FIPT_104_files/ch02 plans & codes - Miramar Fire Technology

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Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Building Construction 104

Chapter 2

Plans and Codes

Objectives


Understand the terms used in basic
blueprint reading


Recognize the different parts of a
plan


Define key terms in all plans


Understand how codes are developed
and the political processes involved

Codes


Building codes delineate level of risk
a community will face in regard to
building failure


Specific or generalized


Code process is political and is
developed by many interested parties



Plans


Road maps of the building process


Firefighters must be familiar with
building plans

Building codes


Legal documents


Enforced through power of the states
delegated to local municipalities


Cover all aspects of new construction,
renovation, and remodeling


Basic purpose is to prevent collapse
and protect occupants

Code development


The right to develop a code rests with
each state under the Constitution


Prior to 1960, most states delegated
that right to individual cities and
towns


This led to convoluted, nonstandardized
system

Two types of codes


Specification code


Limits construction to exact types of
materials and methods


This type of code demands that the
materials and methods are followed
exactly, an example would be a fire
barrier.


Two types of codes
(cont.)


Performance code


Sets requirement for performance that
must be met


Does not limit selection of material


This type of code is the most common it
allows the builder to chose the methods
and materials to meet the requirements
of the code. An example would be fire
protection sprayed on a column.

SAFETY


RESPONSIBILITY TO PROVIDE SAFE
ENVIRONMENT


FIRE RESISTANCE


INTERIOR FINISHES


EGRESS


PROTECTION SYSTEMS


VERTICAL OPENINGS


EXPOSURES


SEPARATION

ACCESSIBILITY


ADA TITLE III REQUIRES ALL PUBLIC
BUILDING BE ACCESSIBLE TO
DISABLED


IT IS AN ACCESS LAW NOT EGRESS


MUST PROVIDE AND AREA OF
REFUGE


MUST BE PROVIDED WITH
COMMUNICATIONS

Codes reference standards or
certain tests


Specifications become standards
when they are adopted for use by a
broad group of manufacturers,and
users.


The NFPA among others publish
standards for most aspects of building
construction.


Standards are a level of performance.

Development of standards included within a
code involves many players


National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA)


American National Standards Institute
(ANSI)


American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM)


Underwriters Laboratories (UL)

The International Building Code


Has replaced the Uniform Code


Largely a performance
-
based code


Places emphasis on metric system


Valuable step toward standardization


ICC Code has been adopted here in
CA as of January 2008

The role of the building official


Acts as the senior individual
responsible for code development,
acceptance, and enforcement.


Usually not fire service personnel.



Occupancy classification


Codes are designed to reduce the
dangers faced by occupants


Many codes group occupancies based
on the probability of a certain number
of occupants and their ability to exit
the building.

Occupancy classification
(cont.)


The more people occupying the
structure at one time or if the
building has other significant hazards:


Requires more stringent requirements
for the structure and any internal
assemblies against spread of fire or its
by
-
products

OCCUPANCY


WHO IS USING THE BUILDING?


WHAT ARE THEY USING IT FOR?


OFTEN AFFECTS FIRE BEHAVIOR


DICTATES TACTICS


OCCUPANCY OFTEN CHANGES


THE CHANGES ARE NOT ALWAYS
APPARENT

Occupancy Types


A


Assembly


B


Business


E


Educational


F


Factory


H


Hazardous


I


Institutional


Occupancy Types


M


Mercantile


R


Residential


S


Storage


U
-

Unusual

Fire resistance and flame
spread


Most fire victims killed by fire by
-
products, like smoke and hot gas


The application and installation of
interior finishes can increase the
spread of fire and produce toxic gases

Fire Resistive Construction


Structural
members are then
covered with
insulating material
or encased in
concrete to provide
fire resistance

Sprayed on
insulating
material

Fire Resistive Construction


Never assume
that a fire
resistive
structure will
prevent the
extension of
fire, heat, and
smoke to other
sections of the
building

Flame spread rating


How fast an applied flame moves
along a 19.5
-
foot tunnel as compared
to the standard, red oak at 5.5
minutes


Materials is assigned a rating


A = 0
-
25


B = 26
-
75


C = 76
-
200


Test is monitored and listed under
three standards:


NFPA 215 Standard Methods of Fire Tests
on Building Materials


UL 263 Fire Tests of Building
Construction Materials


ASTM E119 Methods of Fire Tests of
Building Construction and Materials


Flame spread rating
(cont.)

Flame spread rating
(cont.)


