Schizophrenia – social explanation, types of validity - WordPress.com

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Nov 16, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Clinical Psychology

Social explanations of schizophrenia;

Validity


different types

Sociocultural explanations



People diagnosed with
schizophrenia tend to be the lower
socioeconomic groups and live in
the poorest areas of cities


can you
think of any reasons for this?


Thus social and psychological
factors may be important


Sociocultural explanations



Sociogenic hypothesis
-

poor social
conditions create stresses that trigger
schizophrenia in some people


Stressful life events


Brown and Birley (1968)
-

about 50% of
patients experienced a stressful event in
the 3 weeks prior to an episode


This suggests that stressful experience
may trigger the schizophrenic episode


Sociocultural explanations



Stressful life events longitudinal study



Hirsch et al (1996) analysed life events
experienced by 71 schizophrenic patients over 4
years and found that the cumulative effect of
stressful life events in the 12 months prior to a
schizophrenic episode has a significant effect


This suggests that it is the total stress rather than
one stressful event that acts as a trigger


Sociocultural explanations



Family relationships


Some psychologists suggest that family
relationships with ‘abnormal’
communication styles may create highly
stressful environments



McGlashan (1994) suggested that
expressed emotion (EE) comprises critical
or emotionally over
-
involved attitudes and
behaviours displayed by one or more
parents to their schizophrenic offspring

Sociocultural
explanations



Family relationships
-

evidence


Research into EE suggests that family
dynamics are an important predictor of
relapse of positive
symptoms


Brown el al (1972) and Vaughn et al (1976)
established the detrimental effects of
ineffective medication and high face
-
to
-
face contact (over 35 hours per week) on
relapse rates of patients living in high
-
EE
families


Sociocultural explanations



Family relationships
-

cross cultural
evidence


Leff

et al (1987) found that high
-
EE in
Indian families is also associated with
relapse.


Concluded
that the significantly better
outcome for Indian patients compared to a
London cohort was due to the lower
proportion of high
-
EE relatives in the
Indian study
group


Sociocultural explanations



Family relationships
-

STRESS in the
family


Levene et al (1996) assessed the stress
experienced by families coping with
schizophrenic patients


Suggests
that the “Perceived Family
Burden Scale”, an instrument measuring
patient behaviour and family stress,
demonstrates greater predictive power for
early relapse in schizophrenia than
EE


Types of validity


Criterion validity


concurrent:


When the result of a study matches the
result from another study which has been
conducted at the same time


Applied to the DSM


if a diagnosis using
the DSM criteria matches another
diagnosis given at the same time, the
DSM diagnosis is likely to have
concurrent validity


Types of validity


Criterion validity


predictive:


The same as concurrent validity


EXCEPT

results of studies conducted at
a different time are compared


Applied to the
DSM
-

if a diagnosis using
the DSM criteria matches another
diagnosis
given at an later time,
the DSM
diagnosis is likely to have
predictive
validity