Expectations begin to form


Uncertainty upon entering a new organization


Can help with the transition into a new
organization


Much done on orientation, little done on pre
-
hire experiences


Graduate School


Graduate school is anticipatory socialization
(Mendoza, 2008;
Renn

& Hodges, 2007)


Experiential learning helps to shape
expectations


Graduate school experiences influence career
decisions (Quinn &
Litzler
, 2009)


How do new professionals reflect on their
graduate school experience?

The Recruiting Process


Pre
-
entry knowledge is a predictor of adjustment
(
Wanous
, 1992)


Realistic pre
-
entry knowledge is related to role
clarity, job satisfaction and organizational
commitment (Klein, Fan, & Preacher, 2006)


A natural tendency for both the organization and
the new hire to present only the most positive
aspects


What role does the recruiting process play in new
professionals’ decisions to join new
organizations?

Relationships


Relationships with supervisors and peers begins
before entry


Relationships are critical for overcoming unmet
expectations (Major, Kozlowski, Chao, &
Garnder
,
1995)


Supervisory relationship influence self
-
image, job
satisfaction and professional development (
Tull
,
2009)


What relationships are being formed during the
pre
-
entry stage?
H
ow
?

Proactive Behaviors


Newcomers seek information to reduce
uncertainty (Miller &
Jablin
, 1991)


Those who are proactive experience a more
positive adjustment (
Kammeyer
-
Mueller &
Wanberg
, 2003)


What proactive behaviors do new
professionals engage in during the pre
-
entry
stage?

My Study


To understand how new student affairs
professionals experience anticipatory
socialization


Before the job search begins


During the interview phase


Period between job offer and start date



Methodology


Qualitative


Graduate students currently on the job market


Three phases of data collection


Before job search


During interview process


After job offer, before entry








Preliminary Observations


Concerns with settling


Various levels of proactivity


Struggles between confidence and insecurity


Exploring the role of past experience on the
process


Considering the role of significant others on
the process

Small Group Discussion


Think about strategies used and/or
experienced during the recruitment or pre
-
entry stage


What impression did they leave? Or what
impression were you hoping to achieve?


Discussion


Questions?


Thank you

Kara Lombardi

lombardk@ohio.edu

References


Allen, D. G. (2006). Do organizational socialization tactics influence newcomer
embeddedness

and
turnover?
Journal of Management
, 32(2), 237
-
256.


Barham
, J. D. & Winston, R. B. (2006). Supervision of new professionals in student

affairs: Assessing and
addressing needs.
The College Student Affairs Journal,

26
(1), 64
-
89.


Bauer, T. N.,
Bodner
, T.,
Erdongan
, B.,
Truxillo
, D. M., & Tucker, J. S. (2007).
Newcomer
adjustment during
organizational socialization: A meta
-
analytic

review of antecedents, outcomes, and methods.
Journal of
Applied Psychology
, 92(3), 707
-
721.


Bender, B. E. (1980). Job satisfaction in student affairs.
NASPA Journal
, 18(2), 2
-
9.


Boehman
, J. (2007). Affective commitment among student affairs professionals.
NASPA Journal
, 44(2),
307
-
326.


Collins, D. (2009). The socialization process for new professionals. In A.
Tull
, J. B.
Hirt
, & S. A. Saunders
(Eds.),
Becoming socialized in student affairs
administration
, (pp. 3
-

27).
Sterling, VA: Stylus.


Feldman, D. C. (1976a). A contingency theory of socialization.
Administrative
Science
Quarterly
, 21, 433
-
454.


Feldman, D. C. (1976b). A practical program for employee socialization.
Organizational
Dynamics
, 57(2),
64
-
80.


Holmes, D. R. (1982). Exploring career patterns in student affairs: Problems of
conception
and
methodology.
NASPA Journal
, 20, 27
-
35
.


References


Jablin
, F. M. (1987). Organizational entry, assimilation, and exit. In F. M.
Jablin
, L. L.


