the best, always.

shawlaskewvilleUrban and Civil

Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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TM


the best, always.



Stud welding is an upcoming advanced technology used in various industrial purposes.



Stud welding is easy, reliable and economic process compared to previous welding technologies.



Stud welding system consists of a power supply unit and a gun using which studs are welded with or
without shielding of a male/female ceramic ferrule to the work piece.



Diameter range of 3mm
-
26mm with standard length and standard material compositions can be easily
welded with the stud welding machine.



Stud welding is generally used to weld larger diameter to thick base materials.



Studs of any shape one end must be designed for arc welding and must be of
weldable

materials


for e.g. Mild steel, steel and aluminum are applicable materials for Arc stud welding.



Drawn Arc stud welding arrangement:






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Capacitor Discharge with ceramic ferrules


Drawn arc with ceramic ferrules


Drawn arc with shielding gas


Short cycle process


Capacitor discharge stud welding:


Especially suited for welding on thin plates from about 0.5 mm.


Minimum plate thickness: 1/10 of stud diameter. Welding range: M3
-
M8(M10).


Drawn arc stud welding:


Especially suited for welding on thicker plates of 3 mm and above.


Minimum plate thickness: 1/8 of stud diameter.


Welding range: dia. 3 to 26 mm (M24).


Short cycle stud welding:


Especially suited for welding on thinner plates.


Exceptionally suitable for stud diameters of up to 12mm.


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The process utilizes a bank of capacitor to store energy at a specified voltage determined by the stud
size and material.



When a weld is initiated, energy is "discharged" through a special "ignition tip" at the base of the
stud, creating an instantaneous arc which melts both the base of the stud and the adjoining surface
on the work piece.



The welder starts the gun, sending an electrical current to the fastener and metal piece, which results
in the creation of heat. This heat causes the fastener’s tip and collar as well as part of the metal piece
to melt.



A spring within the welding gun drives the fastener into the metal piece and as the melted substances
cool they are fused together.



The stud is joined with the work piece over the whole surface of the stud, the strength of the joint is
even higher than the base material or the stud.



Capacitor discharge Stud welding eliminates the need of drilling, punching, riveting, gluing and
screwing. Leak
-
proof assemblies.




Due to minimal thermal influence on the material, there is little reverse
-
side marking


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Drawn
-
arc stud welding is used for the welding of metallic parts, generally of cylindrical shape onto
metallic work pieces.



Stud loaded in the chuck of the Gun is lifted for a short distance from the work piece as the Gun is
Triggered.



Electric Arc initiated from the power source melts the end of the stud and a portion of the base metal.






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The ceramic Ferrule contains the molten metal into which the stud is thrust automatically and a high
quality fusion weld is accomplished.



When a stud is end
-
welded a fillet is formed around its base whose dimension is controlled by design of
the ferrule.













Resultant stud weld :






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Visual Test : A good weld will have a closed even weld collar with a shiny blue
-
gray surface, not dull or
porous. The stud will have its nominal length
±

1mm.



Bend Test :

Studs to be tested should be bent 15 degrees away from its weld axis and back to 0 degrees
or until failure occurs. Bending can be done with a hammer or with a aid of a bending tool such a s a tube
or a pipe. Failure should occur in the stud material itself or ,on thin plate a plug of base metal should be
torn out.



Torque Test :
Studs should be torque until a pre
-
specified load is attained or until the stud fails. Failure
should occur in the stud material itself or ,on thin plate a plug of base metal should be torn out.



Tensile Test :
This can test a stud to failure which can be used as a qualification test. Also the stud can
have a tensile load to a predetermined limit. Testing to the predetermined limit can be used as a
periodic quality test for production.



Note :
on thinner base metals this test may actually pull the base metal and cause a reverse side dimple
so the predetermined limit must take into account the base metal thickness.



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Quality of surface required:


The surface of the plate must be electrically conductive.


Varnish, aluminum layers scale, rust, oil paint and plastic surfaces are to be removed.


Time required for welding Studs :


Capacitor discharge stud welding: 1 to 3 msec


Drawn arc stud welding: 5 msec to 1.5 sec


Duty Cycle:


Manual stud feeding: 5 to 6 studs per minute* (average)



Automatic stud feeding: 40 studs per minute* (average)

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What
Stalwart Technosource
provides is the welding machine of optimum quality and advanced
technology, The Stud
-
Juncture (Juncture means to create a junction i.e. to join metal fasteners to
work piece).



The Stud
-
Juncture operates under a microcontroller which controls the welding process .It acts as a
current control unit, under which current flows from the transformer to the controller and from
controller to the Gun.




Stud
-
Juncture welds studs in a fraction of a second.



