EMERGING NEEDS FOR

sillysepiaElectronics - Devices

Nov 27, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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EMERGING NEEDS FOR
FOOD SAFETY
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN
THE GLOBALLY
COMPETITIVE MARKET

Compiled By:

TEJ BHAN THAIRANI (Consultant Dairy)

Increasing
population and
demand for food


Food Safety


Includes
all hazards
that may make food injurious to human
health


Food quality


includes

attributes

which

influence

product’s

value
.


Negative

attributes

such

as

spoilage,

contamination

with

filth,

discoloration,

off
-
odours
.


Positive

attributes

such

as

origin,

colour
,

flavour
,

texture,

processing

methods

for

a

product
.


Food Control


Mandatory regulatory activity by national authorities to ensure
that all food is safe, meets quality and
labelled

as per law.

What is Safety vis
-
à
-
vis Quality?



Customers & Consumers


Increased # of Food Borne illness incidents


Regulatory Bodies (Governments)


World Health Organization (CODEX)


Market Access


Shareholders, Insurers (Litigation/Claims)


Retailers & Private Labels (Brand protection)

What is driving Food Safety…?


Types of Challenges in food safety

1.
Emerging microbiological threats

2.
Emerging chemical threats

3.
Emerging physical threats

4.
Adulteration threats








Macro
-
biological Hazards















Microbial Contamination in Foods


Bacteria


Virus
es


Parasites


Prion

Emerging Foodborne Pathogens


Emerging foodborne bacteria


Salmonella
(multidrug resistant strain)



Campylobacter jejuni



E. coli

O157:H7



Listeria monocytogenes



S. aureus
MRSA



Vibrio vulnificus



Yersinia enterocolitica



Arcobacter
spp.



Mycobacterium paratuberculosis



Hepatit A and E



Norovirus



(Avian influenza, AI)


Emerging foodborne viruses



Cryptosporidium parvum



Cyclospora cayetanensis



Anisakis
spp.

Emerging foodborne parasites


Listeria monocytogenes


Sources


Ready
-
to
-
eat meats, soft cheeses


Signs


Human abortions and stillbirths


Septicemia in young or low
-
immune

Emerging Pathogens

FUNGAL TOXINS ??

Secondary metabolites

Low mw organic compounds

Produced in stationary phase of
life
-
cycle

300 fungal toxins have been
identified

Fairly Heat stable

Resistant to inactivation

Wide range of toxic effects

Mycotoxicosis


Aflatoxin

(
Aspergillus
flavus
)


Patulin

(From Apple)


Alcoholic beverages (Wine, beer, cider)


Corn (Flakes, chicken nuggets, syrup)


Wheat (Breads, cereals, pasta)


Barley (Cereals and alcoholic beverages)


Sorghum (Cereals and alcoholic beverages)


Peanuts (Peanut butter, roasted peanuts)


Rye (Bread)


Milk products


Apple juice


Fresh fruits







TOP
-
10 MYCOTOXIC FOODS

Aflatoxins



20 ppb

Aflatoxin M
1



0.5 ppb


Patulin



50 ppb


Ochratoxins


50 ppb


Zearalenone


500 ppb

DON




1 ppm

Fumonisin



2 ppm










Codex regulatory levels



Food

systems
:


Food

production,

processing,

marketing

systems

quite

complex


Highly

fragmented


Large

number

of

small

producers


Food

pass

though

large

number

of

middlemen,

food

handlers


Increased

risk

of

exposure

to

unhygienic

conditions,

contamination

&

adulteration


Inadequate

infrastructure



water,

electricity,

sanitation,

storage,

cold

chain

etc
.


Majority

of

producers

do

not

know

GAP,

GMP,

GHP
.






Food Safety Issues in developing
nations….


Food

processing

industry
:


State
-
of
-
art

factories

to

small

shops


Highly

variable

size



scale

of

operation


Highly

variable

quality


Lack

of

resources

for

upgrading

technology

base


Reliability

and

timely

delivery

of

raw

material


Traditional

foods



lack

of

processing

and

packaging

equipments



Food Safety Issues in developing
nations…


Street foods


Street

foods



cater

to

ethnic

taste

and

preferences


Reasonably

priced


Conveniently

available


Food

safety

is

a

major

concern



as

poses

high

risk

for

food

poisoning

Food Safety Issues in
developing nations…


Food control Infrastructure and resources:


Food

labs
.

are

inadequate


Lab
.

