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Dec 14, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Impact of
Convergence of Cloud, Social

and Mobile
Technologies


Draft
2










April
18
, 2013

Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

Page
2


Contents

Impact of Convergence of Cloud, Social and Mobile Technologies

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1

Draft 2

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1

Acknowledgements

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3

Workgroup Leaders
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3

Key Contributors

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3

Reviewers

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3

Executive Overview

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3

Business Innovation & Transformation due to convergence of Social, Mobile and Cloud

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3

Social

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4

MOBILE

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5

Mobile


Key Value Drivers

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6

Cloud

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6

Examples of Convergence of Social M
obile and Cloud

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8

Roadmap for Cloud, Social, and Mobile Solutions (15
-
20 pages)

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................................
.

9

Step 1: Define a Comprehensive Business Strate
gy

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9

Step 2: Develop an Effective IT Strategy & Architecture

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9

Step 3: Ensure Your Cloud Decisions Support Critical Requirements

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9

Step 4: Deploy a Robust Mobile Platform

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11

Step 5: Deploy a Rich Social Business Platform

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12

Step 6: Leverage Analytics to Gain Additional Insight

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16

Step 7: Ensure Proper Security & Privacy Controls are in Place

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21

Step 8: Establish a Robust Development Environment

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22

Step 9: Ensure the IT Environment can be Managed Effectively

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25

Step 10: Consider Integration & Interoperability Requirements

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29

Works Cited

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31

Additional References

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31

Appendix A: Current State of Mobile Standards

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Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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Acknowledgements


Work
group

Leaders

Key Contributors

Reviewers

Executive Overview

<<Will be completed in later dra
ft>>



Target audience



Key objectives of the document



Document will focus on consumer perspective



Brief introduction of major sections

Business Innovation & Transformation due to convergence of Social, Mobile and
Cloud

The simultaneous adoption of Social,
Mobile, and Cloud is having a profound impact on businesses. Even
though each of these technologies provides a different value for organizations the synergistic effect of
all three technologies is becoming more evident, and is providing new ways for busine
sses to innovate
and create
value
.

As an
example
, consider a large software company that has encouraged product managers and
designers to use tablets while visiting customers to enhance ideation, and customer feedback. The
tablets are used to sketch id
eas and potential solutions while visiting customers. The product designers
also use their tablets to record video of customers working in his/her environment. These sketches and
videos are then immediately posted to the company’s internal social network.

The team members of the
company’s globally distributed product team can now provide feedback, new product ideas, and engage
in a rich and lively discussion on the company’s social network. Furthermore, all this interaction and
feedback can happen in near
real time and most critically while the product managers are still on the
road meeting clients.

The company also wants to allow their customers to be part of the social network, and in order to
reduce costs and meet scalability needs has deployed the soc
ial network on a cloud infrastructure. Since
the company deeply values collaboration, it runs analytics through an external cloud service on the
social data collected thus measuring the use and effectiveness of social tools in promoting collaboration
and c
ommunication throughout the company.

The example above hints at how mobility, social networks and clouds are working synergistically to
enhance business processes within the organization. Furthermore, providing access to company’s IT
Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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resources through mo
bility and clouds (public/private) enables rich interaction, sharing, and
collaboration. The marginal cost of such collaboration among enterprise staff, partners, and clients is
zero, but the effect on group communication and group dynamics creates enormou
s value for
companies.

Enterprises face a large number of challenges in effectively adopting cloud, social and mobile
technologies, but in our view it is important to develop strategies that take advantage of the synergistic
effect of these technologies.
As we discuss later in this section, companies using these technologies
successfully are beginning to see rewards that range from more efficient business processes, better
customer insight, to development of new business models.

Social

Social technology

at its core is the evolution of how people communicate and collaborate in digital
mediums. Social technologies are designed to capture rich interactions (pictures, video, text,
environmental/social context) among groups of users, which enables co
-
creatio
n, collaboration, and
development of richer relationships between employees, partners, and customers. Furthermore, the
emergence of novel group dynamics due to social networking tools within organizations contributes to
innovation, new and improved busines
s processes, and host of other gains.

In a 2012 study, Mckinesey estimated that the vast majority of social technology benefits in enterprises
are in the area of communication across enterprises, and adopting these social technologies can lead to
a 20


2
5% gain in productivity, especially among knowledge workers. Thus, it is imperative that a Social
Business strategy of organizations focus on opening up the way the organization communicates and
collaborates both internally and externally with customers.
This is in turn can lead to improvements in
productivity, business processes and sales.

Many organizations already use Facebook, LinkedIn and other social networking websites for external
activities such as branding, marketing and recruiting, often with
positive results. Many have further
adopted social business platforms, also known as enterprise social software, for internal collaboration
and to connect employees, partners, information and digital assets throughout the organization. Some
companies are a
ctively mining social data to study sentiments related to their products and services
thus providing them key insights that are helpful in branding, messaging, and even new product
development.

Social technologies are in the early
-
mid phase of enterprise

adoption, and in many cases are already
transforming enterprises by flattening hierarchies, creating previously unthinkable networks of
employees, spurring wider collaboration and even democratizing workplaces. A recent survey of 3,500
business executives

conducted worldwide by MIT Sloan Management Review and Deloitte LLP found
that Fifty
-
two percent of the respondents said social technologies are already "important" or
"somewhat important" to their business.

Key Benefits for use of Social Technologies.


Colla
boration and Distributed Business Processes


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Social technologies provide a rich collaboration and engagement platform to facilitate sharing of
knowledge around products, services, technologies and business issues. For example companies that
develop
mapping software facilitate user/community reporting and correction of map errors by
providing social collaboration tools in their products.

Customer care and Insights through social technologies

Analysis of social interactions, behaviors, and social con
versations can help customer service staff pre
-
empt potential problems and prevent harm to the company brand. Social networks can also act as a
channel for providing customer care, a place where customers can post questions which can be
answered by users
or by customer service reps.

Product and Service Innovation

-

Businesses can seek the best ideas and solutions to problems by
leveraging of best
-
of
-
breed ideas, technologies and capabilities from their communities.

Marketing and Sales
-

<To be done>

Tale
nt Management
-

Finding and connecting people, teams and expertise.

Social Commerce
-

<To be done>

Key Challenges in Adoption of Social Technologies

Although it is not in the scope of this section to present a detailed account of the challenges businesse
s
face in adopting Social Networking technologies, we provide a brief account of some of the most
important challenges being faced by businesses when dealing with social technology adoption.

<To be done>

MOBILE

The adoption of mobile devices has gr
own tremendously in the last few years, fuelled mainly by
the benefits of smart phones which provide location independent computing, growing array of mobile
applications, and connectivity to cloud services and information.

Because mobile devi
ces offer real
-
time communication and ubiquitous computing, they have become an important platform for services
such as financial transactions (e.g., e
-
banking, buying, selling, payments, coupons), social networking,
location
-
based queries (e.g., map servi
ces, traffic advisories), entertainment (e.g., gaming, ticketing),
education, health care, inventory management and tracking and countless other domains.

According to Gartner, development and deployment of enterprise mobile apps has been moving more
slowl
y than of consumer
-
facing apps. One main reason is IT leaders’ concerns about the security of
mobile devices, which are often employees’ personal devices, and are vulnerable to being lost, hacked
or stolen. CIOs generally agree that they face three core c
hallenges around enterprise mobility that are
going to continue to shape their strategy. They are:

• Security of the devices and mobile data

• Provisioning and servicing mobile users

Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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• Keeping abreast with rapidly changing technology.

While there are plen
ty of established tools and practices for keeping Web visitors from straying (or
hacking) into sensitive corporate data, managing security across a diverse set of mobile devices remains
a challenge.

Mobile


Key Value Drivers

Enhanced Productivity throu
gh Location Independence

Adoption of mobile technologies in the enterprise
is beginning to impact individual workers in a number
of ways. With location independence, people can now work from virtually anywhere and access the
same applications, information,

and resources they have in traditional offices. Employees in such
environments can be more easily rewarded on performance, and management’s focus can shift from
monitoring attendance to evaluating results. Furthermore, workers that are primarily in the fi
eld can
now easily access the company’s IT systems which increases productivity, improves business processes
and customer service.

Sensors and Context


Mobile devices are becoming nearly ubiquitous. In addition, mobile smartphones have been enhanced
with
a variety of sensors, such as accelerometers’, microphones, cameras, medical sensors etc. These
sensors and the capacity to capture user context can contribute to development of new and unique
applications. Furthermore, use of context information can provi
de key insights into user behavior that
can be targeted by companies in myriad of ways. Some of the context information that can be captured
using mobile devices includes location, weather, current activity (walking, driving etc.), bio
-
metrics
(heartbeat,

pulse), nearby attractions, and many more.

