MF Ashby, 2012

siennatearfulUrban and Civil

Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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This lecture unit is part of a set created by Mike Ashby to help introduce students to materials, processes and rational sele
cti
on.


The Teaching Resources website aims to support teaching of materials
-
related courses in Design, Engineering and Science.

Resources come in various formats and are aimed primarily at undergraduate education.

Some of the resources are open access and students can access them. Others are only available to educators using CES EduPack.



Mike Ashby

Department of Engineering

University of Cambridge


www.grantadesign.com/education/resources


© M. F. Ashby, 2012

For reproduction guidance see back page

John Fernandez


Massachusetts

Institute of Technology

Concrete structure of the Stata Center, MIT.Frank O. Gehry,
Architect.

Unit 15.


Architecture & Built
Environment:

materials for construction


www.grantadesign.com/education/resources


M. F. Ashby, 2012



Outline



Content and use of the database

Resources


Text:

“Material Architecture


emergent materials for innovative buildings and
ecological construction”

by John Fernandez, Architecture Press, Elsevier, Oxford,
UK, 2006 ISBN 0
-
7506
-
6497
-
5.



Software:
The CES EduPack Database for Architecture and the Built
Environment,

Granta Design, Cambridge UK, 2011




Why should architects be interested in materials?



The CES EduPack database for
Architecture and the Built Environment



Exercises

www.grantadesign.com/education/resources


M. F. Ashby, 2012



Why do architects need to know about materials?

Post
-
industrial revolution
-

ETFE (and thousands more)

Space Center,
Leicester, UK.

N. Grimshaw

Architect

Pre
-
industrial revolution
-

Stone, wood, glass

York Minster,

York, UK.

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M. F. Ashby, 2012



Today architects and structural engineers specify products, not materials

Gypsum and glass fiber composite board

used as exterior sheathing.

Low
-
e laminated glass

Products, not materials?

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M. F. Ashby, 2012



Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, MA. Diller + Scofidio, Architect.

Unfamiliar materials used in new products

Angle selective glass

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M. F. Ashby, 2012



Many materials used in these products are unfamiliar to designers.

Simmons Hall Student Dormitory, MIT, USA. Steven Holl, Architect
.

Unfamiliar materials used in new products

Aluminum skin, covering…..
Waterproof, adhesive
-
backed EPDM

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M. F. Ashby, 2012



Apartment Building, Munich, Germany. Thomas Herzog, Architect.

Unfamiliar materials used in new products

Silica aerogels allowing…..
Translucent walls with high thermal resistance

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M. F. Ashby, 2012



Cathedral of Los Angeles, USA. Rafael Moneo Architect

Stata Center, MIT, USA. F.O. Gehry Architect

Unfamiliar materials used in new products

High density concrete with

stainless steel reinforcement

Stainless steel, zinc coated


titanium, polymer sealants

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M. F. Ashby, 2012



Functions



Transmit vertical loads to foundation



horizontal loads



Resist dynamic loading from wind, other



high energy loads from earthquakes



Provide long term service

Superstructure

Building services



Provide heat and cooling to interior spaces



adequate ventilation



artificial and natural light



humidity control



water and waste removal



Control transfer of air



heat



water; liquid, vapor



radiation transfer



Provide acoustic separation

Exterior envelope



Delineate interior space



Provide distinct climate zones



acoustically separate zones



finished surfaces



for health and safety of occupants

Interior systems

The 4 semi
-
autonomous systems

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M. F. Ashby, 2012



Materials

Functions



Steel reinforced concrete



Cast iron and steel alloys



Timber



Brick, clay
-
based ceramics



Stone




Transmit vertical loads to foundation



horizontal loads



Resist dynamic loading from wind, other



high energy loads from earthquakes



Provide long term service



Glass



Aluminum



Silicone, neoprene, epoxies



Insulating fibers and foams



Bitumen, fiberglass



Control transfer of air



heat



water; liquid, vapor



radiation transfer



Provide acoustic separation



Wood particle boards



Polymer reinforced plaster



Resins and other polymers



Fabrics, natural fibers



Tiles, terracotta, brick



Delineate interior space



Provide distinct climate zones



acoustically separate zones



finished surfaces



for health and safety of occupants



Galvanized sheet metals



Adhesives and tapes



Polymer electrical insulators



Heat exchange materials



Copper and PVC piping



Provide heat and cooling to interior spaces



adequate ventilation



artificial and natural light



humidity control



water and waste removal

The 4 systems require diverse materials

www.grantadesign.com/education/resources


M. F. Ashby, 2012



The CESEduPack database for Architecture


Browse


Select



Toolbar


Print



Search



File Edit View Select Tools Window Help Feature request

MaterialUniverse

Concrete, Stone, Ceramic, Brick…..

