Biotechnology Applications

sidewalkhallBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Biotechnology Applications

By

Diana L. Duckworth

Rustburg High School

Campbell County

Uses of
in vitro

DNA


DNA sequencing of base pairs


Many organisms have been sequenced


Human Genome Project


Know the entire human genome at base pair level


Use sequences to study a number of issues


Address questions of evolution by comparing differences and
similarities in DNA; greater similarity, more closely related


Study function of different genes & how they are regulated


important with regard to gene therapy


Ethical issues: Should one be able to patent a gene?


Example


high cholesterol tolerance in Italian population; who
has the right to that gene & its products?



More
in vitro

applications


Diagnosis of disease


HIV in earliest stages


Identify harmful alleles through gel
electrophoresis


DNA fingerprinting


Paternity tests


Identification of criminals

Applications of
in vivo

DNA cloning


Gene therapy


Vector cells such as viruses used to produce
recombinant DNA containing gene a normal allele
from donor


Used to infect
in vitro
bone marrow cells (stem cells)
from individual with genetic defect


Cells are then reintroduced into patient


Begin to produce normal proteins to combat the
disease


Human trials in SCID (immune deficiency
disease)


9/10 showed improvement;


2 later developed leukemia as a result; trials
suspended

More
in vivo

applications


Pharmaceutical products


Bacteria such as
E. coli

as the host organism contain
gene for human insulin


The gene is transcribed by the bacteria producing
insulin


Can be produced in industrial environment to produce
insulin for use by diabetics


Other pharmaceutical products


human growth hormone and


Tissue plasminogin activator or TPA (combats blood
clots causing heart attacks


Vaccines; protein that stimulates immune response is
produced by genetic engineering just as other
pharmaceutical products


More
in vivo

applications


Bioengineered bacteria can be created to aid in
environmental cleanup


Already used in oil spills


May be used to remove heavy metals from pollution
sites


Agricultural Uses


Transgenic livestock


Desirable genes (even from other species) are injected into a
fertilized egg
in vitro

which is then implanted in a surrogate


Developing fetus incorporates gene & organism then has that
trait


Being used to create pharmaceuticals in eggs or in milk


more economical & efficient


More agricultural uses


Transgenic Plants


Use plasmids from soil bacteria as vector


Recombinant DNA incorporated into plant cells which
regenerate into mature plants


Example: golden rice was engineered to contain
beta
-
carotene; combats Vitamin A deficiency in half of
the world’s population


Pharmaceuticals in tobacco plants


vaccines such as
hepatitus B and factors which interfere with bacteria
that cause tooth decay


Roundup resistant corn (cannot legally be used for
food)


Ethical concerns: what if the plant escapes to
the wild? In food plants


what if strange genes
& proteins cause allergic reactions

http://www.goldenrice.org/