Mobile Commerce

The location independent nature of mobile phones accompanied by rich interaction open up a new
channel for commerce, and allows companies to engage with customers in myriad of ways. Companies
ca
n use contextual information like weather, location, mood etc. to offer promotions for new products.
The new channel also helps sellers close the loop from though urge to purchase much faster since the
capability to buy/sell or conduct transactions is lite
rally on the users finger tips.

Cloud

Cloud computing offers a value proposition that is different from traditional enterprise IT environments.
By providing a way to exploit virtualization and aggregate computing resources, cloud computing can
offer econo
mies of scale that would otherwise be unavailable. It can also offer opportunities to
immediately exploit installed hardware and software, rather than using time and resources to design,
deploy and test a new implementation. Because virtual instances can b
e provisioned and terminated at
any time and the user organization pays only for the computing resource they are employing, costs can
be lower.

Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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Essential Characteristics



On
-
demand self
-
service. A consumer can provision computing capabilities, such as serv
er time
and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each
service’s provider.



Broad network access. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through
standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogene
ous thin or thick client platforms (e.g.,
mobile phones, laptops, and personal digital assistants (PDAs).



Resource pooling. Cloud computing pools a provider’s computing resources to serve multiple
consumers using a multi
-
tenant model, with different physic
al and virtual resources assigned
and reassigned according to consumer demand. Cloud computing provides a sense of location
independence. Customers generally have no control or knowledge of the exact location of the
resources. But, they may be able to spec
ify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g.,
country, state, or data center). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory,
network bandwidth, and virtual machines.



Rapid elasticity. Resources can be rapidly and elastically provisioned
, sometimes automatically,
to scale out quickly, and rapidly released to scale in quickly. To consumers, the resources often
appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time.



Measured Service. Cloud systems automatically control and
optimize resource use by leveraging
a metering capability at some level of abstraction suitable to the type of service (e.g., storage,
processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Providers and consumers can monitor,
control, and report on services wi
th transparency

Value Drivers

Reduced capital costs

-

Cloud computing permits the expense of infrastructure and its management to
become an operational expense rather than a capital investment. This can be beneficial for the business
both from a tax perspe
ctive, and also because it allows the organization to conserve capital for other
purposes.

Lower Operational Costs
-

Cloud computing offers a centralized, remote facility for computing, leading
to economies of scale in both the use of hardware and softwar
e and a reduction in required resources
for administrative management.

Business Agility

-

Cloud computing provides the ability to make use of computing resources on an
immediate basis, rather than a need to first invest time and skilled resources in desig
ning and
implementing infrastructure (hardware and middleware) and then implementing and testing it. This
leads to faster time to value which may mean enhanced revenue, larger market share, or other benefits.

Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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Challenges

Although it is not in the scope of t
his section to present a detailed account of the challenges businesses
face in adopting Cloud technologies, we provide a brief account of some of the most important
challenges being faced by businesses when dealing with social technology adoption
.



Legal a
nd regulatory requirements



Security



SLA



Governance



Lack of standards and interoperability

Examples of Convergence of Social Mobile and
Cloud

The growth of Social, Mobile and Cloud technologies is having an unprecedented impact on consumers
and businesses.

In a very short amount of time, social interactions have migrated from traditional online
social websites to mobile devices. Rapid growth of mobile devices world
-
wide means that users will
have access to a mobile device, before access to a regular land
-
ba
sed Internet connection. This is having
a direct impact on how businesses engage with their customers, their own employees, and the
capabilities required within the enterprise to take advantage of these enormous shifts. As we illustrated
earlier in this
section, by using Social, Mobile, and Cloud synergistically a large software company is
dramatically improving their interactions with customers, collaboration in their own organization, and in
turn the level of innovation in their products.

The rise of l
ocation
-
enabled mobile phones and location based services is providing opportunities to
apply personalization and recommender system technology to people's everyday lives. A variety of
digital traces can now be used to infer how people move about a city, t
rack their habits, and contexts.
Personalization and recommender systems, potentially merged with the data from social networks, web
ratings etc. can recommend new places, products, events. These personal recommendations contribute
significantly to the ave
rage basket size for many companies. The computation to enable such
recommendation systems is offloaded to the cloud. The scalability and large compute resources
provided by the cloud even though seamless is a key enabler in providing personalization featu
res that
are critical to the quality of mobile experiences.

In medicine many hospitals & physicians are embracing secure social networks run in the cloud to share
and collaborate on complex cases. Physicians can take pictures or video of physical symptom
s using
their mobile devices, and share them with other physicians on social networks to collaborate on
complex cases. The richness of the interaction and discussion facilitated by these medical social
networks cannot be replicated with conventional techn
ologies like emails, text and voice. Even patients
using certain mobile applications have the capabilities to record blood sugars levels, log migraine
headaches and digitally share data with their physicians. Suddenly physicians have a temporal record of
Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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p
hysiological activity rather than just description by the patients, which can provide better insight to
physicians and improve patient outcomes.

These examples highlight how the convergence of these technologies is be effectively exploited in
myriad of wa
ys by organizations to enhance customer engagements, and productivity within their own
enterprises.

Roadmap

for
Cloud, Social, and Mobile
Solutions

(15
-
20 pages)


T
his section provides a prescriptive series of steps that should be taken
consumers

to
ensure

successful
deployment of cloud based social and mobile solutions.
The following steps are discussed in detail:

1.

Define a Comprehensive Business Strategy

2.

Develop an Effective IT Strategy and Architecture

3.

Ensure Your Cloud Decisions Support Critical Requir
ements

4.

Select a Robust Mobile Platform

5.

Deploy a Rich Social Business Platform

6.

Leverage Analytics to Gain Additional Insight

7.

Ensure Proper Security and Privacy Controls are in Place

8.

Ensure the IT Environment can be Managed Effectively

9.

Establish a Robust D
evelopment Environment

10.

Consider Integration and Interoperability Requirements

Requirements and best practices are highlighted for each step. In addition, each step takes into account
the realities of today’s landscape and postulates how this space is likel
y to evolve in the future, including
the importan
t role that standards will play
.

Step 1: Define a Comprehensive Business
Strategy

This section will be delivered in Draft 2.

Step 2: Develop an Effective IT Strategy &
Architecture

This section will be de
livered in Draft 2. Note that this section subsumes the Technical Characteristics
section that was part of the original outline. Both functional and non
-
functional characteristics will be
covered in this section.

Step 3: Ensure Your Cloud Decisions Support

Critical Requirements

One of the tricky things about the cloud market today is defining what “the cloud” actually is. Like most
other new technology trends, many firms are anxious to take advantage of the hype b
y

labeling
everything that trend. Cloud is

no different. This section provides a summary of the types of cloud
offerings available today. Before that, it is worth understanding what exactly are the characteristics that
make a solution a cloud? While there are many variants of this list, the mos
t common are:



Automated


one of the key benefits of a cloud is reduction of labor expense through
automation of repetitive tasks. The most common scenario for automation is provisioning of
environments.

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Standardized


it is difficult to gain from automat
ion without standardization. The scope of
standardization includes the process and types of resources to b e provisioned in a cloud.



Self service


an output of the previous characteristics is the ability to drive consumption of IT
services to the individ
ual consumer, developer or project. With standard and automated
services, user interfaces can be put in place to allow self service access to resources.



Elasticity


by taking advantage of other characteristics, a cloud can be elastic, rapidly scaling up
and down to meet the capacity needs to the application it is designed to support.

While this list is certainly not all inclusive, they are the most common characteristics firms seek when
investing in a cloud project. Others may include version independenc
e of services, indifference to
failure or even location independence.

Selection of Technology Stack

One of the biggest issues firms will face is how to begin taking advantage of this new paradigm of
technology. While it is always appealing to move to re
ach as many customers as possible, firms have
existing investments they must consider and support. Thus, the choice of technology will be very
important. This section will provide some guidelines for considering the stack of technology by
functional area
.

New business services

Many of the technologies in use today for these emerging applications are considering more weak style
transactions or what is commonly known as “eventually consistent”. There is a tradeoff between
transactional integrity and the el
asticity and time to market provided by a cloud solution. When a new
service is created, the IT organization should consider this tradeoff. For example, a customer
reservation for a hotel might need robust transactional integrity, while a messaging appli
cation like
Twitter can scale without having to worry about ensuring every subs
c
riber receives the message
instantly. In that case, a reservation may require tight choreography among systems, while twitter is
focused on agility and scale.

When to migrate?

There are many ways to think about moving an application to the cloud. Instead of focusing on building
a strategic platform, this section will focus on considerations for moving all or part of a specific
application.

Optimizing


this means doing the sam
e thing being done today for less cost. These cost savings are
often achieved through automation or reduction of infrastructure footprint. Applications that fall into
this category are often strategic and have significant labor based cost drivers. The s
election process for
this migration is usually NPV or ROI based. The application is modernized and incorporated into a
mobile or cloud platform for this purpose.

Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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Innovation and Business Model disruption


while not mutually exclusive from optimization,

the driver
for this kind of change is usually driven by the Line of Business versus the IT organization. As these
technologies converge, the LOB will look to IT to deliver new and innovative way to interact with
customers. For example, a new mobile appl
ication will drive elasticity requirements to existing back end
systems, which may not be ready for this kind of use case.

User Interface

With the emergence of omni channel applications, development teams are now faced with the
requirement of delivering th
e same application across user experiences. For example a web site may
also need to be delivered as a mobile web and native mobile applications. Key considerations for this
include the skill set of a develop as well as the current state of standards, esp
ecially on the native mobile
applications. JavaScript is emerging again as the dominant platform for this technology. Many firms
while developing applications in other languages, have investment in JavaScript skills already.

Step 4:
Deploy

a Robust Mobi
le Platform

Mobile app
lication
s are powerful assets that enterprises can harness to engage with their customers,
business partners and employees anytime, anywhere and on any device. In fact, Mobile app
lications

are
at the front end of the new systems of en
gagement, which is people
-
centric as opposed to traditional
s
ystems of record, which is process
-
centric.

Customers can engage directly with the enterprise brand anytime, anywhere and take the next most
likely action in their immediate context and in their
moments of need; employees can collaborate and
work effectively to accelerate their business decisions and to increase their overall productivity. In
addition to empowering consumers and employees, Mobile app
lication
s are also the control interface to
exte
nd product value and differentiation by integrating context
-
awareness, customer feedback and
predictive analytics. However, to truly deliver on these new systems of engagement and to get a return
on experience, mobile app
lication
s have to be done right.

Y
et with these possibilities come a new set of challenges. Developing and managing mobile applications
is inherently different. Not just smaller in footprint, mobile apps deliver a different set of capabilities,
with more user and context
-
awareness, in a s
maller form factor. Unlike traditional web applications,
interruption in service is the norm, not the exception. Managing app distribution and governance
means working with as many as four public AppStores


each with their own approach and limitations
o
utside of enterprise control. And, because the devices they run on are outside of IT control, mobile
apps pose greater challenges associated with app security, governance and version management.

To address these challenges, organizations are evolving thei
r thinking about the way the design,
develop, deploy and manage mobile applications. Moving beyond treating treating mobile applications
as one off projects, leaders are increasingly adopting a Mobile Application Platform approach. The
Mobile Application

Platform (sometimes referred to as an MEAP (Mobile Enterprise Application
Platform) or MDAP (Mobile Development Application Platform)) includes a mobile
-
optimized
development environment, an mobile application server, and a client device layer that delive
r essential
Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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data transformation, synchronization and other middleware services. In assessing an effective mobile
application platform, four key questions can guide the evaluation process.



Can the platform scale application delivery, using existing skills
and resources?

Mobile applications are much more iterative, have faster lifecycles with high degree of
fragmentation of devices, platforms, networks, operating systems and languages. Application
development in a multi platform environment needs a strategy
that addresses agile
development, time to market, end
-
to
-
end cross
-
platform testing and automation with optimized
tools for collaboration. Platforms that are built on open, standards
-
based development
environments, such as the Eclipse development environme
nt, can help organizations leverage
the skills base they already have, while taking advantage of the rich and growing ecosystem of
third
-
party development frameworks and libraries.



Will it help my organization connect to data, applications and cloud servic
es?

Mobile applications have to integrate with backend services, have to scale to handle the
increasing volume of transactions and have to deliver on advanced mobile services such as Push
notifications and Geo location services. These advanced capabilities

and services capabilities
have to be built out of the box into a scalable mobile optimized middleware. Providing a
seamless, consistent user experience across all channels needs synchronization of data,
integration with backend services and atomization of

workflow processes that gets complex as
new devices and new models of engagement are factored
-
in.



Will it help me maximize the value of mobile engagement by delighting customers?

Systems of engagement is driven from customer experience and that depends o
n transforming
data into insights. The customer experience analytics helps in building these insights, which is an
integral component of engagement model. The other challenge is context relevancy. The
context relevancy comes from location, network, prefere
nces, sentiments and usage intent.
Predictive analytics will play a key role in delighting customers.



How well can I reduce security risk across my mobile enterprise?

Mobile applications present greater security risks

of exposing applications and data on
small,
light and always on portable devices. Mobile security has to be dealt with in the context of the
usage patterns and threat models. Every end point involved in a mobile transaction including
the mobile device, the applications running on the mobile d
evice, the data accessed by the
application, the backend involved in the transactions and the backend assets, has to be secured
as opposed to just focusing on the enterprise’s perimeter. Application governance also
becomes critical to streamline a central
ized enterprise wide policy across all application types
including public applications and 3
rd

party applications.

Step 5: Deploy a Rich Social Business Platform

Social business applies social networking tools and culture to business roles, processes and
outcomes. It
enables people to engage productively in new and innovative business contexts through collaboration
on enhanced business activities interconnected with social content from internal and external networks
of partners and customers. A social bus
iness monitors and analyzes social data to discover new insights
that, when acted on, can drive business advantage, for example faster problem solving, improved
Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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customer relations, predicting market opportunities, and improving processes both internal


and

external. Social business delivers the following benefits:



Activate people to create a smarter workforce

o

Improve

productivity.

Connect employees with the right experts and information to
anticipate and meet clients’ needs.
By connecting people with the ri
ght expertise and
information within the context of their work, people in a Social Business can be more
effective and drive greater business value.

o

Accelerate

innovation.

A Social Business engages people more meaningfully. As barriers
between employees,
customers, and partners disappear, organizations can develop and
apply collective intelligence, advocacy, and distributed talent to drive business results.
It helps groups of people bind together into communities of shared interest and
coordinate their ef
forts to deliver better business results faster. It encourages, supports
and takes advantage of innovation and idea creation and builds on the intelligence of
the crowd.

o

Connect

with

clients.

Engage with clients in new ways through dedicated communities.
C
onnect client, transaction and social data so you know your customers better than the
competition.



Delight Customers

o

Drive

loyalty.

Engage customers in dynamic, personalized experiences to keep them
coming back.

o

Anticipate

problems
.

Listen to and analyze c
ustomer feedback to understand emerging
issues.

o

Respond

faster
.

Accelerate

value by deploying technology designed to reach people
where they are and to integrate rapidly with systems in place today and those that may
be deployed in the future.
A Social Bu
siness makes
real time use of current knowledge
,
leverages

situational awareness and use
s

social intelligence in decision making.

o

Enable

self
-
service.

Help clients find the answers they need 24/7.

Creating value across every level of the organization, be i
t in marketing, product development, sales,
research and development, or customer service, etc
.

requires a range of social business technological
building blocks including:



Profiles
.

T
he foundation for building and expanding
a
personal network, helping
us
ers
develop
and maintain personal relationships across reporting structure, department, geography, etc



Activity Streams
.

T
he common, central place from which all users can see what's happening
across their network, whether they are on the Home page or in
a community.



Wikis
.

T
echnology to make online publishing and content generation easy enough for people
without Web development skills



Blogs
.

P
rovide a medium with which to share knowledge and build networks and relationships.
Blogs can be used for many dif
ferent business purposes, ranging from sharing product direction,
asking and answering questions, gathering feedback, and learning best practices, etc.

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Instant Messaging
.

A
llows someone to communicate with another person over a network in real
time, in rel
ative privacy.
1



Files
.

Allows

users
to easily find a person’s files, share a file with
a
Community, and create
folders of files to
aid organization
. Businesses struggle with the problem of sharing files. Large
file
-
system shares on network drives allow
us
ers
to store a file for group access, but they do not
handle access control levels, comments and ratings, versioning, or even provide context for the
file.



Communities
.

P
rovides the means for users to stay in touch, share information, and exchange
ideas.
Communities provide an excellent way to connect members of a project team, organize a
task force researching an emerging technology, or bring together a group of people who share
any interest.



Social Analytics
.

C
ombines sof
tware and services that bring big

data analytics into the hands of
today’s social savvy and mobile workforce. Organizations can apply analytics to their social
business initiatives, allowing them to gain actionable insight on information generated on
networks and put it to work in real
-
ti
me.
2



UI components
.

S
ometimes known as gadgets
, UI components

are
web
-
based software
components based on HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. They allow developers to easily write useful
web applications that work anywhere on the web without modification. They are
defined to be
embedded into various contexts: standalone web pages, web applications, even other
gadgets
.
A gadget may be a simple widget, a reusable component, or a full
-
blown application, possibly
utilizing or communicating with other gadgets.

3

Integ
rating the
component model with an API
for accessing information about users profile information and their

social graph

(including things
such as their friends and activities), allows applications to be integrated and made interoperable
with each other in
the context of a broad set of social networking sites.
4

Standards enable
combining these building blocks with software tools
to provide a platform where a
more expansive approach to social business can flourish. The platform’s
capabilities and organizati
onal
expertise facilitates achieving business value by enabling a smarter workforce to
engage
employees,
customers, business partners and other stakeholders

in an ongoing value creation dialogue
.

