Cryptography Lesson - Colorado School of Mines

shoulderslyricalAI and Robotics

Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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

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Standards

The following middle school science and mathematics standards are
addressed in this lesson plan:


In this se
ction you’re going to learn:


Mathematics



Standard 1


Number Sense



Standard 2


Algebraic Methods



Standard 3


Data collection and analysis; communication of these
techniques



Standard 4


Geometric concepts



Standard 5


Problem
-
solving tools



Standard 6


Computation



Science



Standard 5


Interrelationships among science, technology, and
human activity

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Cryptography Lesson

Following is an outline of what information can be taught to students
meant to give an introduction to basic cryptography and foster an
interest in the application of this science to the activity.


Overview Outl
ine

In this section you’re going to learn:

A.

What

it is

B.

Where

and
When

it got started

C.

Why

we care

D.

How

people use different forms today


A. What IS cryptography, anyway?

cryp∙tog∙ra∙phy



(kr
p
-
t
g
r
-
f
)
n.


1.

The art and science of keeping information
secure from
unintended audiences, of encrypting it.

2.

Secret writing.


3.

The Process or skill of communicating in or deciphering secret writings or
ciphers

*Cryptography is about a code, or a method of translating, so to
speak, from one language into another.


~It can take many forms; even foreign language is a sort of code
to those who only speak English.

Activity:


Have a student come up who knows a different language, or perhaps speak
to them in another language. This illustrates the fact that had I wanted

them to
understand what I was saying, I would have spoken in English; as it were, they
didn’t understand what I was saying, so my code worked…it was only meant for
intended ears.

B. History

1.

Cryptography is one of the oldest fields of technical study we c
an find
records of, going back at least 4,000 years.

2.

Cryptography probably began in or around 2000 B.C. in
Egypt
, where
hieroglyphics were used to decorate tombs of deceased rulers and
kings.

3.

Cryptography was, and still is, used in
army/navy settings

whe
re the
officers are trying to encode operations from the enemy intelligence.



C. Why do we care? What does cryptography have to do with
technology?

1.

Codes have been used for many years to send information over long
distances. Examples are smoke signal
s, Morse Code, hand signals,
radios, etc…

2.

Computers are used today to send information across the world. They
use electrical signals, magnets, optic lasers to encode information.

a.

Let’s talk about electricity.

i.

Say we have a light switch. If it is on, we’l
l call that 1; if
it’s off, we’ll call that 0.

3.

Computers encode information using an on
-
off system called binary
numbers…they can encode and translate information very quickly
using binary numbers.

a.

Binary Code

i.

Using ones and zeros, start from the right to
the left to
count, and every digit to the left is zeros, or of no
consequence.

1.

1

1

2.

2

10

3.

3

11

4.

4

100

5.

5

101

6.

6

110

7.

7

111

8.

8

1000

9.

9

1001

10.

10

1010

11.

11

1011

12.

12

1100

13.

13

1101

14.

14

1110

15.

15

1111

16.

16

10000

ii.

A faster way…

1.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

2.

1024, 512, 256, 128, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1

3.


And you add up what you need to get to the
number value, starting with the biggest number
first!

D. How is it used today? Different forms of Cryptography
today

1.

Cryptography, as defined earlier, is a method of
encoding information
so that unintended audiences won’t know what you are communicating

a.

There are many different forms, such as Braille (for blind
people), foreign languages, Morse code, radio phonetic
alphabets, and our beloved binary….to SCAVENGER HUNT!!

E. Scavenger Hunt Rules:

1.

You need to assign roles to your group members. One should be the
key keeper; one needs to be the navigator; one needs to read the clues
when you get to them, and one person needs to write down what you
need to solve the clues.

These roles can switch, but you need to make
sure you are all doing something.

2.

You need to keep all of your cards as you find them…you will need
them at other stations as well, and I need all of them back at the end.

3.

On the map, I have highlighted the pla
ces where you might find clues.
If you find yourself somewhere that is NOT highlighted on the map, do
you think you are in the right place? Nope!

4.

