LEHD: Potential for

skillfulbuyerUrban and Civil

Nov 16, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

90 views

LEHD: Potential for
Transportation Planning
and Programming

Piyushimita Thakuriah (Vonu)

University of Illinois at Chicago


Joint Census Bureau and Brookings Institute Workshop
on Local Employment Dynamics. In Brookings Institute,
Washington, D.C. Feb. 1, 2007.


Introduction


Uses of employment data for
transportation planning and programming


Types of data currently used


coverage
and issues


Some examples of LEHD data
applications in transportation


Challenges along the way


Future directions



Uses of Employment Data for Transportation
Planning & Programming

Employment
Data

Regional
Transportation
Planning

New Starts
Analysis

Commercial
Vehicle Flow
Analysis

Job
Accessibility
Planning

Environmental
Justice
Analysis

Daytime
Populations &
Security
Planning

Site Analysis
& Highway
Network
Improvements

Site Analysis
& Highway
Network
Improvements

Highway
Programming
and Planning

Transit
Planning and
Operations

Types of Data Currently Used


Household travel surveys conducted by regional
planning agencies or DOT’s


Census Journey
-
to
-
Work (JTW): Census
Transportation Planning Package (CTPP)


American Community Survey (ACS)


PUMS


National Household Travel Survey (NHTS)


9
“add
-
on” areas


Special
-
purpose surveys

Pros and Cons of Transportation Data

C
HARACTERISTIC

LEHD

2000
CTPP

ACS

2000
PUMS

M
ETRO
/S
TATE
WIDE
T
RAVEL
S
URVEYS

2002
NHTS

Geography

Block

Census
tract

Census tract
only in few
counties;
transp. data
forthcoming
in most
counties

PUMA
S

TAZ (variable)

Zip for
work
-
location
1


Frequency

Quarte
rly

Once/par
t of
decennia
l census

Annual/quar
terly

Once/p
art of
decenn
ial
census

Intermittent

Usually 5
years

Sample Size

Syntheticall
y
generated
census

Medium
sample
(16% of
househol
ds)

Small
(approx.
3%)

Small
(1% or
5%)

Variable
(mostly small)

Small
(
less
than 1%)

Non
-
work travel

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Modal
Information

No

Yes, but
only on
primary
work
trips

Forthcoming
at levels
indicated
above

No

Yes

Yes

Time of Day

No

Yes, but
for work
trips only

Forthcoming
at levels
indicated
above

Yes,
for
work
trips
only

Yes

Yes

Complete
2

No

Yes

Forthcoming
Yes

Yes

Yes

Longitudinal Employment Household Dynamics
(LEHD) Concept


Voluntary
partnership
between Census
Bureau and states


States supply
quarterly worker
and business wage
records


Census Bureau
links multiple
sources of existing
data


Create new data &
products about local
economy

New Data and
Products

www.census.gov

Next to
Business & Industry


Click on
Local Employment Dynamics


Then click on
QuickLinks

to:


On the Map, QWI Online,


Industry

Focus

Or click on


Data Tools

Local Employment Dynamics’ Tools
and Features

http://lehd.dsd.census.gov


Sources of Information behind LEHD


Disclosure avoidance system is required to
protect the information about individuals and
businesses that contribute to


Confidential unemployment insurance (UI) wage
records


Confidential Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages (QCEW, also known as ES
-
202) reports


Confidential information from Census Bureau
demographic data that have been integrated with
these sources.

Some Examples of LEHD Applications in Transportation


Job accessibility indices


Residential accessibility of transit indices


Employer accessibility by transit indices


Transit accessibility for commuting trips


Day
-
time populations for security planning


Job Access and Reverse Commute evaluation


Job Accessibility Indices

Location of Welfare Clients & Entry
-
Level
Jobs in Chicago Metro Area

Job Accessibility

Job

location

Centroid

Job Accessibility in Six County Chicago metro area

Entry-level Jobs Reached by Different Modes
at 30 Locations in Chicago
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
30
60
90
30-90
Travel Time in Minutes
Percentage of Total Entry-level Jobs
Reached by Automobile
Reached by Transit
Note: Do this graph with LEHD & CTPP travel time data

Measures slightly misleading because..


Does not take into account


Capacity


Cost


Not job accessibility but
Destination

accessibility:


Destination accessibility is important explanation of
labor market outcomes (examples):


Rogers (1997): increase in access leads to decrease in
expected unemployment duration


Raphael (1998): differential accessibility explains 30 to 50
percent of differentials in employment rates among white
and black youth.




Destination accessibility


Measure used here is a bit different but the
idea is the same...



“Weighted” index of spatial competition
for jobs and travel cost to jobs


How many entry
-
level jobs are within a
“catchment area” of a travel time which is
cost
-
effective (in terms of travel time) for a
client to incur at a typical wage rate?


What is the level of “spatial competition”?


Computed using travel demand
models/spatial interaction models








Destination accessibility in
the six
-
county Chicago
Metro area

Four quite distinct areas

Policies for enhancing
economic opportunities may be
quite different in the 4 areas


Updates of this type of analysis
will potentially be possible on a
continuous basis with LEHD
data


1

2

3

4

Evanston

CBD

Zion

University

Park

Residential Accessibility of Transit
Indices

Rail Transit Station or Bus Stop

Locations of individuals

Residential Accessibility of Transit Indices






Job Accessibility by Private Vehicles in 6 county metro area


Combining LEHD (Jobs) and CTPP (Travel Time) Data

Employer Accessibility by Transit
Indices

Rail Transit Station or Bus Stop

Employer location

Employer Accessibility by Transit Indices






Commuting Trips that cane be served by Transit

Residential, Employer and Commuting
Accessibility


LEHD Data

Continuously updated accounts of
daytime populations for security
planning






Daytime and Nighttime population estimates from LEHD data

Continuous Evaluation of Job Access
and Reverse Commute Fixed Route
and Demand
-
Responsive Services






CTA JARC Route Evaluation


LEHD Data

Challenges along the way…………..

LEHD vs CTPP


LEHD > CTPP

No Pattern

OHare

CBD

No pattern


LEHD < CTPP???

LEHD vs CTPP



Place of

Residence


LEHD higher than expected

Conclusions & Future Directions


LEHD has great potential as being a
primary data source for variety
applications in transportation including:


Planning


Programming


Performance measurement


Data linkage……