Study Topics for Cardio Vascular, Lymphatic, and Immune System Chapters 14, 15, 16 & 24

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Oct 24, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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Study Topics

for Cardio Vascular, Lymphatic, and Immune System

Chapters 14, 15,
16 & 24


Major topics of this study area :

Anatomy Review of the cardiovascular, lymphatic, and immune system

Cardiac cycle, conduction, ECG, and mechanisms

Blood pressure, Mea
n Arterial Blood pressure, reflexes that control blood pressure

Blood composition and production, blood typing, coagulation

Innate and acquired immunity, immune system function, leukocyte function


Chapter 14: Cardiovascular Physiology

pg 456
-

494

Study
on your own
:

1.
Review in detail the anatomy of the heart. Complete the anatomy review in Interactive Physiology.
for an anatomy review you can also do the review sheets for labs 30, 33

2. T
race the flow of blood through the heart. Compare the left and
right heart, the systemic and
pulmonary circuit, and the blood and lymphatic circulation.

3. Understand how the valves control blood flow. Explain how heart sounds relate to valves.


Material from lecture
:

1. Review fluid mechanics
-

what is the relations
hip between pressure, pressure gradient, fluid flow, fluid
velocity, resistance.

2
. What is an ECG? Describe the waves and what they represent. Be able to compare a normal ECG to
an abnormal ECG and identify the area of the heart that is malfunctioning. H
ow would a heart block
affect ECG?


3.
Complete the worksheet in the lab manual for lab 33 that goes over the relationship between an ECG,
changes in pressure of blood vessels and chambers, and changes in blood volumes in chambers and
blood vessels.

4
. U
nderstand the action potential of a heart muscle particularly as it applies to Na+, Ca2+,and K+ ions.
5.
Why does the heart have such a long refractory period? Compare the graphs of skeletal, neural, and
cardiac cell function.


6.
In regard to cardiac musc
le contraction, be able to apply the terms action potentia
l, treppe, tetanus,
summation. How does the contraction between a myocardium & autorhythmic myocardium compare?

7
. Describe the conduction pathway through the heart. Define the components involve
d in conduction

and be able to describe the complications that arise if there are malfunction of the components
.

8. How does sympathetic and parasympathetic signaling occur? What neurotransmitters & receptors are
involved?

8
. Describe the mechanical even
ts of the cardiac cycle

in order. Describe
the relationship between
pressure and volume changes in each chamber

as the cycle progresses
.

What is isovolumic?


Chapter 15: Blood Flow & Pressure

pg 499
-
528

Study on your own
:

1
. Understand the factors that i
nfluence heart rate. Explain what is tachycardia, bradycardia, arrhythmia,
fibrillation, ect.

2.
Describe some
common disorders such as:
infarction, angia, murmurs, hypertensio
n, hypotension,
congestive heart failure, etc.


Material from lecture

1.
What is

the difference in structure and function of the various types of blood vessels? What is the role
of smooth muscle found in blood vessels?

2.
What type of blood vessel allows for exchange? What factors influence the rate of exchange?

3.
How does pressure

compare in arteries and veins? How does venous return to the heart occur?

4.
Review the physics behind fluid mechanics

as it relates to blood flow, what exceptions apply to the
circulatory system and why?

5.
Review the details on h
eart tissue. What purp
ose do

intercalated disc
s

serve? How is heart
contraction different from smooth or skeletal muscle?

6.
What is blood pressure? How is it measured? What factors would cause it to rise and fall? What is
pulse and mean arterial pressure?
What is the differen
ce between systole and diastole?

7.
What is cardiac output

and stroke volume
?
Be able to calculate cardiac output (bring calculator to
test)
.

What factors affect heart rate and stroke volume? What is Starling’s Law and how does it relate to
heart functio
n?

8.
What ensure
s

the flow of blood in
one
direction only? How do multiple systems compensate for
increase and decreased blood volumes?



Chapter 16: Blood

pg 536
-
554 (No need to go into in
-
depth detail on coagulation steps)

Study on your own
:

1
. Desc
ribe some
common blood
disorders such as: jaundice, ane
mia, leukemia, etc.

2
.
Complete the review worksheet for lab 32 and the physioex blood lab


Material from lecture

1. What are the components that make up blood? Include the cellular, non
-
cellular, and

fluid
components. Know the approximate percentages of each.

What does blood carry that makes

it

useful for
diagnostics?

2.
What is the life cycle of a red bloo
d cell? Where are they produced? W
hat is their function a
nd
structure? What happens to

RBC
s

onc
e their life span is over?

3.
What hormones and organs are involved in the production of all blood cells?

4.
How does blood clotting happen? What components are involved?

5. Understand the ABO blood groups and Rh factors
. How is
blood type

determined?


Chapter 24: Immune System

pg 776
-
800 ( not covering neuro
-
endocrine
-
immune interactions)

Study on your own
:

1.
Review the anatomy of the lymphatic system
.

Describe the lymphatic system and lymph organs. List
the components. Describe its structure and funct
ion. What is the distribution of lyphoid tissues
throughout the body?

2. You can complete the review sheet for lab 35 to get an anatomy review.


3.

Describe some
common disorders such as: edema, allergies, immune disorders,
AIDS


Material from lecture

1.

List the types of white blood cells and their functions

2. What are the various ways that the body prevents infection from happening?

3.

Describe the various types of immunity, including specific and non
-
specific immunity
, innate,
acquired
, active/passiv
e immunity
. What components are responsi
ble for them? How do they function
?

4
.
Describe the immune response pathways including inflammation, allergies, MHC recognition,
immune surveillance, and intracellular defense mechanisms.


5.
Describe how B and T
cells mount and immune response to fight disease. How are
lymphocytes
activated?

6.
What are MHC molecules? How do they interact with T cells? What is antigen presentation?

7.
What is compliment?

What happens when an antigen binds to an antibody?

8.
W
hat is the role of antibiotics? How is a viral infection different from a bacterial infection?

9.
How are allergies different from true infections?