CASE STUDY: FLOODING IN

sixcageyMechanics

Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 8 months ago)

68 views

FLOODING

CASE STUDY: FLOODING IN
JAKARTA

Group Members:

Christopher Chew

Ronald Wee

Jaron

Yong

Yuan Bin Da

What is Flooding?


Flooding is an overflow of water from water
bodies, like rivers and seas, submerges land

-

Type of flooding


Coastal flooding, is
when sea level rises
above the normal level
and submerge low
-
lying coastal areas



River flooding, is when
the river level sudden
increase causing flood
banks to be flooded


River bank

Flooded River
bank

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world
-
asia
-
17974179

Type of flooding


Flash flooding, is a
quick and unexpected
flood due to heavy rain


Groundwater flooding, is
when the groundwater
increases drastically due
to prolonged rain which
overflows and flood the
ground


Flashflood in
Sukhumvit

http://www
.travelblog.
org/Photos
/3141105

Causes of Flooding
-
Urbanization


Urbanization is the conversion of areas like
forests into urban areas.


As cities urbanize, impenetrable concrete is
laid onto the ground to stabilize the
foundation of buildings and infrastructure.
However, these concrete does not allow
rainwater to seep through, hence, increasing
surface run
-
off. This results in the collection
of rainwater on the surface, which might
cause flooding

Causes of flooding
-

Low
-
lying areas


Countries of low
-
lying areas like the Maldives
and Shanghai have a higher risk of flooding as
only a small increase of sea level will cause
seawater to be able to overflow into land.

Causes of flooding
-
Rising
Sea Level


According to NASA, they have reported a
10% decrease in ice caps in last 30 years. This
reduction shows the melting of ice
-
caps
mainly due to global warming, causing a rise
in sea level. With a higher sea level, it will
cause higher chance of flooding of low
-
lying
areas

Economy affected
-
Agricultural
loss


When flooding occurs, it will destroy crops, and crops will
have a lack of oxygen. Additionally, when it floods, the
nutrients from the soil will be washed away, reducing the
nutrients in the soil, limiting the growth of crops. This will
result in the destruction of crops. Not only will the
farmers will make a loss, but if the country affected is an
agricultural

production country, their economy will be
greatly affected with the decline of crop production





http://www.ehow.com/info_7905355_influence
-
floods
-
environment.html

Economy affected
-
Financial
loss


Also, flooding
affects the economy. During
floods, infrastructure like power plants, water
pipes, and roads will be destroyed. These
infrastructure are essential to the different
industrial sector in the economy. With these
infrastructure affected, all economic sector will
come a standstill and economic productivity
cannot progress.


Also, officials in flood
-
affected regions have to
purchase utilities from other areas and
refix

those infrastructure, making them financially
vulnerable.

http://www.chiefscientist.qld.gov.au/publicati
ons/understanding
-
floods/consequences.aspx

Economy affected
-
Example


Economic loss

-
Jakarta’s biggest flood in 2007, has caused them $900 million US
financial and economic losses

-
Australia have seen the most expensive flood in 1974 which
affected regions like Queensland, Victoria and New South Wales.
This flood caused them $2.9 billion


Agricultural loss

-
In August 8 2012, Manila faced a severe flood that caused
agricultural loos of around $3.6 million

-
In the article “The direct economic loss to Missouri farmers from
the Missouri river flooding in 2011 states that “the flood water has
stayed on the fields for months, compounding the flood effects.
This has resulted ion millions of dollars loss in crops production

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:23087004~menuPK:141310~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.
htm
l

http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/df7756a4
-
e134
-
11e1
-
9c72
-
00144feab49a.html#axzz23Fdc8M5Q

http://www.chiefscientist.qld.gov.au/publications/understanding
-
floods/consequences.aspx

http://web.missouri.edu/~browndo/Pubs/MORiverFlood2011.pdf

Social affected
-
Water
-
borne
diseases

During flooding, the flood waters will destroy
infrastructures and carry away sediments in the soil,
causing contamination of the flood waters. The water
will be further contaminated by carrying waste and
sewage with it. After the flood water recedes, some of
the contaminated flood water will be left behind. This
increases the chances of transmission of water borne
diseases like chorea. Once transmitted, a person will be
infected and might transmit to other people in the
community. As the floods have destroyed infrastructure,
medical aid will not be present, hence those infected
people might become very sick and die of these water
-
borne diseases

http://www.who.int/hac/techguidance/ems/flood_cds/en/

Social affected
-
Examples


Transmission of water
-
borne diseases

-
in 1980, Sudan experienced a severe flood, and the
spread of water borne diseases resulted in a major
diarrheal disease outbreak

-
In 1998, flooding in West Bengal a cholera epidemic

-
According
to article “Rehabilitating waterways to
improve Jakarta's flood management system”, it states
that “Over 70 people died and outbreaks of disease
affected over 200,000 people



Flooding resulting in death

-
In January 2007, flooding in South Johor caused 17
deaths in the community


http://www.who.int/hac/techguidance/ems/flood_cds/en/

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:23087004~menuPK:141310~pagePK
:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html

Environment affected
-
Water
Pollution


During
flooding, the flood waters will destroy
infrastructures and carry away sediments
found in the soil,
turning the flood water
murky. When
the flood water
recedes

back
into the water bodies, it will carry the
sediments and debris back into the water,
resulting in increase sedimentation of water
and presence of more debris in the water
bodies, causing water pollution

Environment affected
-

Soil
erosion


As the force in floodwaters are stronger,
when it flows over exposed soil, it will be able
to carry more soil with it, eroding the top
layer of soil

Environment affected
-
Examples


Water Pollution

-
According to the article “Erosion and Flooding”,
it
state that “One of the world’s most serious erosion
problems is in China.


From the Yellow River, over
1.6 billion tons of sediment flows into the ocean
each
year”


Soil Erosion

-

“Floods
that break the banks of the rivers then
exacerbate the problem by changing the path of
the river and causing additional severe erosion
where the water now flows.” shows example of
flooding
causing erosion”


http://www.wild
-
again.org/UKsite/Erosion
-
flooding
-
UK.html

Case Study: Jakarta flooding
(Scenario)


Jakarta is very prone


to floods and many

floods have occurred

in that area


The worst flood that


had occurred was in

Jakarta. The flood that had

begun on February 2 , 2007

was a result of heavy rain

deforestation

in areas south

of the city, and waterways clogged

with debris.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007_Jakarta_flood


Case Study: Jakarta flooding
(Consequences)


Over 70,000 homes were flooded, resulting in the
displacement of some 200,000 people


54 people died from the flood


Many illnesses were spread, with 1,066 patients treated by
hospitals due to

diarrhoea

and 329 due to

dengue fever.



The flood has caused
Rp

8

trillion (US$879.12

million) in
losses.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

2007_Jakarta_flood


Case Study: Jakarta flooding
(Proposed Solutions)


Case Study: Jakarta flooding
(Effect of Proposed Solutions)


URL for pictures


http://flooddamage.freeoda.com/?p=69


http://planetforward.ca/blog/two
-
new
-
studies
-
cement
-
the
-
link
-
between
-
climate
-
change
-
and
-
flooding/


http://blogs.sacbee.com/photos/2010/08/asian
-
flood
-
crisis
-
worsens.html


http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/6328977.stm


http://eandt.theiet.org/news/2011/oct/floods
-
pcsales.cfm


http://www.asiantrendsmonitoring.com/page/2/?s=j
akarta&submit=Go