Platform driven social business organizations are more effec
tively able to share
resources, skills and
insight
s
within and across work processes and organizational boundaries. Here are the critical steps and
requirements for deploying an effective social business platform:



Take a strategic approach
. B
ecoming a Soci
al Business is not simply a matter of deploying some
collaboration tools and hoping for the best. It is a long
-
term strategic approach to shaping a
business culture and is highly dependent on executive leadership and effective corporate
strategy, including

business processes, risk management, leadership development, financial



1

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social
_software

2

http://www.socialbusinessnews.com/ibm
-
defines
-
social
-
business
-
with
-
real
-
time
-
analytics/

3

http://opensocial
-
resources.googlecode.com/svn/spec/0.9/Gadgets
-
API
-
Specification.xml

4

http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/xml/library/x
-
db2JSONpt3/index.h
tml

Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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15


controls and business analytics. Realizing the potential value of Social Business is predicated on
an organization’s ability to recognize and design for this transformation. Inherent i
n this
transformation is recognizing the convergence of technologies

such as cloud, social and mobile
.



Apply to the most common activities.
As organizations either expand globally or participate in
global supply chains, information and insights become scat
tered around the world. Such
knowledge as how to solve problems, handle exceptions to normal processes and address local
market conditions often resides in widely separated, often unconnected repositories. Also,
customers expect suppliers to understand pas
t business transactions and tap into the collective
expertise of the organization to solve problems.



Build trusted relationships
.
The rapid growth of social networking and mobility has erased some
of the boundaries that separated individuals in the past.

People increasingly use their
relationships with other people to discover and use information to accomplish innumerable
tasks. New opportunities for growth, innovation and productivity exist for organizations that
encourage people

employees, customers and

partners

to engage and build trusted
relationships. Individuals are using social networking tools in their personal lives, and many are
also incorporating it into their work lives


regardless of whether it’s sanctioned by their
employers.



Apply analytics
.
Enterprises can integrate and analyze massive amounts of data generated from
people, devices and sensors

and more easily align these insights to business processes to make
faster, more accurate business decisions using a platform approach. By gaining d
eeper insights
in customer and market trends and employees' sentiment, businesses can uncover critical
patterns to not only react swiftly to market shifts, but predict the effect of future actions.



Monitor and Measure.
M
easuring the impact of social busi
ness remains a significant barrier for
many organizations, pointing to the need for standardization to provide cost effective flexible
solution patterns understood by the majority of the participating ecosystem.

The relative immaturity of social business
technology and scenarios still challenges success criteria.
However, leveraging adjacent technologies like cloud and mobile provide a social platform with the
additional long term investment protection and reach capabilities, required to meet investment c
riteria
and business objectives as social business matures. Various cloud deployment options flexibly extend
the network value proposition, and mobile strategies enable new forms of participation
by accounting
for device allocation and management, (for ex
ample Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)), and security of
corporate data stored on mobile devices.

Mobility itself has become an essential part of social business, by extending access to the social business
value proposition beyond the traditional corporate
domain and time clock. The always
-
on, personalized
attributes of mobile devices create support for new and unanticipated scenarios for staying connected
with colleagues, partners and business tasks regardless of time or location; and
cloud provides the
me
ans for faster project completion, faster product introduction, lower operations costs, instant
Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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16


collaboration, and lower infrastructure spend; required as elements of a successful social business
strategy.

Leveraging a standards based approach is the fi
nal ingredient for achieving success in a space that
contrasts the immaturity of social technologies and scenarios with the dynamic rate of change being
realized with cloud and mobile technologies. The resulting roadmap places heavy initial leverage on a

hybrid cloud model capable of interoperating across enterprise resources and with other cloud
environments. This approach enables an enterprise striving to integrate existing systems of record in
support of emerging systems of engagement to move forward
as requirements, best practices and
technologies mature.



Step 6: Leverage Analytics to Gain Additional Insight

Advanced analytics and big data are what can help unify your investments in cloud, social, and mobile
technologies, delivering powerful insight
s that leverage all three categories of investment.

Big data is at the heart of many cloud services deployments. Big data refers to approaches for executing
advanced analytics at extreme scale. Big data relies on such core architectural principles as
linea
r
scalability, deployment and execution flexibility, massively parallel processing, in
-
database execution,
storage virtualization, and mixed
-
workload management. These are consistent and complementary with
the core cloud principles, as defined by the

US
Na
tional Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST): "a
model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on
-
demand network access to a shared pool of configurable
computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or

service provider interaction."

Enterprise
-
grade big
-
data infrastructures require the availability, security, backup and recovery, and
other robust assurances we take for granted on all enterprise information technology (IT) platforms.
How can you prepare
your big
-
data deployment for delivery into a production IT environment such as
your corporate data center? And what exactly does it mean to say that big data, or any IT initiative, is
truly production
-
ready?

Production
-
readiness means that your big
-
data in
vestment is fit to realize its full operational potential.
Productionizing demands a lifecycle focus that encompasses all of your big
-
data platforms, not just a
single one (e.g., Hadoop), and addresses more than just a single requirement (e.g., ensuring a
highly
available distributed file system). Productionizing involves jumping through a series of procedural hoops
to ensure that your big
-
data investment can function as a robust business asset. Here are several high
-
level considerations to keep in mind as
you ready your big
-
data initiative for primetime cloud
-
based
deployment:



Stakeholders
.

Have you aligned your big
-
data initiatives with stakeholder requirements? If
stakeholders haven’t clearly specified their requirements or expectations for your big
-
data
initiative, it’s not production
-
ready. The criteria of production
-
readiness must conform to what
stakeholders require, and that depends greatly on the use cases and applications they have in
mind for big data. Service
-
level agreements (SLAs) vary widely fo
r big data deployed as an
enterprise data warehouse (EDW), as opposed to an exploratory data
-
science sandbox, an
Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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17


unstructured information transformation tier, a queryable archive, or some other use. SLAs for
performance, availability, security, governance,

compliance, monitoring, auditing and so forth
will depend on the particulars of each big
-
data application, and on how your enterprise
prioritizes them by criticality.



Stacks
.

Have you hardened your big
-
data technology stack


databases, middleware,
applic
ations, tools, etc.


to address the full range of SLAs associated with the chief use cases? If
the big
-
data platform does not meet the availability, security and other robustness
requirements expected of most enterprise infrastructure, it’s not production
-
ready. Ideally, all
production
-
grade big
-
data platforms should benefit from a common set of enterprise
management
tools
. Key gui
delines in this respect are:

o

Leverage your big
-
data solution provider’s high availability, security, resource
provisioning, mixed
-
workload management, performance optimization, health
monitoring, policy management, job scheduling and other cluster managem
ent
features;

o

Ensure high availability on your big
-
data clusters by implementing redundancy across all
nodes, with load balancing, auto
-
failover, resynchronization and hot standbys;

o

Perform thorough regression testing of every layer in your target big
-
data

deployment
prior to going live, making sure your data, jobs and applications won’t crash or
encounter bottlenecks in daily operations; and

o

Avoid moving big
-
data analytics jobs to your clusters until you’ve hardened the latter for
24x7 availability and eas
e of configuration and administration



Scalability
.

Have you architected your environment for modular scaling to keep pace with
inexorable growth in data volumes, velocities and varieties? If you can’t provision, add, or
reallocate new storage, compute and
network capacity on the big
-
data platform in a fast, cost
-
effective, modular way to meet new requirements, the platform is not production
-
ready. Key
guidelines in this respect are:

o

Scale your big data through scale
-
in, scale
-
up and scale
-
out techniques, p
er this
blog
;

o

Accelerate your big data with workload
-
optimized integrated systems fit for cloud
deployment, per this
blog
;

o

Optimize your big data’s distributed storage layer, pe
r this
blog
; and

o

Retune and rebalance your big data workloads regularly, per this
blog
.



Skillsets
.

Have you beefed up your organization’s big
-
data skillsets for maximum productiv
ity? If
your staff lacks the requisite database, integration and analytics skills and tools to support your
Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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18


big
-
data initiatives over their expected life, your platform is not production
-
ready. Don’t go
deep on big data until your staff skills are upgraded
. Key guidelines in this respect are:

o

Upgrade the skills of DBAs, data integration specialists, data scientists and business
analysts to support big
-
data best practices in deployment, modeling, management and
optimization;

o

Bring in big
-
data consultants to

help you identify requirements, plan your roadmap,
bootstrap your internal competency center, and assist in initial big
-
data project
deployment, development, modeling, optimization and management;

o

Recruit experienced big
-
data professionals to tweak config
urations settings to deal with
the trade
-
offs; and

o

Connect your team into the worldwide community for your big
-
data technology or
platform in order to learn from emerging best practices.



Seamless service
.