The Stud
-
Juncture functions under manual and automatic modes, which is easy to operate to
Engineers as well as to the workers.




System performs the Self
-
Test on power up and whenever Information menu is selected & displays
any errors to user.




System also displays the Current Date/Time, Stud Counter & System Status/Warnings continuously.





System also includes
optional RS232 interface
to external Personal Computer (PC). This can be used
to setup and display the results using ease of PC.



Up to 10 jobs are saved into NV memory which can be recalled for review.













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Special Features:



User Interface

consists of 240x128 Graphical LCD & 16 Button Keypad.



Menu Driven Setup of Machine for ease of use.



Intelligent separate user interface controller which guides the user throughout entire setup process
with immediate visual feedback.



All the settings are done using Keypad using menu navigation & selection.


Display features:


Begin Weld


All settings done machine is ready to do the job. Display will display the information
about the job such as Stud Diameter, Weld Time, Pilot Arc settings, Main Arc Settings, current state of
job.





Review Weld


Once the welding is done, user can review the job & its status. It will display the info
about User Settings & Actual Parameters observed during welding in user selected format.





Stud Number


System will save up to last 10 jobs for review. User can select any of them to get the
review.




Textual Review


System will display the data in textual format.




Graphical Review


System will display the data in graphical format


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User Settings


These are the settings which can be controlled at user level. This includes selection
from one of the 25 pre
-
defined weld parameter
-
setups only. At this level user can see all the welding
parameters but cannot change any settings.




Admin Settings


These are the Administrator Level settings.

Administrator can change any of the
Weld Parameters and save them in one of the 25 memory locations to be later used at User Level.





Password


Admin Level Password has to be entered correctly to get further access to Admin
Settings.





Setup No
-

Selection of memory location to save.





Stud Diameter
-

Stud diameter can be entered here. If diameter entered is one of the known, then all
other parameters are selected automatically by the system which can be over
-
ridden if needed.





Service Settings


These are Service Level settings which need to be handled only by technician from
manufacturer or client.





Password


Service Level Password has to be entered correctly to get further access to Service
Settings.





Reset Admin Pass


This resets the admin password to 9999. This is helpful if Admin password is lost.





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Stats


This gives statistical info about welding up to now. This includes total studs, passed studs,
failed studs and % success.





Factory Settings


These are factory level settings accessed only at manufacturing or repair level.




Password
-

Factory Level Password has to be entered correctly to get further access to factory
Settings.





Change Factory Password


Enter new password for factory settings.





Reset Service Password


Reset service level password to 8888.





Reset Master Stud Counter


Reset master stud counter. Note that service level counter reset does
not reset this counter. This is 32
-
Bit counter & can count up to 4294967296 which is well beyond the
expected life of machine.





Set M/C Serial No.
-

This sets the Serial Number as per manufacturer. It is 16 char long alphanumeric
number.





Set Time/Date


This sets the time & date. Note that machine maintains the clock internally even
when power is turned off and time
-
stamps the jobs which are stored in non
-
volatile memory.




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Additional features:



Up to 25 settings can be saved into NV memory as predefined to get speedy & error
-
free selection.





3 Separate temperature monitors


Transformer, SCR Bridge(s), System. These temperatures are
displayed on GLCD one at a time.





System monitors the temperature probes and pre
-
warns user about overheating and shutdowns if
user continues.





System monitors the stud diameter, current and time settings currently being used and calculates
best possible welding duty for it. This can prevent the user from over
-
using system resulting in
shutdown by forcing user to wait in between the welding
-
cycles as duty calculated.





System monitors the 3
-
phase voltages during power up & during welding and informs user about
failure of one or more phases if it does happen.



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Stud welding provides fixing and fastening solutions in many metal and heavy


engineering industries and small scale applications.



The welded joint is stronger than the parent material or the stud.



Deep weld penetration.



High speed welding of studs on thin steel sheets is possible.



Limits down time.



Cuts labor and material cost.



Is user friendly and easy to operate.



Machine is equipped with effective safety operations for user.



Self diagnostic thereby avoiding delays in trouble shooting.



Fast attachment.



No reverse marking.




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Stud welding is ideal for applications where access cannot be made to the reverse side of an assembly
such as mounting circuit boards, rails, instruments, earth points and many different components.



No holes hence no leaking or weakening of the sheet.
for example: inspection hatches and cover
plates



Tamper proof.



High operating factors in mechanized applications.



High deposition rates (over 100 lb/h (45 kg/h) have been reported).



Sound welds are readily made (with good process design and control).



Weldable even onto very thin plates, i.e. 1/8 of stud diameter.



Minimal welding fume or arc light is emitted.