Infrastructure

is

very

poor


Lack

of

qualified

and

trained

manpower

in

subjects

like

food

science

&

technology,

chemistry,

microbiology,

veterinary

sciences,

medicine,

epidemiology,

agricultural

sciences,

quality

assurance,

auditing,

food

laws
.


Lack

of

opportunities

to

take

advantage

of

scientific

resources

in

International

community
.

Food Safety Issues in developing
nations…


Food Control Management


Food legislation


Food inspection services


Food analytical capabilities & food control laboratories


Information, education and communication

Components of National Food
Safety Control Systems….




Risk analysis and preventive
measures…


Risk
analysis

Risk
assessment

Risk communication

Risk management

Risk analysis and

Preventive measures…


To

develop

an

estimate

to

the

risks

to

human

health

and

safety
.


To

identify

and

implement

appropriate

measures

to

control

the

risks
.


To

communicate

with

stakeholders

about

risks

and

measures

applied
.





Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point


To monitor and control production processes


Identify food safety hazards and critical control points


Production, processing and marketing


Establish limits


Monitor


Documentation, Validation


Applied to meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products etc.

HACCP

ISO 22000


Applicable

to

all

organization

in

any

aspect

of

the

food

chain


Regardless

of

size,

complexity


Communication

in

food

chain

is

important


Recognition

of

one’s

role

and

position

in

food

chain

vital

for

food

safety



ISO 22000
-

Key Elements


Prerequisites

Programmes

(GMP,

GAP,

GHP)


Principles

of

Hazard

Analysis

and

Critical

Control

Points

(HACCP)


Management

System

Framework



Aligned

to

ISO

9001


Interactive

Management


Communication

essential

for

identification

&

control

of

FS

hazards


Upstream

&

Downstream

(customers

&

suppliers)

Periodic Inspection & sampling of produce / products by the Food Safety
Officers at
Tehsil
/
Taluk
/
Mandal

level


Analysis
of samples at Regional Labs / accredited labs/ empanelled labs for
presence of risk factors in produce / products


Reporting to Higher Up in Hierarchy to create a base line information database
about the prevalence of risk factors (commodity & area wise)


Identification of source of risk factor/ tracing back the risk factor with the
help of experts from State Agricultural Universities / R & D Institutes/
Research
Centres


Capacity Building by creating awareness among food handlers / operators
regarding GAP/GMP/GHP etc., by FSSAI with the help of experts from
Institutions and industry


Level I

Mechanism of Monitoring and Surveillance


R
e
a
s

S
e

S

s

Mechanism of Monitoring and Surveillance


Level II

Capacity

Building

of

Regulatory

Officers

on

recent

developments

in

Food

safety

aspects

,

Sampling

Techniques,

legislations

and

enforcement

including

penalty

and

prosecution

(

Appropriate

Agencies



Public

and

Private

to

be

roped

into

to

accomplish

this

task)

Level III

1.
R

&

D

Institutions

to

document

emerging

pathogens,

develop

appropriate

diagnostic

techniques

and

risk

management

strategies

2.
Public

Health

Institutions

to

document

deaths

and

hospitalization

of

people

due

to

food

borne

infections
.

3.
A

Public

funded

body

to

maintain

National

Repository

of

food

borne

pathogens

to

help

diagnosis

and

confirmation

of

food

borne

illnesses
.