Have your re
-
engineered your data management and an
alytics IT processes for
seamless support for disparate big
-
data initiatives? If you can’t provide trouble response, user
training and other support functions in an efficient, reliable fashion that’s consistent with
existing operations, your big
-
data platf
orm is not production
-
ready. Key considerations in this
respect:

o

Provide big
-
data users with a “single throat to choke” for support, service and
maintenance;

o

Offer consulting support to users for planning, deployment, integration, optimization,
customizat
ion and management of their specific big
-
data initiatives;

o

Deliver 24x7 support with quick
-
turnaround on
-
site response on issues;

o

Manage your end
-
to
-
end big
-
data environment with a unified system and solution
management consoles; and

o

Automate big
-
data supp
ort functions to the maximum extent feasible.

Your robust

cloud
-
based big
-
data analytics can be a central component of your social business strategy,
powering an approach called "next best action." This refers to an analytics
-
powered automation
infrastruct
ure that optimizes agile engagements. In a person
-
to
-
person context, agile engagement
refers to dynamic human conversations, which can take place across any customer channel, including
call centers, retail outlets, and, of course, social networks. In prac
tice,

next best action
” driven by big
data

powers social business in either of the following patterns:



Outbound engagement
: This refers to the practice of monitoring social network traffic for
stakeholder intelligence (awareness, sentiment, and propensity
) and using that feed to trigger
next
-
best
-
action models that send finely targeted outbound response messages. In a business
-
Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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19


to
-
consumer (B2C) social

context
, inbound intelligence might be used to trigger next
-
best
-
action
models that target outbound market
ing promotions or respond to specific product issues. In an
employee
-
to
-
employee (E2E) social

context
, the next
-
best
-
action models might generate
reminders to take particular HR actions by a specific deadline or to address a specific technical
issue that a
n employee is having with a piece of equipment. In a business
-
to
-
business (B2B)
social

context
, the triggered messages might provide guidance to partners inquiring about the
delivery status of particular shipments. In any of these scenarios, the outbound r
esponse
message might be transmitted inline through the same social
channel
where the stakeholder
generated the triggering message, or through existing non
-
social messaging options.



Inbound engagement
: This involves tuning social
-
channel conversations thro
ugh automatically
generated scripts, screens, and app
lication
s that shape how employees interact with external
stakeholders and with each other. In a call center environment, for example, customers interact
with channel personnel who speak from online scri
pts and other guidance that is autogenerated
by the next
-
best
-
action infrastructure. In social channels, you might have diverse human and
automated agents handling diverse interaction scenarios that span a wide range of customer,
employee, and/or partner s
egments. Furthermore, you might be orchestrating these social
interactions in order to achieve diverse business objectives, such as reducing customer and
employee churn, boosting sales and profits, and achieving greater efficiency throughout the
supply cha
in.

Social business becomes even more powerful when you extend it to mobile
-
access environments.
Smartphones and other
mobile gadgets have become important sources of the data pouring into
Hadoop, NoSQL, and other big
-
data platforms. Your ability to pers
onalize mobile service delivery
increasingly depends on your ability to capture, correlate, and analyze massive streams of gadget
-
sourced data at the device, application, and user levels. Every transaction, interaction, event, signal,
ambient, behavioral,
geospatial, and other datum that you can acquire from employee and customer
gadgets will be crunched by big
-
data platforms. And the trend is toward organizations moving most of
their transactional, productivity, and e
-
commerce applications to mobile device
s.

Enterprises can ensure exceptional, consistent, and secure experiences across all mobile devices by
implementing the following big
-
data
-
powered infrastructure services:



Cloud services ensure big data is always there for your mobile

access
: Most business

users and
consumers won't
be storing petabytes on their smartphones anytime soon. Rather, they will be
maintaining growing volumes of information in the cloud, accessing it from various mobile
devices, and selectively synchronizing and caching what is nee
ded locally. As we conduct more
of our lives on cloud services, we will persist more of our data there as well, on massively
parallel file systems, databases, and other big
-
data repositories. As we track, quantify, and log
more aspects of our lives
--
for me
dical reasons or simply as a hobby
--
the sheer volume of
personal data we keep, locally and/or in the cloud, will grow well beyond the 100s of gigabytes
that most of us now keep at our disposal.

Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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20




Stream computing enables real
-
time mobile experiences
: Users d
epend on continuous real
-
time connectivity to all big
-
data and other services used by their mobile devices. Stream
computing will become standard on all mobile services, and it will leverage complex event
processing, distributed cache, and guaranteed subse
cond end
-
to
-
end latency on all big
-
data
applications. Stream computing will ensure a continuous flow of alerts, notifications, events,
sensor data, transactions, social media updates, video and audio streams, and other types of
information between all endp
oints and infrastructure services. Bidirectional streams will be
necessary both between mobiles and big
-
data clouds, and between the mobiles themselves.
5



Machine data is what your mobile
device
feeds to big
-
data cloud analytics
: The typical user
won't be m
anually pushing data from their mobiles into the big
-
data cloud. Instead, the gadgets
will be feeding data automatically, silently, and in the background into the cloud, under policy
controls defined and enforced within mobile device management tooling. Mu
ch of this will
involve voluminous "machine data"
--
such as geospatial coordinates, sensor readings, and event
logs
--
that the devices generate continuously.
Before long, machine
-
to
-
machine mobile
connectivity will be embedded into every artifact, possession
, and environment in our world.
Wearable and implanted devices will generate machine data on user vital signs, helping people
to monitor their lifestyles or alerting emergency services to urgent life
-
or
-
death situations.



Location analytics use big data to
orient your mobile
device
on the ground
: Users won't be
performing resource
-
intensive geospatial analytics locally on most mobile gadgets. Typically,
they will be feeding streams of geospatial data from those devices to big
-
data cloud services.
The cloud
-
b
ased services will help devices to track users' precise locations and to recalculate the
best route to wherever they need to be, based on dynamic conditions in their environment. To
realize the promise of intelligent location services, the cloud
-
based big
-
data infrastructure will
need to continuously correlate real
-
time feeds of traffic, weather, event, and other dynamic
environmental data.



Next best action leverages big data analytics for continual mobile guidance
:
When you're
mobile, you need all the auto
mated guidance you can get. You'll be busy enough trying to not
crash your car or walk into brick walls.
Users won't be constantly interacting with mobile devices
to determine the optimal road to take, the optimal recommendations to heed, the optimal
comme
rcial offer to accept, the optimal streaming media to consume, and the best course of
action to take in every situation. Instead, users will frequently lean on big
-
data
-
powered cloud
services with embedded decision
-
automation capabilities to recommend thei
r next course of
action. Next
-
best
-
action infrastructures will continually provide
contextual guidance that is
personalized to each mobile endpoint. They will continually calculate guidance by leveraging
segmentation, propensity, graph, semantic, experienc
e, and other advanced analytic models
built by data scientists.




5

For further information, see "
The Role of Stream Computing in Big Data Architectures
."

Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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21


Most of us don't think of big data as a personal resource for social mobility, but, clearly, that thinking
will need to change. Smarter mobility depends on the ability to serve all of our mob
ile devices from an
intelligent big
-
data cloud infrastructure.

Step 7: Ensure Proper Security & Privacy Controls are in Place

The convergence of cloud, mobile and social technologies presents unique security and privacy
challenges that are not encountered
in traditional enterprise IT environments. As discussed in the CSCC
whitepaper, “Security for Cloud Computing: 10 Steps to Ensure Success
6
,


cloud computing introduces a
number of security risks that must be adequately addressed including:
lo
ss of governan
c
e, r
esponsibility
ambiguit
y, i
solation failure
, v
endor lock
-
in
, c
ompliance and legal risks
,
data protection
, b
usiness failure
of the provider
, s
ervice unavailability
, etc
.
The reader is directed to reference this paper which
provides
a prescriptive series

of steps that should be taken by cloud consumers to evaluate and manage the
security of their cloud environment with the goal of mitigating risk and delivering an appropriate level of
support.

In addition to cloud security, t
he security of mobile devices

has become a top concern for

many IT
executives.
Mobile devices like smartphones and tablets make it possible for employees to work
anywhere, but they also introduce security issues. Data loss, security risks and malware are real
.

Because many mobile plat
forms are not natively

designed to provide comprehensive security, hackers
have a

strong incentive to develop new techniques
to

create mobile

centric malware

specifically
f
or
these devices
.

Mobile security has to be dealt within the context of the usage pat
terns and threat models. Every end
point involved in a mobile transaction including the mobile device, the app
lication
s running on the
mobile device, the data accessed by the app
lication
, the backend involved in the transactions and the
backend assets, has

to be secured as opposed to just focusing on
the enterprise’s p
erimeter.
App
lication

governance also becomes critical to streamline a centralized enterprise wide policy across all
app
lication

types including public app
lication
s and 3
rd

party app
lication
s
.

The most frequently seen mobile device security threats are:



Loss and theft
.
Small size and high portability make loss and theft top security

concerns when a
mobile device is used in the workplace
.