Same test is used for smoke
generation, called the E84 test


Uses a photoelectric cell to determine
obscuration


Flaw with flame spread test is that
material can do well in test but
generate much toxic gas and the test
was developed over 90 years ago


Fire resistance test


Measured using thermocouples on
opposite side of building material


Nonstructural members


If temperature does not exceed 250
degrees, it passes

Fire resistance rating
(cont.)


Structural members


Loaded during test


If temperature exceeds 250
°

F or flame
penetrates material, that rating is
attached


Enough heat will cause any building
to fail

Plans and blueprints (pg 26/27)


Road maps for creating a structure


Drawings are original plans;
blueprints are copies or “prints”


Any officer who is or wants to be an
incident commander needs to be
competent at reading plans or prints


Centerlines


Dimension Lines


Leader Lines


Break Lines


Sectioning Lines


Hidden Lines





Plans and blueprints ( pg 26/27)

Types of drawing plans


Plan view


A diagram showing a horizontal view of a
building taken from above.


All plans are shown from above.

Construction plans


Site or plot plan


Shows contours or boundaries, roads,
utilities, trees, structures, and other
significant features pertaining to or
located on site

Construction plans (pg. 26)


Foundation plan


Architectural drawing of the perimeter of
a building

Foundations


Ultimately, all loads are delivered to
the ground through the foundation.


The nature of the ground and the
weight of the structure determines
the foundation.


Almost all foundations today are
concrete
.

Construction plans

Construction plans


Floor plan


Shows the lengths, thicknesses, and
composition of the building walls on a
given floor

Construction plans

Construction plans


Framing plans


Show the skeleton of a building in wood
frame construction


Wall framing plans show information
regarding studs, corner posts, bracing,
sills, and plate


Roof framing plans show information
regarding rafters, purlins, ridges, truss
placement, etc.

Construction plans ( pg. 29)

Utility plans


Show layout of heating, electrical,
plumbing, or other system plans and
their locations


Also called mechanical drawings

Utility plans (pg.32)

Elevation drawings


Show the front, rear, and sides of a
structure projected on vertical planes
parallel to the planes of the sides

Elevation drawings

Details


Drawings done on a larger scale than
building drawings


These are the construction documents
they show the schedule of the work.

Main parts of a structure


Load
-
bearing structural members


Support or transfer loads on the
structure while remaining in equilibrium
with each other


Joints


Places where members are connected to
other members

Main parts of a structure
(cont.)


Vertical members (pillars)


High
-
strength columns that support
horizontal members


Piers are short columns


Horizontal members


Direct support for live loads


Building Construction
Terminology


Column


A support
member that is
under
compressive
force


This is a vertical
member

Main parts of a structure
(cont.)


Horizontal members (beams)


Support weight on longitudinal axis


Beams fixed at one end are known as
cantilevered

Building Construction
Terminology



Beam


Horizontal
structural member
supported at two or
more points



Designed to sustain
loads perpendicular
to its length

Building Construction
Terminology


Girder


A beam which
supports other
beams.


Also horizontal

Main parts of a structure
(cont.)


Horizontal members


Steel members constructed as a truss
are open web bar joist or steel bar joist


Horizontal members that support
studs are called sills or sole plates


Lintels are members over windows

Building Construction
Terminology


Lintel


A beam which
spans an
opening in a
masonry wall

Steel Flat Roof Truss


Parallel
Chord
Truss



Steel
Bar
Joist

Lightweight Flat Roof Support


Wooden I
-
Beam


High surface
-
to
-
mass ratio



Fastening
glue quickly
deteriorates
under fire
conditions

Flat Roof Truss


Parallel Chord Truss

Top


Chord

Web


Members

Bottom Chord

QUEEN POST

Bottom Chord

KING POST

Web Member

Top Chord

FINK OR FRENCH

Web Member

Top


Chord

Panel

Points


Panel

Points

Web

Members

Top Chord

WARREN TRUSS

BOWSTRING TRUSS

SCISSORS


TRUSS

Panel Points

Bottom Chord

Web


Member

Top Chord

CAMEL BACK TRUSS

SAW
-
TOOTH TRUSS

Main parts of a structure
(cont.)


Horizontal members


Inclined members are called rafters


Peaked ends of rafters are called the
ridge, ridge pole, etc.

Ridge Pole & Rafters

Summary


It is important to understand building
codes


Codes are designed to prevent
building failure


Blueprints and plans show structural
assembly


The main parts of the structure are
the load
-
bearing members