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Practically no edge preparation is necessary.



The process is suitable for both indoor and outdoor works.



Very low distortion by extremely short welding time.



Welds produced are sound, uniform, ductile, corrosion resistant and have good impact value.



Single pass welds can be made in thick plates with normal equipment.



50% to 90% of the flux is recoverable.



The process involves less maintenance cost.



The arc is always covered under a blanket of flux, thus there is no chance of spatter of weld.



Skill of the operator does not influence the quality of spot welds obtained by this process.



The process is normally free from smoke and spatter.


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Sheet Metalwork


Electronic Industries


Switchboard Cabinets


Laboratory and Medical Equipment



Food Industry



Household Appliances


Communications Engineering


Vending Machines


Glass Constructions



Insulation Technology



Industrial Kitchens Etc.


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Stud welding has replaced many technologies and has proved the best in terms of time and even cost.
Stud welding can be used in place where Nut
-
Bolt has been used and places where one sided welding
is must. Stud welding has applications from the repair shop to on
-
site situations.


Some of the applications Drawn Arc stud welding can be used are listed below:



Construction


Boilers


Automobile industry


Mining Industry


Power Plant


Ship Building


Tubes


Water Tank


Windmill


Heat exchangers


Oil & Gas industry


Fabrication of sheet metal products.


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Assembling sheet metal to steel structures.


Fabrication of pulleys.


Joining killed carbon steel, low alloy steel, high alloy steel, titanium, etc


Refractory


Small appliances like Furnace, geysers, etc.


The use of manually operated arc spot welding gun is a common thing in various industries. Arc spot welding is
especially applicable for situations where resistance spots welding needs high pressure, high currents, does
not have easy access and fails to weld.








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Capacitor

Discharge Stud Welding


Drawn Arc Stud Welding

1.
PROCESS

1.1 The stud is placed against the work piece, a
spring in the interior of the welding gun press the
stud on the work piece.


1.2 The weld gun is activated and stored energy is
discharged through the fastener melting the full
diameter of its base and portion of the parent
material.


1.3 Spring
-
loading forces the fastener into the
molten metal.


1.4 The stud is held in the place as the molten
metal solidifies and instantly creates a high quality
fusion weld.


1.1 A stud and ceramic ferrule are firmly placed
against the work piece

under spring tension.


1.2 Upon triggering, the weld gun automatically
lifts the stud from the base metal and initiates a
controlled electric arc which melts the end of the
stud and a portion of the base metal.


1.3

A ceramic arc shield concentrates the heat and
retains the molten material in the weld area from
maximum weld strength and reliability.


1.4 At the precise moment the stud and parent
metal become molten, the stud is automatically
plunged into the work surface. The metal solidifies
and a high quality fusion weld is completed.

2.
WELDING RANGE

Welding Range up to 8mm of

stud diameter
.


Welding

range up to 25 mm of stud diameter.

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Capacitor

Discharge Stud Welding


Drawn Arc Stud Welding

3.
THICKNESS

Welding on very thin plates from 0.5mm thickness
or 1/10th of stud dia.


Application on sheet metals with a minimum
thickness of 2mm or 1/8th of stud dia.

4.
DEPTH

Extremely low penetration depth approx. 0.1mm


Penetration depth from approx. 1mm to 3mm

5.
MATERIALS WELDABLE

Steel (mild and alloyed steel), aluminum, brass.


Steel (mild and alloyed steel), aluminum.

6.
AVAILABLE STUD SHAPES

Threaded studs, pins, tapped pads,

Christmas tree studs, paint clearing studs,

grounding clips, cupped head pins,

insulation pins.



Threaded studs, pins, tapped pads,

Christmas tree studs, concrete anchors, collar

studs, insulation pins.

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Capacitor

Discharge Stud Welding

Drawn Arc Stud Welding

7.
WELDING TIME


1 to 3 msec.


5

msec. to 1.5 sec.

8.
APPLICATIONS

Sheet metalwork, electronic industries, switchboard
cabinets, laboratory and medical equipment, food
industry, household appliances, communications
engineering, vending machines, windows, glass
constructions, insulation technology, industrial
kitchens etc.


Steel construction, mechanical engineering,

shipbuilding, structural and civil engineering,
power plants and combustion systems,
boiler and plant equipment, insulation and
window construction.

9.
ADVANTAGES

One sided fastening for better appearance and design
freedom, No drilling and tapping,

One person operation, Wont vibrate loose,

High
-
speed automatic equipment can be used,

Reverse side may be finished before welding


No lengthy setup, Can use portable
equipment

One
-
sided fastening, Secure

&
durable hold

Can finish reverse side prior to welding

Wont vibrate loose

Thank You