Monitoring & Controlling


Facility Development of Testing : Infrastructure,
Trained Analyst, Test Procedures


Accreditation of Labs in each District


Each Stage Sampling, Testing, Recording


Awareness Building among Consumer /
Processors


Standard Milk Testing Kits at Grass route level


Mobile Testing labs in Market / Consumer place


Consumer Information on Food Safety Hazards in
all possible local languages


Traceability Requirements are to be framed


Track of Food Borne Issues across the India









Eco

system

changes

lead

to

more

pests,

less

predators,

more

vectors

for

microbes


Unseasonal

rains



humidity

and

fungal

growth


Flooding



water

contamination
-

soil

contamination
-

unsafe

food


Higher

Ocean

temperatures
-

algal

blooms
-

harbour

Vibrios

in

spore

like

forms
-

Novel

strains'

eg

O
139

Bengal


Changes

in

aquatic

life

and

formation

of

marine

biotoxins

in

sea

foods

due

to

production

of

phytotoxins

by

harmful

algae

Food safety challenges due to
climate changes

Functional

foods

are


natural

food,



a

food

to

which

a

component

has

been

added,



a

food

from

which

a

component

has

been

removed,



a

food

where

the

nature

of

one

or

more

components

has

been

modified,



a

food

in

which

the

bioavailability

of

one

or

more

components

has

been

modified



or

any

combination

of

these

possibilities
.


Due

to

their

diversity

all

functional

foods

require

a

case

by

case

evaluation

for

their

safety
.



This

process

must

include

both

nutritional

and

toxicological

evaluation
.

Food safety threats in Functional Foods



Fixing

upper

safety

limit

for

intake

of

essential

nutrients

and

it

should

be

applied

to

functional

foods

and

their

bioactive

components
.




For

eg
.

Increase

in

soy

consumption

can

reduce

risk

of

heart

disease

but

exaggerated

soy

intake

may

increase

risk

of

tumor

proliferation

in

some

individuals
.

Threats of EXCESS nutrients


Provides

way

to

monitor

and

relay

information

regarding

the

status

of

contents

and

verifies

information
.

Food

packaging

manufacturers

have

developed

several

innovative

intelligent

packages

that

include

time,

temperature

indicators,

antitheft

and

use

RFID

devices
.



Toxicity

testing

of

food

packaging

materials

have

to

be

done

in

animals

as

human

data

are

rarely

available
.

Food safety threats from Packaging


Glass



has

been

used

for

many

years,

may

result

in

leaching

of

lead
.


Ceramics



may

result

in

leaching

of

heavy

metals

particularly

when

in

contact

with

acidic

beverages

like

fruit

juices
.


Cans



food

packed

in

tin

cans

with

lead

soldered

seams

are

a

source

of

a

number

of

metals,

including

lead,

chromium,

tin

and

cadmium
.



Safety

assessment

of

food

packaging

material

requires

knowledge

of

chemical

toxicity,

migration

and

technological

developments
.



Human

exposure

data

can

be

collected

wherever

possible


Food safety threats from materials
other than plastic


Where are the solutions?


Good

Agricultural

Practices
-

land

use

,

pesticide

use


Good

Catering

Practices
-

ensure

food

served

is

safe

and

wholesome


Good

Hygiene

Practices
-

in

food

handling

areas


Good

Laboratory

Practices
-

Quality

control

and

analytical

labs


Good

Manufacturing

Practices


Good

Retail

Practices
-

tracing

system

to

track

faulty

product
-

use

RFID

and

GPS


Good

Storage

Practices


Good

Transport

Practices


Good

Nutrition

and

House

keeping

Practices


Solution 1 : Adopt Good Practices in
the Food Chain


Enforcement

Food

Safety

Management

system

by

Government


Development

of

Food

control

management


Establish

efficient

Food

laboratory


Industries

should

understand

their

role


Accept

the

standards

and

follow

it

religeously

Solution 2 : Active participation from
stake holders


Through intense
Education and training
to all stake holders



Solution 3 : Capacity development


Develop

uniform

standards

&

regulations



Develop

models

to

better

forecast

the

safety

requirements



Develop

new

technologies

for

analysis

&

detection

in

processed

foods



Evaluate

toxicological

interactions

of

toxins



Strict

monitoring

of

foods

particularly

those

destined

for

children



Regard the safety as the most important quality factor



HACCP and ISO
9000/22000
certifications must for achieving
safety by the processors



Development of technologies for quick detection of spoilage in
processed
foods



All stake holders should integrate and converge






Conclusion