When you get the cards, make sure you read the WHOLE THING!

5.

Some of the clues you will need to ask your guid
e for…listen carefully…

6.

Any other questions?

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

Here are the paths of each team. You will need to make note cards of
these clues for the teams to find at each station to move on to the next
one.


The Path of Team A:


Bina
ry Word Problem


You are a computer programmer. Currently you have written the code for a
game. Someone is willing to pay you ten dollars for one game, but they want
four of them. You agree, saying that you will add on five dollars at the end for
labor
purposes, and then say you want them to pay in three equal payments.
How much is each payment? Now write the dollar amount in binary and this will
help you at your next station.


Morse Code Problem


Morse code is a method of sending messages over a wi
re. If you turn the
answer to the first station (Binary Word Problem) horizontally, that is, each
number horizontally, what number do you get? (A 1 turns into
-

).


Braille Problem


Braille is a tangible form of communication used by the blind. Also, th
ey use their
ears much more than we do. At this station you will use both your sense of touch
and listening skills to decipher where to travel to next…this is two words…listen
to your leader carefully…

[Braille card] reading LIBRARY BENCH


Hieroglyphics P
oem


Many kings of Egypt made

Pyramids that rose up tall

Trailing on the winds of time

Still many did not fall


Find the hieroglyphics that correspond to the Poem acronym. Don’t forget these
letters…you will need them for the next station!


Roman Numerals


Now use the beginning letter of the poem as your starting value…then,

1.

Divide by 10.

2.

Subtract 25.

3.

Divide by 3.

4.

Take the first digit of that number and add three.

5.

Now, covert that number to a binary number.


Are you seeing spots yet? This animal
-
once in a

famous movie (Dalmatian)
helps firefighters…now go to something else that firefighters use…outside of
Stratton near the street.


Fire Hydrant


Egyptian hieroglyphics were a means of writing similar to today’s letters,
however, their language was more phon
etically
-
based than is our alphabet. You
learned that phonetics has to do with speech and sound.


Now ask your guide to say a word to clue you into where to go next… the NATO
Phonetic Alphabet (there are three words):


Mike
-
Echo
-
Yankee
-
Echo
-
Romeo Bravo
-
Bravo
-
Quebec Golf
-
Romeo
-
India
-
Lima
-
Lima


Meyeroglyphics


Here’s a clue, though not found in an Egyptian Tomb…go to the junction of three
paths where the tri
-
plated dome points to the sky between two buildings that
catch your eye.

Decipher these hierogl
yphics to find where to go next

[picture here
-

to Berthoud/Guggenheim Statue]


Binary 2




?
00111
01010
*
00010
00011
01000
00010
01101













Now, some think this is unlucky, however…if you make it to the next station,
you’ve found a pot o’ gold, or a cone of goodness…a fair bit o’ l
uck, me lads an’
lassies!

Go to the benches and tables beneath the trees that are next to the grass that is
SO green.






The Path of Team B:


Hieroglyphics Poem


Many kings of Egypt made

Pyramids that rose up tall

Trailing on the winds of time

Still many

did not fall

Find the hieroglyphics that correspond to the Poem acronym. Don’t forget these
letters…you will need them for the next station!


Roman Numerals


Now use the beginning letter of the poem as your starting value…then,

1. Divide by 10.

2.

Subtra
ct 25.

3.

Divide by 3.

4.

Take the first digit of that number and add three.

5.

Now, covert that number to a binary number.


Are you seeing spots yet? This animal
-
once in a famous movie (Dalmatian)
helps firefighters…now go to something else that firefighters use…
outside of
Stratton near the street.


Fire Hydrant


Egyptian hieroglyphics were a means of writing similar to today’s letters,
however, their language was more phonetically
-
based than is our alphabet. You
learned that phonetics has to do with speech and s
ound.


