Nuclear Powerpoint 1 - Edmonds

siennatearfulUrban and Civil

Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Nuclear

Power Plants

History of nuclear power


1938


Scientists study Uranium nucleus

1941


Manhattan Project begins

1942


Controlled nuclear chain reaction

1945


U.S. uses two atomic bombs on Japan

1949


Soviets develop atomic bomb

1952


U.S. tests hydrogen bomb

1955


First U.S. nuclear submarine


The energy in one pound of highly enriched
Uranium is comparable to that of one
million gallons of gasoline.



17,000 as much energy in one pound of
Uranium as in one pound of coal.


Economic advantages

Emissions Free


Nuclear energy annually prevents


5.1 million tons of sulfur


2.4 million tons of nitrogen oxide


164 metric tons of carbon



Nuclear Energy Powers

1 in 5 U.S. Homes and
Businesses

States with nuclear
power plant(s)

Nuclear power around the
globe


17% of world’s electricity from nuclear power


U.S. about 20% (2nd largest source)



431 nuclear plants in 31 countries


103 of them in the U.S.


Built none since 1970s (Wisconsin as leader).


Countries Generating Most Nuclear Power

Country

Total MW

USA

99,784

France

58,493

Japan

38,875

Germany

22,657

Russia

19,843

Canada

15,755

Ukraine

12,679

United Kingdom

11,720

Sweden

10,002

South Korea

8,170

Nuclear Power Plant

Turbine and Generator


Spinning
turbine blades
and generator

Boiling water

Steam

Nuclear fuel cycle


Uranium mining and milling


Conversion and enrichment


Fuel rod fabrication


POWER REACTOR


Reprocessing,
or


Radioactive waste disposal


Low
-
level in commercial facilities


High level at plants or underground repository

Uranium Is Mined and Refined

Front end:

Uranium mining and milling

Uranium enrichment


U
-
235


Fissionable at 3%


Weapons grade at 90%



U
-
238


More stable



Plutonium
-
239


Created from U
-
238; highly radioactive

Radioactivity of plutonium

Life span of least

240,000 years


Last Ice Age glaciation

was 10,000 years ago


Neanderthal Man died out

30,000 years ago



Enrichment Concentrates
the Uranium Isotope



Uranium Is Encased in Solid
Ceramic Pellets



Fuel Rods Filled With Pellets Are
Grouped Into Fuel Assemblies


Nuclear Energy Comes

From Fission


Uranium atom

Neutrons

Split atoms

Heat

Splitting Atoms Releases
Neutrons, Making Heat

Neutrons

Heat Produces Steam,
Generating Electricity


Heat

Steam
produced

Steam

Turbine

Generator

Electricity

Controlling the Chain Reaction


Control rods

Fuel

Assemblies

Withdraw control rods,

reaction increases

Insert control rods,

reaction decreases

Nuclear Reactor Process


3% enriched Uranium pellets formed into
rods, which are formed into bundles



Bundles submerged in water coolant inside
pressure vessel, with control rods.



Bundles must be SUPERCRITICAL; will
overheat and melt if no control rods.

Reaction converts water to steam, which
powers steam turbine

Boiling Water Reactor


Steam

Pressurized Water Reactor

Safety Is Engineered Into
Reactor Designs


Containment Vessel

1.5
-
inch thick steel



Shield Building Wall

3 foot thick reinforced concrete


Dry Well Wall

5 foot thick reinforced concrete


Bio Shield

4 foot thick leaded concrete with

1.5
-
inch thick steel lining inside and out


Reactor Vessel

4 to 8 inches thick steel


Reactor Fuel


Weir Wall

1.5 foot thick concrete

Early knowledge of risks


1964 Atomic Energy Commission report


on possible reactor accident



45,000 dead


100,000 injured


$17 billion in damages


Area the size of Pennsylvania contaminated



Cancers and leukemia among workers


Fires and mass exposure.


Karen Silkwood at Oklahoma fabrication plant.



Risk of theft of bomb material.


Risks of enrichment

and fuel fabrication

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