Malware
. Viruses, worms, Trojans, spyware have been on t
he rise over the past few years
because most mobile platforms do not yet have native mechanisms to detect malware.



Spam
. U
nsolicited communication sent to a mobile device
wasting
a sign
ificant

amount of
bandwidth

and presenting
a growing security issue for

mobile device users.



Phishing
. A
n email or an SMS text message sent to trick a user into accessing a fake website

to
reveal personal

information

or credentials.

Phishing through mobile

browsers is

more likely to



6

Visit
http://www.cloudstandardscustomercouncil.org/security.htm

for more information.

Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

Page
22


succeed because the small screen size of mobile

devices does not allow for some protection
features used on the

PC, like web address bars or green warning lights.



Bluetooth and Wi
-
Fi
. Both can be easily exploited to infect a mob
ile device with malware or
compromise transmitted data. A mobile device may be lured to accept a Bluetooth connection
request from a malicious device.

To defend against these threats, enterprises need to develop
an effective strategy for enterprise
mobilit
y security

that
establish
es

set

policies and procedures regarding what content is allowed to be
accessed on these devices, how it will be accessed and how the organization will handle lost or stolen
devices that may contain business data.



Protect data
wi
th on
-
device encryption of user data, SSL encryption, secure offline access
, and
remote data wipe
.



Control access
through single sign
-
on and multi
-
factor authentication
.



Run antivirus program on any device with access to the corporate network.



Run firewall

program on all mobile devices.



Secure applications
with protection against reverse
-
engineering vulnerabilities, remote disable
of applications, and enforcement of client upgrades
.



Enforce compliance
with regulatory mandates through secure shells that can
be deployed
throughout your mo
b
ile portfolio.



Set
Bluetooth configuration so that
mobile devices are
not discoverable
.

From

a social media perspective, it is important that a firm create a clear acceptable use for using social
media both for internal an
d external interactions. This policy coupled with solutions to prevent use of
personal social media on corporate infrastructure can help mitigate the leakage of confidential
information.

Step
8
: Establish a Robust Development
Environment


The unique char
acteristics of cloud
-
based social/mobile applications require developers of these
applications
to
ensure that their development environment
s

support the following critical requirements:



Multi
-
channel support
.
Because a business service or process has to se
rve multiple channels (i.e.
web and mobile), reuse becomes critical. This will force the logic out of a single application and
into atomic reusable components. As a result, the multi
-
channel development model lends
itself well to t
he use of SOA design pa
tterns.



Asynchronous support
. O
mni channel and social application interactions come in many different
forms through many different channels. For example, a brand may be watching for interaction
on social media or a mobile application may emit a notice th
at the customer has moved
Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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23


locations. The development and run time environment must provide event processing support
to sufficiently handle all of the various forms of
interaction
.

Cloud Application Development

Developing applications for the cloud requir
es that several key considerations be answered for
establishment of the development
environment
:



Do I develop locally and post to the cloud or do I build all of my applications directly in the
cloud?



How can I automate establishment and cloning of cloud r
esources and connectivity back into my
firm’s network? This process can be very difficult and time consuming if not planned out
correctly.



What kind of tooling do I want to use? Common examples include Eclipse and browser based
tools depending on languag
e and preference. While Eclipse remains the incumbent tool of
choice for some developers using the Java language, browser based tools like Orion are
emerging as the defacto choice for JavaScript development
.

Another key factor is determining the content t
hat will make up an application in the cloud. In this
context we define a service as a component that may offer key functionality to the application
developer. For example, almost every application will require a database. An application developer
must

decide if this database will be one they build and maintain or will they rely on a cloud service
provider in order to deliver this functionality. In the latter case, all the developer will have to do is learn
the interface to that service.

IaaS and Paa
S vendors offer many choices to the kinds of services they offer developers and the tradeoff
between flexibility and simplicity will have to be considered.

Mobile
Application Development

There are multiple approaches to building mobile apps
:
Native
,
Web

an
d
Hybrid
.
Enterprises are rolling
out a portfolio of mobile apps to meet their consumer needs as well as their employee productivity
needs. Enterprises need the speed and scale to iteratively deliver on these apps
.

Choosing an app
development approach enta
ils many parameters such as cost, project timeframe, user experience and
functionality. Each approach carries inherent benefits and limitations, and with no single panacea,
finding the one that best addresses the unique needs of each project could be a cha
llenging task. App
development approach should be driven by good engagement practices and specific business outcomes
as opposed to religious technology debates.




Native approach
.

Pure native apps deliver best device fidelity and optimal user experience bu
t
at significant cost of time and skill. Native apps require platform specific languages, tools and
skills that mostly cannot be leverage/shared across different platforms and channels. Native
apps are harder to scale and maintain with longer development a
nd testing cycle.

Copyright © 2012 Cloud Standards Customer Council

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24




Web approach
.
Web apps run in the context of the local browser of the device and are built
using standard web based programming languages and skills such as HTML5, CSS and JavaScript.
Web apps are mostly cross
-
platform compatible, easy
to write, deploy, maintain and have the
widest reach of devices. However, these apps have limited access to advanced device
capabilities and features.
7

As a result
, Web apps still suffer from significant security limitations
and lack of advanced
u
ser
expe
rience.



Hybrid approach.

Hybrid development uses Web standards such as HTML5 and provides plug
-
ins
for accessing native device capabilities. It allows developers to build the majority of the app
using web languages that are cross
-
platform by default, whil
e optimizing the code according to
the functional and design guidelines of its target environment.
8

For the most part, Hybrid apps provide
the
best of both the worlds: developers can maximize code reuse
with optimal user experience, without compromising a
ny of the native capabilities and features. Since
Hybrid apps can scale quickly, it helps enterprises unlock new markets with speed and scale.

Various Mobile Application Development Platforms (MADPs) exist to enable enterprise developers to
code, test, i
ntegrate, publish and manage business
-
to
-
consumer (B2C), business
-
to
-
business (B2B) and
business
-
to
-
enterprise (B2E) mobile applications. Choosing the right MADP is critical for enterprises as
the market shifts to the second wave of smarter connected apps,

which integrate with a business’
overall mobile strategy.



Connect to backend services
.
Mobile application development is much more than building the
front end of mobile apps. Enterprises need to connect the mobile apps to backend services and
solutions ru
nning in a mixed configuration of public, private or Hybrid cloud.

M
obile
middleware services
are critical to

integrat
ing

with whatever unique backend systems you have.



Security and management
.
Beyond build and connect, Mobile apps also need be managed an
d
secured across different devices and
platforms
.



Open, standards
-
based platform
.
The mobile ecosystem is changing with new devices,
platforms, operating systems, form factors and capabilities. To prepare for such uncertainty,
enterprises should invest in

an open, standards
-
based platform that can adapt to the changing
needs.


Any proprietary/closed platform results in a lock
-
in where you get tied to the vendor’s
roadmap.




7

As HTML5 continues to evolve, multiple UI frameworks such as JQuery Mobile and Sencha have emerged to
provide mobile components and extensible plugins t
o solve some of the inherent issues of web a
pps related to UI
controls.

8

On average, the result
of the Hybrid approach
is a mobile app that can consist of ~80% web code that is shared
across different environments and ~20% environment
-
specific code that e
nsures the optimal user experience
.

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25




Robust middleware services
.
The middleware layer provides out of box solutions for
unified
push, data encryption, authentication, application versioning and much more, enabling you to
focus on building your next best app as opposed to reinventing the backend

Often, MADP vendors have it backwards. They provide tools to quickly generate ap
ps that work with few
pre defined systems but crumble when the app needs to scale across custom back
-
ends running in
disparate network configurations of Public cloud, Private cloud and On
-
premise deployments.


For the
second wave of mobile apps, you will n
eed a MADP with an extensible mobile middleware to deliver
unique mobile experience, which is much more than client side framework needed to build app.

Social Application Development

Step 9: Ensure the IT Environment can be Managed Effectively

Application
s are becoming more complex. The convergence of these technologies is evolving an
application from a traditional multi
-
tier architecture to one with a number of components:



Multiple user interfaces: social media, web sites, mobile and APIs



Use of multipl
e programming languages


the new systems of engagement are leveraging
multiple languages such as Java, Javascript, Python, etc.



Internal business services and application programming interfaces from external parties



Deployment models ranging from private,

public and hybrid clouds

Given this level of complexity, IT organizations faced with goals of continuous uptime may look at this
with fear and concern. It is this reason why an effective management environment should be built. This
includes:



Ensure the
right monitoring and debugging tools are in place in order to trap and determine the
cause of failures. This is a common pitfall to migrating applications to the cloud today. Many
firms move applications “as
-
is” and may not consider the complexity requir
ements of a
platform.



Mitigate the risk of change management through fault tolerant application design. It is highly
unlikely that all of these pieces will change in concert with one another, and constant change
should be anticipated. A design techniqu
e that can mitigate this would be to design
applications to tolerate failire of any or all of these components.