Putnam, K. H. Roberts, & L. W. Porter (Eds.).
Handbook of organizational communication

(pp. 679
-
740).
Newbury Park, CA: Sage.


Jablin
, F. M. (2001). Organizational entry, assimilation, and disengagement/exit. In F. M.
Jablin

& L. L.
Putnam (Eds.),
The new handbook of organizational communication
(pp. 732
-
818). Thousand Oaks, CA:
Sage.


Jones, G. R. (1986). Socialization tactics, self
-
efficacy, and newcomers’ adjustments to organizations.
Academy of Management Journal,

29(2), 262
-
279.


Kammeyer
-
Mueller, J. D. &
Wanberg
, C. R. (2003). Unwrapping the organizational entry process:
Disentangling multiple antecedents and their pathways to adjustment.
Journal of Applied Psychology
,
88(5), 779
-
794.


Klein, H. J., Fan, J, & Preacher, K. J. (2005). The effects of early socialization experiences on content
mastery and outcomes: A meditational approach.
Journal of Vocational Behavior
, 68, 96
-
115.
doi
:
10.1016/j.jvb.200502.001


Lorden
, L. P. (1998). Attrition in the student affairs profession.
NASPA Journal
, 35(3), 207
-
216.


Major, D. A., Kozlowski, S. W. J., Chao, G. T., & Gardner, P. D. (1995). A longitudinal investigation of
newcomer expectations, early socialization outcomes, and the new moderating effects of role
development factors.
Journal of Applied Psychology
, 80(3), 418
-
431.


Mather, P. C., Bryan, S. P., & Faulkner, W. O. (2009). Orienting mid
-
level student affairs professionals.
The
College Student Affairs Journal
, 27(2), 242
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256.


Mendoza, P. (2008). Socialization to the academic culture: A framework of inquiry.
Revista

de
Estudios

Sociales
, 31, 104
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117.


Miller, V. D., &
Jablin
, F. M. (1991). Information seeking during organizational entry: Influences, tactics,
and a model of the process.
Academy of Management Review
, 16(1), 92
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120.



References


Myers, K. K., &
Oetzel
, J. G. (2003).


Exploring the dimensions of
organizational assimilation
: Creating and
validating a measure.
Communication Quarterly,
41, 438
-
467.


Quinn, K. &
Litzler
, E. (2009). Turning away from academic careers: What does
work
-
family have to do
with it?
NASPA Journal About Women in Higher
Education
, 2(1), 66
-
90.


Renn
, K. A., & Hodges, J. P. (2007). The first year on the job: Experience of new
professionals
in student
affairs.
NASPA Journal
, 44(2), 367
-
391.


Saks, A. M. &
Ashforth
, B. E. (1997). Socialization tactics and newcomer
information
acquisition.
International Journal of Selection and Assessment
, 5,
48
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61.


Tull
, A. (2009). Supervision and mentorship in the socialization process. In A.
Tull
, J. B.
Hirt
, & S. A.
Saunders (Eds.),
Becoming socialized in student affairs administration
, (pp. 129
-
151).

Sterling, VA: Stylus.


Tull
, A.,
Hirt
, J. B., & Saunders, S. A. (2009).
Becoming socialized in student affairs
administration
: A guide
for new professionals and their supervisors.

Sterling,
VA
: Stylus
.



Van
Maanen
, J & Schein, E. H. (1979). Toward a theory of organizational
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(
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1

(
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Waldeck
, J. H. & Myers, K. K. (2007). Organizational assimilation theory, research,
and
implications for
multiple areas of the discipline: A state of the art
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.
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(pp. 322
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Lawrence
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, J. P. (1980).

Organizational entry: Recruitment, selection, and socialization
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.
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, J. P. (1992).
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socializing
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.
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Ward, L. (1995). Role stress and propensity to leave among new student affairs
professionals
.
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Winston, R. B., Jr., & Creamer, D. G. (1997).
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affairs
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