Educating out of poverty?

skillfulbuyerUrban and Civil

Nov 16, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Educating out of poverty?
Educational approaches to
breaking the cycle of poverty in
sub
-
Saharan Africa

Dr Pauline Rose

Centre for International Education
University of Sussex, UK

Millennium Development Goals:

do they add up?

Education MDG:


all

children complete primary schooling
by 2015


Poverty MDG:



half
of the world

s population will
remain poor by 2015




Intuitively
, a main means of escaping
poverty is education taken in its
broadest sense (formal and informal
schooling, skills training and knowledge
acquisition).


Harper et al., 2003: 545

Conventional wisdom



increased
schooling

i
mproved
productivity
and health;

reduced
fertility,
support for
democracy


poverty
reduction

Educating poverty research?

Considerable recent advances in
poverty conceptualisation

Recognises education as playing an
important role in defining and
reducing poverty

But recognition is often based on
narrow conceptualisation of
education (human capital).


Translation into policy….

Children of mothers who receive five years of
primary education are 40% more likely to live
beyond the age of 5


DFID Girls


Education Strategy, 2005

Research

proves


that a farmer with at least
4
-
5 years of schooling is more productive
than someone who remains illiterate


Ethiopia Education Sector Development Plan, 2000


Poverty of educational research?

Seeks to understand dynamics
within

education, with
particular concern for a broad set of learning outcomes

Recognises the multi
-
dimensional political, economic,
social processes that exclude children from enrolling,
attending, participating and achieving in school.

But

limited concern with
how

children apply the
knowledge, skills and understandings they gain at school
in their lives after schooling

Overall limited conceptualisation of education

s role in
reducing poverty

Perhaps concern that holistic multi
-
dimensional approach
to poverty detracts from in
-
depth understanding of
specific causes of educational exclusion?

Exceptions...

Longitudinal research in Morocco (based on
ethnographic observation and statistical analysis):


girls retained more academic skills than boys, but were
much less likely to be employed, a finding which calls
into question certain claims about the impact of
schooled knowledge and literacy on employment in
developing countries.


Wagner, 1989: 307

Primary school
entry
attendance
progression
completion
livelihood
opportunities
learning outcomes
literacy/numeracy skills
knowledge/attitudes/practices
creative/emotional skills
critical thinking
certificates
School factors
school leadership/support
school physical environment
curriculum relevance
pedagogical approaches
language of instruction
class size
teaching/learning resources
learning time
assessment/feedback
teacher recruitment and conditions
teacher characteristics (training,
motivation etc.)
school fees
Invidual/household factors
age/gender
socioeconomic status
health/nutrition
HIV/AIDS
child work
family size
household members' education/work status
perceptions of schooling
involvement in school activities
Community factors
community socio-economic conditions
labour market opportunities
service provision
International/national factors
national socio-economic conditions
national/international policies
public expenditure on education
poverty reduction
Source: Rose and Dyer, 2006

Who has not completed school?
-

Ethiopia

0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
grade
% 15-19 year olds completing grade
Rich/Male
Rich/Female
Middle/Male
Middle/Female
Poor/Male
Poor/Female
Source: DHS data (Filmer 2003)

Educational policy initiatives for
breaking the poverty cycle

Untargeted primary school fee abolition

Conditional cash/food transfers

School feeding programmes

Non
-
formal education provision

Abolition of primary school fees: Malawi

Access


Pro
-
poor

Massive increase in primary enrolment after 1994 Free Primary
Education,
but
poorest still most likely not to be in school, and
continued low survival rates, particularly for poorest and girls

Quality


Anti
-

poor

Large numbers of untrained teachers, large class size and limited
facilities particularly for lower classes, with resources concentrated at
the upper level where the poorest are less likely to be enrolled

Increase in years of schooling required to achieve basic literacy and
numeracy


Relevance

Anti
-
poor

Qualification inflation: Mass primary education, secondary a requisite

Suitability of academic vs. vocational curriculum in schools

Wide age range in lower classes

Appropriateness of language of instruction

Fit

Anti
-
poor

Schooling conflicts with child work, affecting girls and the poorest

Source: Kadzamira and Rose, 2003

Alternative basic education
-

Ethiopia

BRAC NFE model implemented via
INGOs

Addressing demand
-
side constraints


timing, relevance, flexibility

Opportunities for mainstreaming into
formal schools? Post
-
schooling
opportunities?

Sustainability
-

exit strategy?

Breaking the cycle through PRSPs?

there is no innovative teaching/learning reform
proposed in the PRSPs that could be regarded
as having been designed to address the specific
needs of the poor while at the same time
seeking quality improvement, relevance and
meeting the target of integrating them in the
development process


Caillods and Hallak, 2004: 75.

Where do we go from here?

Need for evidence
-
based policy and strategies to
recognise dynamics of education and poverty
together:

Interdisciplinary research, bringing together the
expertise of currently unconnected scholars of poverty
and those of education

Undertake research to shed light on
how
educational
processes (in
-
school, and between school and
communities/livelihoods) influence escape from poverty.

Adopt longitudinal design, combining quantitative and
qualitative methods.