+

Wood, Plywood, Glulam, Bamboo, Straw…

+

Metals, Ferrous and Non
-
ferrous

+

Polymers: Elastomers, Thermoplastics…

+

Composites

+

Foams, Fabrics and Fibers

+

Table:

MaterialsUniverse

Subset:

All Architecture

Find what:

Look in table:

MaterialUniverse

Glulam

Search

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M. F. Ashby, 2012



Architecture and the Built Environment


Hygro
-
Thermal properties

Water absorption


2

-

8.5

%

Frost Resistance

Poor


Electrical properties

Electrical c
onductor or insulator?

Good insulator


Acoustic properties

Sound absorption

Poor

Sound isolation

Good


Environmental
properties

Em
bodied Energy


4.9

-

5.4

MJ/kg

Carbon dioxide
footprint

*

0.14

-

0.16

kg/kg

Recycle

False

Downcycle

True

Biodegrade

False

Incinerate

False

Landfill

True


Durability

Fresh Water

Very Good

Salt Water

Very Good

Weak Acid

G
ood

Strong Acid

Poor

Weak Alkalis

Very Good

Strong Alkalis

Good

Organic Solvents

Very Good

Sunlight (UV radiation)

Very Good

Durability in
industrial atmosphere

Good

Durability in rural atmosphere

Very Good

Durability in
marine atmosphere

Good


Design guidelines

Sandstone is easily cut and carved. Marble has a wonderful translucency, making it the
choice of many sculptors. It weathers in a benign attractive way, but the surface traps dirt in
an urb
an or industrial environment, requiring periodic cleaning.


Technical notes

Sandstones consist of particles of quartz, feldspar and mica bonded by a natural cement.
The cement determines the strength, durability and color. Calcareous sandstones are
bonded
with calcium carbonate; they are called "freestone" because they are easily worked
but they weather badly. Siliceous sandstones are bonded with alumino
-
silicates; they are
acid resistant and durable but harder to work. Bluestone, much used in New York s
tate, is
noted for its even grain and high strength. It is about 70% silica bonded with clay.
Ferruginous sandstones contain oxides of iron, giving lovely browns, reds and yellows.

Sandstone


Sandstone is consolidated sand
particles (quartz), bonded
by a
cementing agent: feldspars, limes, silica
or clays. The size of the sand particles,
the porosity and the strength vary
greatly in different sandstones. The
colours derive form iron or manganese
impurities and give sandstones their
character.

Particular grades are
known
as Bluestone or York stone
.

Sandstone is used

for b
uildings and
facing, table tops, bench tops and
chemical eq
uipment to resist acids and
alkalis
.


General properties

Density


2.24e3

-

2.65e3

kg/m^3

P
rice

*

0.2

-

0.3

$
US
/kg


Building system

Superstruc
ture, Enclosure, Interior,
Services



Mechanical properties

Compressive Strength


70

-

90

MPa

Tensile Strength

*

4

-

15

MPa

Bending strength


5

-

16

MPa

Elastic Limit

*

4

-

15

MPa

Fracture Toughness

*

0.7

-

1.5

MPa.m^1/2

Young's Modulus


14

-

40

GPa

Shear Modulus

*

14.9

-

15.7

GPa

Bulk modulus

*

24.9

-

26.2

GPa

Bending modulus

*

14

-

40

GPa

Poisson's Ratio

*

0.24

-

0.26


Hardness
-
Vickers

*

7

-

38

HV

Elongation


0




%

Endurance Limit

*

3.15

-

3.68

MPa

Mechanical loss coefficient

*

1.9e
-
3

-

5.7e
-
3



Thermal and Combustion properties

Thermal conductor or insulator?

Poor insulator

Thermal Resistivity

*

0.345

-

0.398

m.K/W

Thermal Expansion

*

7.5

-

8.5

µstrain/K

Specific Heat

*

840

-

920

J/kg.K

Melting Point

*

1.47e3

-

1.67e3

K

Maximum Service Temperature

*

673

-

973

K

Flammability

Non
-
flammable



Red
Sandstone, University of Sydney,
New South Wales,
Australia


Thermal and Combustion properties

Thermal conductor or ins
ulator?

Poor insulator

Thermal Resistivity


0.345

-

0.398

m.C/W

Thermal Expansion


7.5

-

8.5

µstrain/C

Specific Heat

*

840

-

920

J/kg.C

Melting Point

*

1200

-

1400

C

Maximum Service Temperature

*

400

-

700

C

Flammability





Non
-
flammable


Part of a typical record
(reformatted):

Sandstone


www.grantadesign.com/education/resources


M. F. Ashby, 2012



What is different?