Now ask your guide to say a word to clue you into where to go next… the NATO
Phonetic Alphabet (there are four words, and it’s an object at the junction of
three paths between two buildings):


Bravo
-
Echo
-
Romeo
-
Tango
-
Hotel
-
Oscar
-
Uniform
-
Delta / Golf
-
Uniform
-
Golf
-
Golf
-
Echo
-
November
-
Hotel
-
Echo
-
India
-
Mike Delta
-
Oscar
-
Mike
-
Echo Sierra
-
Tango
-
Alpha
-
Tango
-
Uniform
-
Echo


Binary 2




?
01010
01010
*
00010
00011
01000
00010
01101













This guy is flashy
-

day or night
-

it’s color is fiery, and its message is bright.

(find the number
on the map to correspond to the station)


Binary Word Problem


You are a computer programmer. Currently you have written the code for a
game. Someone is willing to pay you ten dollars for one game, but they want
four of them. You agree, saying that you
will add on five dollars at the end for
labor purposes, and then say you want them to pay in three equal payments.
How much is each payment? Now write the dollar amount in binary and this will
help you at your next station.


Morse Code Problem


Morse
code is a method of sending messages over a wire. If you turn the
answer to the first station (Binary Word Problem) horizontally, that is, each
number horizontally, what number do you get? (A 1 turns into
-

).


Braille Problem


Braille is a tangible form

of communication used by the blind. Also, they use their
ears much more than we do. At this station you will use both your sense of touch

and listening skills to decipher where to travel to next…this is two words…listen
to your leader carefully…

[Braill
e card] reading Meyer BBQ Grill


Meyeroglyphics


Here’s a clue, though not found in an Egyptian Tomb…go to the benches
beneath the trees, next to the grass that is SO green.

Decipher these hieroglyphics to find where to go next

[picture here
-

STRATTON TABL
ES]









The Path of Team C:


Meyeroglyphics


Here’s a clue, though not found in an Egyptian Tomb…go to the bench near the
building that is full of books, and don’t worry about people giving you strange
looks.

Decipher these hieroglyphics to find where
to go next

[picture here
-

LIBRARY BENCH]


Hieroglyphics Poem


Many kings of Egypt made

Pyramids that rose up tall

Trailing on the winds of time

Still many did not fall


Find the hieroglyphics that correspond to the Poem acronym. Don’t forget these
letters
…you will need them for the next station!

Roman Numerals


Now use the beginning letter of the poem as your starting value…then,

1. Divide by 10.

6.

Subtract 25.

7.

Divide by 3.

8.

Take the first digit of that number and add three.

9.

Now, covert that number to a bi
nary number.


Are you seeing spots yet? This animal
-
once in a famous movie (Dalmatian)
helps firefighters…now go to something else that firefighters use…outside of
Stratton near the street.


Fire Hydrant


Egyptian hieroglyphics were a means of writing sim
ilar to today’s letters,
however, their language was more phonetically
-
based than is our alphabet. You
learned that phonetics has to do with speech and sound.


Now ask your guide to say a word to clue you into where to go next… the NATO
Phonetic Alphabet(
the first two words are the object to look for, the second two
are the place):


Bravo
-
Lima
-
India
-
November
-
Kilo
-
India
-
November
-
Golf Sierra
-
India
-
Golf
-
November

Sierra
-
Tango
-
Uniform
-
Delta
-
Echo
-
November
-
Tango Charlie
-
Echo
-
November
-
Tango
-
Echo
-
Romeo


Bi
nary Word Problem


You are a computer programmer. Currently you have written the code for a
game. Someone is willing to pay you ten dollars for one game, but they want
four of them. You agree, saying that you will add on five dollars at the end for
labo
r purposes, and then say you want them to pay in three equal payments.
How much is each payment? Now write the dollar amount in binary and this will
help you at your next station.


Morse Code Problem


Morse code is a method of sending messages over a
wire. If you turn the
answer to the first station (Binary Word Problem) horizontally, that is, each
number horizontally, what number do you get? (A 1 turns into
-

).