In this environment change management becomes critical. Not only are the applications becoming
more complex, the line of business is expecting
more changes to an application faster. Tracking and
testing those changes are now more important than ever.

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Effective management of these dynamic, more complex, component based applications will require
greater flexibility to reap and deliver results with

less internal control and visibility as not all components
are owned by the organization yet demanding:



increased availability and performance



expanded scalability using a “right
-
sized” environment of no idle resources



integrated development and operatio
ns for rapid release



increased automation of services and workloads

Increased availability and Performance

As described here, the convergence of Cloud, Social & Mobile represents a new paradigm in business
application delivery, whether internal or customer

facing.

The allure of cloud application deployment springs from advantages like improved service scalability,
reduced operational costs, and an increased focus on business goals and strategies instead of the
technology needed to pursue them. Most importa
ntly, perhaps, is the security of redundancy,
promising application resilience and near universal availability. But there is a cost to that flexibility and
economy, in reduced visibility of application and infrastructure health and performance. Without di
rect
control over the cloud infrastructure itself, traditional application performance management (APM)
tools may prove impractical to deploy and manage. Add to this limited visibility the rapid (and
sometimes merciless) feedback channel that social media

provides, and you’ve got a potential powder
keg on your hands when cloud applications fail to perform. Cloud application outages “trend” wildly
when they occur, and it can be difficult to determine if the problem is with the application itself, or the
cl
oud platform.

Cloud application owners


like traditional data center administrators
-

need to see how their cloud
-
hosted applications are performing. They need tools to ensure that they’re getting the performance
they expect from the cloud, and that thei
r applications are serving customers and delivering value to the
business. But the abstraction of physical resources that virtualization engenders can render traditional
performance management solutions impractical. In this environment, user experience m
onitoring is the
key measure of application performance, because it takes into account the redundancy and resource
sharing of cloud delivery, and paints an intuitive picture of health. Another key to getting the intended
value from workloads executing in
a public cloud is establishing what kind of demand those workloads
are facing, how well the cloud is scaling (or not scaling) to meet the demand, and correlating that with
end user experience. That means that cloud tenants must also monitor their virtual
machine operating
systems, to ensure that they’re getting the resources and performance promised to them by cloud
administrators. In short, user experience monitoring tells them how their application is performing, and
VM monitoring tells them how their c
loud provider is performing.

When designing such a solution, application teams, in these circumstances, don’t have the ability to
deploy management servers and other monitoring components to the cloud infrastructure, as they
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would in a traditional data cen
ter deployment. Instead, they require a lightweight solution that can be
deployed by the application teams themselves (rather than cloud administrators) alongside the
application workloads. To adhere to the dynamic provisioning model, the monitoring tech
nology must
be embeddable in virtual machine base images or patterns, and work with multiple provisioning
solutions. Integration with the provisioning engine allows each new VM instance to be automatically
discovered by the monitoring infrastructure and a
ssociated with the correct business application, so
existing application dashboards are updated to reflect the addition of new virtual machines in seconds.
This is the essence of concepts like continuous application delivery, where the rapid self
-
provisio
ning
features of the cloud encourage application teams to frequently update their production applications.
To be effective, an application monitoring solution for this environment must be similarly nimble.

Expanded scalability using the right
-
sized enviro
nment

Do you remember back when applications ran on machines that really were physical servers (all that
“physical” stuff that kept everything in one place and slowed all your processes down)? Most IT
managers are rapidly putting those days behind them. Se
rver hypervisors and the virtual machines they
manage has been described as the software
-
definition of servers, and has improved efficiency (no more
wasted compute resources), freed up mobility, and unleashed dynamic scalability.

To realize the power of t
he cloud, the same ideas must apply to data storage. As administrators catch on
to software
-
defined storage, it won’t be long before we’ll be asking the question “Do you remember
back when virtual machines used disks that really were physical arrays (all t
hat “physical” stuff that kept
everything in one place and slowed all your processes down)?” So, if I’m going to software
-
define my
storage, what differences should I expect?

Perhaps the most obvious expectations are improved efficiency and data mobility
. The basic idea behind
hypervisors (server or storage) is that they allow you to gather up physical resources into a pool, and
then consume virtual slices of that pool until it’s all gone (this is how you get the really high utilization).
The icing on the

cake comes from being able to non
-
disruptively move those slices around. In the case of
a software
-
defined storage, you can move a slice (or virtual volume) from tier to tier, from vendor to
vendor, and now, from site to site all while the applications ar
e online and accessing the data.

But software
-
defined storage is more, much more than just virtual slices and data mobility. We’re
driving cost out of the equation
. Sure, we’re getting high utilization from allocating virtual slices, but are
we being as s
mart as we could be about allocating those slices? A good storage hypervisor helps you be
smart.



Thin provisioning
: You have a client that asks for 500GB of new capacity. You’re going to give it
to him as thin provisioned virtual capacity which is a fanc
y way of saying you’re not going to
actually back it with real physical storage until he writes real data on it. That helps you keep cost
down.



Compression
: Same guy also asks to keep several snapshot copies of his data for recovery
purposes. You’re going

to start by giving him thin provisioned capacity for those snapshots, but
you’re also going to compress whatever data those snapshots produce


again adding to your
efficiency. For that matter, you’re going to compress his source data too.

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28




Agnostic about

vendors
: Because you’re getting your storage services from a storage hypervisor
(software
-
defined storage), you have the freedom to shift the physical storage you operate from
all tier
-
1 to a more efficient mix of lower tiers, and while you’re doing it yo
u can create a little
competition among as many disk array vendors as you like to get the best price / support.



Smart about tiers
: If you shut your eyes real tight and think about the concept of a “virtual” disk
that is mobile across arrays and tiers, yo
u’ll quickly start asking questions about having the
storage hypervisor monitor the utilization and response of your physical hardware
infrastructure, watch for I/O patterns on blocks within that virtual disks, and apply some analytic
intelligence toward m
oving the right data to the right tier to both meet requested SLA’s and
optimize utilization of your hardware infrastructure. This is especially important with flash
showing up in multiple places in the infrastructure (in arrays, in the network, in the se
rver). You
simply won’t be able to manage all that with a tier
-
management system that is tied to an array.
You need…dare I say it…a software
-
defined storage layer (a storage hypervisor) that includes
both

the raw mechanics of virtualization
and

the analyti
cs to determine when and how to best
use the mechanics.


To truly software
-
define your datacenter


in servers or storage


it’s important that the hypervisor not
be dependent on the underlying physical hardware for anything except capacity (compute capac
ity in
the case of a server hypervisor, storage capacity in the case of a storage hypervisor). Think about it…
Wouldn’t it be odd to have a pair of virtual machine hosts in a cluster, one running on IBM hardware and
one on HP hardware, and be told that you

couldn’t move a virtual machine between the two because
some feature of your virtual machine would just stop working? If you tie a virtual machine to a specific
piece of hardware in order to take advantage of the function in that hardware, it sort of def
eats the
whole point of mobility. The same thing applies to storage hypervisors. Virtual volumes that are
dependent on a particular physical disk array for some function, say mirroring or snapshotting for
example, aren’t really mobile from tier to tier or
vendor to vendor any more.

But it’s
more than just a philosophical issue
, there’s real money at stake. The reason so many
datacenters have an overabundance of tier
-
1 disk arrays on the floor is because, historically, if you
wanted to take advantage of thi
ngs like thin provisioning, application
-
integrated snapshot, robust
mirroring for disaster recovery, high performance for database workloads, access to flash storage, etc…
you had to buy tier
-
1 ‘array capacity’ to get access to these tier
-
1 ‘storage servic
es’ (did you catch the
subtle difference?) Now, tier
-
1 disk arrays have a great reputation for availability (a lot of the bulk in
these units are sophisticated, redundant electronics that keep the thing available all the time). But with
a good storage hype
rvisor, tier
-
1 ‘storage services’ are no longer tied to tier
-
1 ‘array capacity’ because
the service levels are provided by the hypervisor. Capacity…is capacity…and you can choose any kind
you want. Many clients we work with are discovering the huge cost sa
vings that can be realized by
continuing to deliver tier
-
1 service (from the hypervisor), only doing it on lower
-
tier disk arrays. We
routinely see clients shift their mix of ‘array capacity’ from 70% or 80% tier
-
1 to 70% or 80% lower
-
tier
arrays while co
ntinuing to deliver tier
-
1 ‘storage services’ to their data.

Integrated development and operations for rapid release

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DevOps is a business process that helps improve the time to value of deployed business services such as
social, mobile and cloud applicati
ons. By increasing the speed of development processes and reducing
the production cycles in operations, DevOps improves quality while reducing risk and cost.

These lifecycle improvements are accomplished through automated and continuous integration,
dep
loyment, testing and monitoring while at the same time providing continuous feedback.
Integrating
development and operations in a single environment drives continuous delivery throughput with greater
operational efficiencies and reduced risk. This agile,
scalable and flexible environment helps to improve
software quality with a shorter delivery cycle.

