miningx

sixcageyMechanics

Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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MINING

Overview

Steps

Description

Environmental Effects

Mining

Removing mineral
resources from the
ground


Mine wastes



acids
and toxins


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湡n楶攠獰散楥i


Reclamation of land
and recycling

Processing

Removing ore from
mined material


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concerns

Use

Distribution

to end
user


Price


Amount of ore


Concentration


Mining type


Transportation costs


Reclamation


Will Site be Profitable?


Site development


Roads


Equipment

Extraction


Surface Mining


Pros:


Safer


Cost effective


Cons


Removal of surface material


Lots of waste material


Ground and surface water issues


Reclamation costs

Extraction


Underground Mining


Pros


Less surface destruction


Less waste material


Lower reclamation cost


Cons


Unsafe


Extraction


Intensive chemical processing


Often uses extreme heat and
toxic chemicals


Chemical frequently leak into
ground water

Processing


Acid Mine Drainage


Acidic solution formed


All forms of mining


Enters groundwater and
surface water


Damaging to fish and
plant communities


Environmental Impact


Erosion


Sedimentation


Loosened surface material
washes into surface water


Amounts vary:


Amount disturbed,
vegetation, soil, slope


Mainly surface mining


Most damaging to surface
waters and wetlands


Harmful to plants, fish, and
soil organisms

Environmental Impacts


Toxic Compound
Leachate


Compounds used to extract resources


Usually stored in retention ponds


ponds leak into groundwater


Animals attracted to pond


Slag leach


Compounds leak from “treated” rock


Toxic to all organisms


plants, fish, soil organisms


Environmental Impact


Habitat Modification


Process requires modification
to surrounding areas


Aquatic, terrestrial, wetlands




Water Usage


Often requires massive
quantities


Results in drawdown or
reduced surface flow


“Treated” water often
returned to system

Environmental Impact


Restoring the land to its original contours and
replanting vegetation.


Required by law (SMCRA 1977)


Expensive


Reclamation