Braille Problem


Braille is a tangible form of communication used by the blind. Also,
they use their
ears much more than we do. At this station you will use both your sense of touch

and listening skills to decipher where to travel to next…this is two words…listen
to your leader carefully…

[Braille card] reading BERTHOUD/ GUGGENHEIM DOME ST
ATUE


Binary 2




?
00111
01010
*
00010
00011
01000
00010
01101













Now, some think this is unlucky, however…if you make it to the next station,
you’ve found a pot o’ gold, or a cone of goodness…a fair bit o’ luck, me lads an’
lassies!

Go to the benches and tables beneath the trees
that are next to the grass that is
SO green.







The Path of Team D:


Binary 2




?
01010
01010
*
00010
00011
01000
00010
01101













This guy is flashy
-

day or night
-

it’s color is fiery, and its message is bright.

(find the number on the map to correspond to the station)


Binary W
ord Problem


You are a computer programmer. Currently you have written the code for a
game. Someone is willing to pay you ten dollars for one game, but they want
four of them.

You agree, saying that you will add on five dollars at the end for labor pur
poses,
and then say you want them to pay in three equal payments. How much is each
payment? Now write the dollar amount in binary and this will help you at your
next station.


Morse Code Problem


Morse code is a method of sending messages over a wire.

If you turn the
answer to the first station (Binary Word Problem) horizontally, that is, each
number horizontally, what number do you get? (A 1 turns into
-

).


Braille Problem


Braille is a tangible form of communication used by the blind. Also, they
use their
ears much more than we do. At this station you will use both your sense of touch

and listening skills to decipher where to travel to next…this is two words…listen
to your leader carefully…

[Braille card] reading LIBRARY BENCH


Hieroglyphics Poem


Many kings of Egypt made

Pyramids that rose up tall

Trailing on the winds of time

Still many did not fall


Find the hieroglyphics that correspond to the Poem acronym. Don’t forget these
letters…you will need them for the next station!


Roman Numerals


N
ow use the beginning letter of the poem as your starting value…then,

1. Divide by 10.

10.

Subtract 25.

11.

Divide by 3.

12.

Take the first digit of that number and add three.

13.

Now, covert that number to a binary number.


Are you seeing spots yet? This animal
-
once i
n a famous movie (Dalmatian)
helps firefighters…now go to something else that firefighters use…outside of
Stratton near the street.


Fire Hydrant


Egyptian hieroglyphics were a means of writing similar to today’s letters,
however, their language was more p
honetically
-
based than is our alphabet. You
learned that phonetics has to do with speech and sound.


Now ask your guide to say a word to clue you into where to go next… the NATO
Phonetic Alphabet:


Mike
-
Echo
-
Yankee
-
Echo
-
Romeo Bravo
-
Bravo
-
Quebec Golf
-
R
omeo
-
India
-
Lima
-
Lima


Meyeroglyphics


Here’s a clue, though not found in an Egyptian Tomb…go to the tables and
benches under the trees, near the grass that is, oh, SO green!

[picture here
-

STRATTON Picnic Tables]


For the eyes of the Key Master...


Egyptian Hieroglyphics

[
picture here]


Binary Code:





Arabic

Binary

1

00001

2

00010

3

00011

4

00100

5

00101

6

00110

7

00111

8

01000

9

01001

10

01010

11

01011

12

01100

13

01101

14

01110

15

01111

16

10000


Morse Code:

Number

Code

1

*
----

2

**
---

3

***
--

4

****
-

5

*****

6

-
****

7

--
***

8

---
**

9

----
*

0

-----








Roman Numerals:

Number Value

Roman
Numeral

1

I

5

V

10

X

50

L

100

C

1000

M


NATO Phonetic Alphabet:

Letter

NATO

A

Alpha

B

Bravo

C

Charlie

D

Delta

E

Echo

F

Foxtrot

G

Golf

H

Hotel

I

India

J

Juliet

K

Kilo

L

Lima

M

Mike

N

November

O

Oscar

P

Papa

Q

Quebec

R

Romeo

S

Sierra

T

Tango

U

Uniform

V

Victor

W

Whiskey

X

X
-
ray

Y

Yankee

Z

Zulu




Braille Alphabet:

[picture here]