Key characteristics of a DevOps solution:



Continuous

software delivery pipeline

that automates build, deploy, and test to improve quality
and drive faster ti
me to market



Market Integrated collaborative DevOps platform to accelerate software delivery.



Visibility and governance across delivery lifecycle to reduce release risks



Integration with existing development and operations processes


Increased Automation o
f Services and Workloads

---

still waiting
input

Step 10: Consider Integration & Interoperability
Requirements

Today, companies are increasingly considering a Hybrid cloud approach for deployment of their
mobile/social and enterprise applications. The ava
ilability and security advantages of established
internal systems combined with the on
-
demand and elasticity advantages of Public cloud deployment
provide an environment that delivers maximum benefit with appropriate risk mitigation. Step 3, above,
highli
ghts the critical considerations that must be taken into account in order to successfully deploy such
an environment. Special attention must be given to integration and interoperability requirements:



Integration
. The main concern is integrating the mobile
and social applications which, in a
Hybrid environment, typically run in the cloud with backend systems of record that typically run
on
-
premise.



Interoperability/Portability
. This concern cuts across all levels of the converged architecture
including cloud

interoperability and portability (i.e. how easily can I move my mobile/social
applications and data to a different cloud provider); mobile interoperability (will my mobile
applications support a wide range of mobile devices); and
social interoperability (
will the social
technologies I deploy interoperate with those of my customers and business partners)
.

Integration
-

the glue for the hybrid scenario

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In hybrid environments, the user selects their cloud solution providers based on their trustworthiness
and

the safe processing of their data. Considering compliance demands, it must be determined where
data and processes can be distributed in the hybrid cloud environment. As a result, there are increased
demands on the controlled process communication between
heterogeneous distributed systems
-

specifically the secure, reliable and transactional transfer, as well as the transformation and integration
of data and services. For this purpose, different integration strategies could be used:



Established connectivity
, messaging and integration approaches like EAI/ESB
. The central
function of an Enterprise Appliaction Integration (EAI) solution is the exchange of data between
IT systems or their components. Today’s established technology is the Enterprise Service B
us
(ESB) with responsibilities like Connectivity and Transport, Protocol Conversion, Data
Transformation, and Routing



Special cloud integration solutions
. These solutions connect the cloud services and SaaS
interfaces to internal applications.

The cont
inuously increasing need for
agility and the customer requirements
for ease
-
of
-
use solutions are
corresponding to the capabilities of
the
new cloud integration approaches
rather than to the established EAI
solutions (figure).

Best practices for Cloud Integ
ration

There are some best practices to decide which of the above integration approaches are most
appropriate. It is necessary to ask what kind of integration strategy is appropriate and up to what point a
preconfigured solution can be used. Of course, the

basic parameters are essential


What processes and applications are to be implemented by IT staff?

• How well
-
prepared are the applications for the On
-
/Off
-
Premise
-
Integration?

• How stable are the underlying data models?

Cloud
-
specific integration sol
utions are most effective when applied to business objects with stable,
typed data structures. The same is true for CRM integration
-

eg Salesforce.com or SugarCRM with ERP
solutions of vendors like SAP, Oracle or Microsoft which involves more or less "sta
tic" data structures
which are perfect for a mapping pattern. Such mappings can be predefined in an integration package
requiring relatively minor customized mappings and transformations.

With still less stable SaaS solutions and possibly very strongly "b
ent" standard products with high
individuality internally developed applications
, such packaged integration solutions fits rather rare or
only helps on one side. On one side only, because the advantage of a specialized cloud integration
solution covers th
e "standard" part. The same applies if a larger number of solutions have to be
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integrated with a desirable high reuse rate of services (if it can be achieved anyway).
The established EAI
and ESB solutions fit much better to those kinds of scenarios.

Inte
roperability
-

the holy grail

In addition to service integration the interoperability of cloud services is important for optimal use and
value of hybrid IT operating models. Portable Cloud architectures, where cloud services can seamlessly
be transitioned

from one cloud provider to the next can apply here as the "holy grail" of Cloud IT.

The biggest challenges faced by cloud service owners, architects, vendors and providers are the
management of complex topologies, security and Quality of Service require
ments. Currently announced
standards e.g. like OASISs TOSCA
-

Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Applications
-

address these challenges. Even simple services have complex topologies regarding their software and
hardware infrastructures and

the provider have different staging and production environments making
so called “devops” cycles a mechanical but sometimes challenging work.

The aim of TOSCA is that the service owner can on the one hand use a simple language for the
conceptual definitio
n of a "service template" for the specification of the topology aka structure. On the
other he can define for a service the orchestration
-

the beaviour of calls and management. This allows
the semi
-
automatic creation and management of the service. The ser
vice supplier is decoupled with the
creation of the service from a particular cloud provider and its hosting infrastructure. Because of this
decoupling the Cloud Service Provider and the Cloud Provider can focus on their key offerings. In the
end we have i
nteroperable artifacts for services and their exchange between different cloud
environments is possible. Do you remember the old saying from Java/Sun
-
Times
-

"write once, run
anywhere"? With this kind of standardization it might be possible now for your se
rvice in any cloud!

Works Cited

Additional References

Appendix A: Current State of Mobile Standards

Developers want “write
-
once run
-
anywhere” simplicity to shield them from platform fragmentation.
They also want a hybrid multi
-
platform development experie
nce that absorbs open source and
standards innovation, providing added value with minimal cost. As a result, several standards have come
to the forefront, although more work has yet to be done to adopt it comprehensively.


One such standard is jQuery, whic
h is the most widely used “JavaScript library” today, runs on more
than half of all websites, with an estimated market share or more than 80%.


Another standard, HTML5, has been fueled by widespread commitment from all major mobile vendors,
active standard
ization efforts and a growing ecosystem of third
-
party tools. This umbrella of over 100
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features, including textual and graphical presentation, data semantics and manipulation, messaging,
storage, and user interaction has become the leading candidate in th
e race for standardizing cross
-
platform mobile development.


Thanks to technological advancements in modern mobile browsers, using HTML5, today's mobile
developers can easily build native
-
like, cross
-
platform apps while implementing advanced user interface

(UI) components, leveraging offline storage capabilities, accessing rich media types and geo
-
location
data, and expanding their delivery channels beyond public app stores.


But despite its progress, many challenges still stand in the way of HTML5 adoption
. Limited access to
native device APIs, uneven support from different devices, cache limitations, proprietary Android layers,
and browser memory management are but a few of the gaps that mobile developers face.


But instead of compromising on application f
unctionality, or forgoing HTML5 and missing out on its clear
current and future benefits, developers can choose the hybrid route.


Using this approach, developers can still enjoy the benefits of choosing HTML5 as their core mobile
technology, without compr
omising on application functionality, richness and, most importantly, the user
experience. Furthermore, as HTML5 continues to evolve and cover more mobile features and
functionality, early adopters of this approach will benefit from a seamless and gradual
transition as
opposed to an extreme overhaul of their entire mobile infrastructure.


More broadly, here are seven organizations shepherding the open source movement:




The W3C Web Applications (WebApps) Working Group

is chartered to develop (>40)
specificat
ions key to the Open Web Platform, including standard APIs for client
-
side
development (examples: Clipboard API’s, Document Object Model (DOM), WebSockets), and a
packaging format for installable webapps (widgets). This work will include both documenting
e
xisting APIs such as XMLHttpRequest and developing new APIs in order to enable richer web
applications.



Web Application Security WG

develops security and policy mechanisms to improve the security
of web applications, and enable secure cross
-
site communicat
ions. It’s dealing with relevant
issues such as Attack Surface Reduction (restricting potentially harmful feature use), Enabling
Secure mashups, and security policy managability.



Device API’s WG:

Working on 13 standards enabling development of web applicat
ions that
interact with device services (calendar, contacts, camera, etc.).



Web Real
-
Time Communications WG:

focuses on defining client side API’s enabling real
-
time
communication



Core Mobile Web Platform CG:

The goal of the Core Mobile Web Platform Commun
ity Group
(CG) is to accelerate the adoption of the Mobile Web as a compelling platform for the
development of modern mobile web applications. In order to achieve this mission, the CG will
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bring developers, equipment manufacturers, browser vendors, operato
rs and other relevant
members of the industry together to agree on core features developers can depend on, create
related conformance test suites and provide to W3C (and non
-
W3C) groups use cases, scenarios,
and other input related to successful mobile dev
elopment.



WebPlatform.org

focuses on building a rich set of developer resources aligned with W3C’s Open
Web Platform directions.



Cordova
focuses on delivery of delivers a set of device API’s that allow mobile application
developers to access native device
function from JavaScript. Combine with a UI framework such
as jQuery Mobile or Dojo Mobile this allows smartphone application developers to develop
write once run anywhere applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.