Additional fields
(62 selectable fields)



Mechanical properties in bending



Hygro
-
thermal props



Acoustic properties



Durability in various atmospheres



More classes of concrete



More classes of brick and tile



More fibers, particle and plywoods



More materials for insulation



Images
relating to built environment
where possible

Content:

Level 2, expanded



127 records

emphasising materials for the
built environment

www.grantadesign.com/education/resources


M. F. Ashby, 2012





Enables students to explore relationships



Carry out elementary selections (“
Find materials with large thermal resistivity
”)

Ability to create property charts

Materials with high thermal resistivity

Results


5 out of 95 pass

Material 1 313

Material 2 300

Material 3 278

Material 4 247

etc...


Ranking


T
-
resistivity

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M. F. Ashby, 2012



Selection: cladding for buildings



Select materials for cladding for buildings.




Durable, strong,
ductile cladding in
the form of sheet.



Environmentally
friendly



As cheap as
possible

Design requirements

Translation


Function

Protective cladding


Constraints



Form: sheet


Tensile strength > 50 MPa


Elongation > 2%


Durability in industrial environment: Excellent


Durability in rural environment: Excellent


Durability in marine environment: Excellent


Free variable


Choice of material




Minimize cost (and / or)



Minimize embodied energy

Objectives



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M. F. Ashby, 2012



Applying the constraints

Mechanical properties

Material form

Bulk

Sheet

Durability

MPa

%

-

Industrial environment


Tensile strength

Elongation


-

-

etc

Rural environment

Marine environment

Apply constraints using a Limit stage

Excellent

Excellent

Excellent

2

50

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M. F. Ashby, 2012



Cladding: the selection

Then a graph stage to minimize cost and embodied energy

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M. F. Ashby, 2012



Galvanized steel

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M. F. Ashby, 2012




Architects and civil engineers get acquainted with new materials



Environmental data is available for all materials in the database



Materials substitution is facilitated

So what?

www.grantadesign.com/education/resources


M. F. Ashby, 2012



Lecture Unit Series

Each frame of each unit has explanatory notes. You see them by opening the PowerPoint
slide in Notes view (View


Notes pages) or by clicking this icon in the bottom toolbar of
PowerPoint

Topic

Number

Name

Finding and
Displaying
Information

Unit 1

The materials and processes universe
: families,
classes, members, attributes

Unit 2

Materials charts
: mapping the materials universe

Material
Properties

Unit 3

The Elements
:

Property origins, trends and
relationships

Unit 4

Manipulating Properties
: Chemistry, Microstructure,
Architecture

Unit 5

Designing New Materials
: Filling the boundaries of
materials property space

Selection

Unit 6

Translation, Screening, Documentati
on
: the first
step in optimized selection

Unit 7

Ranking
: refining the choice

Unit 8

Objectives in conflict
: trade
-
off methods and penalty
functions

Unit 9

Material and shape

Unit 10

Selecting processes
: shaping, joining and surface
treatment

Uni
t 11

The economics
: cost modelling for selection


Sustainability

Unit 12

Eco Selection
: the eco audit tool

Unit 13

Advanced Eco design
: systematic material selection

Unit 14

Low Carbon Power:
Resource Intensities and
Materials Use

Special
Topics

Unit

15

Architecture and the Built Environment
: materials
for construction

Unit 16

Structural sections
: shape in action

Unit 17

CES EduPack Bio Edition:
Natural and man
-
made
implantable materials

Unit 18

Materials in Industrial design
: Why do consumers
b
uy products?

Advanced
Teaching and
Research

Unit 19

Advanced Databases:
Level 3 Standard, Aerospace
and Polymer

Unit 20

Hybrid Synthesizer:
Modelling Composites, Cellular
structures and Sandwich panels

Unit 21

Database creation:
Using CES Constructor
in
Research

Unit 22

Research:
CES Selector and Constructor

Unit 23

Sustainability
:
Sustainability and Materials Selection


Topic

Number

Name


These PowerPoint lecture
-
units are on the Teaching Resource Website

www.grantadesign.com/education/resources


M. F. Ashby, 2012




www.grantadesign.com/education/resources


© M. F. Ashby & J Fernandez, 2012

Granta’s Teaching Resources website aims to support teaching of materials
-
related courses in Engineering, Science and Design.

The resources come in various formats and are aimed at different levels of student.


This resource is part of a set created by Mike Ashby to help introduce materials and materials selection to students.


The website also contains other resources contributed by faculty at the 800+ universities and colleges worldwide using Granta
’s
CES EduPack.


The teaching resource website contains both resources that require the use of CES EduPack and those that don’t.

Authors

Mike Ashby

University of Cambridge, Granta Design Ltd.

www.grantadesign.com

www.eng.cam.ac.uk


John Fernandez

MIT

Reproduction

This resource is copyright Mike Ashby and John Fernandez.
You can reproduce these resources in order to use them with
students, provided you have purchased access to Granta’s
Teaching Resources. Please make sure that Mike Ashby,
John Fernandez and Granta Design are credited on any
reproductions. You cannot use these resources for any
commercial purposes.

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