Loads & Failure

shawlaskewvilleUrban and Civil

Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

54 views

EXAMPLES


Egyptian Temples

(slide 4)

Temple of Amon, Luxor


Stone


post & beam

Heavy, thick, close spacing


Funeral Temple of Hatshepsout


Deir
-
el
-
Bahari


1470 BC


Stone


post & beam


Heavy, thick, close spacing


Place of Knossos
-

Crete


c
1
700

BC


Ston
e


tapered columns


Greek & Roman Temples (slide 5)

P
ar
the
n
on
-

Athens


447
-
432 BC
.




Theseum



agora Athens (Hephaesteum)


One of best preserved temples


Maison Carre


Nimes


1
st

Century



Carre d’Art


Nimes


Foster and Partners
198
7
-
93
-

Mediath
eque



Roman Arches (slide 6)

Arch of Titus


Colosseum


Pont du Gard




Islamic Arches (slide 7)

Umayyad Mosque
-

Damascus


Arch of Ctesiphon


near Baghdad


C540 AD


25.5m span


largest arch in ancient history


pointed ovoid



mud bricks built without
support


Vaults (slide 8)

Colosseum


Intersecting
barrel
-
vaults



St. Sernin


Toulouse 1080


Romanesque

Stone

-

semi
-
circular

barrel vault

Nave 21m high

-

Building

32.5m wide


Gothic Vaults (slide 9)

Notre Dame de Paris


1163
-
1250


Gothic


Nave 3
4
m h
igh



wall supporting very thin


Building 48m wide


Flying Butresses span 15m. One of earliest examples


Sexpartite vault



Vaults (slide 10)

King

s College
Chapel,
Cambridge


1446
-
1515


Gothic


Lacy stone fan
-
vaulting with high stained glass windows
-

ai
ry


12.2 m wide


Lyons Opera


1830/1993


Concrete barrel shell vault


Orly Hangar


1921
-
3


Concrete ribbed parabolic vault


75m span
-

dirigibles


Domes (slide 11)

Pantheon
-

Rome


123 A.D.


43m span


4m thick stone/concrete/pots


Trulli Houses


Albero
bello

Italy


18
th

C


Stone


high parabolic


Italian vernacular





Domes (slide 12)

Hagia Sophia
Mosque
-

Istanbul


537

A.D.


31
m span stone


pendentives



half
-
domes


large piers


Duomo



Florence


1436

-

Brunelleschi

Two domes


inner and outer


Outer

-

Ribbed

-

brick



octagonal


high profile


42m span

supported by 24 stone half arches, or ribs, of circular form, 2.1 metres thick at the
base and tapering to 1.5 metres which meet at an open stone compression ring at the
top. To resist outward thrust,
tie rings of stone held together with metal cramps run
horizontally between the ribs. There are also tie rings of oak timbers joined by
metal connectors. The spaces between the ribs and tie rings are spanned by the inner
and outer shells, which are of ston
e for the first 7.1 metres and brick above. The
entire structure was built without formwork
.




Domes (slide 13)

St Peters
-

Rome


1546
-
1626

A.D.


42
m span

construction and shape of the dome, first with a single masonry shell (Bramante),
then a double one

(Sangallo, Michelangelo). The piers at the crossing, which were
intended to support the dome, were one of the biggest problems; too slender in
Bramante's plan, they were frequently reinforced
.

The brick dome 42 m in diameter rises 138 m above the street,
and 119 m above the
floor, with four iron chains for a compression ring. Four internal piers . is buttressed
by the apses and supported internally by four massive piers more than 18 meters
thick.

Tomb of Tamburla
i
ne


Samarkand, Uzbekistan


14
th

C



after

the Mongols


Islamic




Astrodome, Houston


1965


216.5 m span


largest span enclosed structure


capacity: 42,217 (original), 54816 (final)


2005


13
,
000 refugees from
New Orleans,
Hurricane Katrina


steel



Millenium Dome, London


19
97
-
98


>160

m sp
an
, height of dome 50m, height of masts 100m


capacity: 42,217 (original), 54816 (final) 13000 refugees from Hurricane Katrina


membrane structure, cable
-
suspended


PTFE
-
coated glass
-
fiber fabric

(
PolyTetraFluoroEthylene
)


T
r
usses (slide 14)

Waterloo Stat
ion
-

London


1848

158.6 x 164.7 m area over 19 platforms (26,120 sq m)


5 football fields

steel and glass

columns but still large open spans


Carreau du Temple

-

Paris


18
63
-
5


Note tension members


lightness


Market


Air Terminal
-

Frankfurt


1996
-
9


> 50 m span


arch form


T
r
usses (slide 15)

Pompidou Centre
-

Paris


1971
-
7


Warren trusses support floor


Truss 2.5m deep


span 45m


Each top chord pair of 419mm dia steel tube


Inverted vees between trusses for lateral stability in short direction


Wate
rloo Chunnel Station
-

London


1992
-
4


span 35
-
50m (not equal spans)


400m long


asymmetrical 3
-
hinged arch trusses


space trusses



Louvre Pyramid
-

Paris


1985
-
9


I.M. Pei


same proportions as Great Pyramid of Giza

35m width

each face a truss



T
r
usse
s (slide 16)

Hong Kong Bank


Hong Kong


1986


Foster & Partners


Ove Arup


Supported by 8 column clusters of 4 columns each (note bracing of columns)


Column clusters support trusses


Floors suspended from trusses by hangers


Columns and hangers are roun
d steel tubes


trusses of square tubes

All structural members encased in concrete and clad in enameled aluminium cladding


T
r
usses (slide 17)

Telstra Stadium


Sydney


1996
-
9

83,500 capacity (110,00 originally)

most spectators shaded without need for gras
s
-
killing dome

roof suspended from arched trusses

translucent polycarbonate


Frame

(slide 18)

Australia Square


Sydney


1961
-
1967

Harry Seidler

50

storeys high

42m dia.
Lightweight
RC frame



clear span of 11m core to perimeter

Precast
quartz
-
faced
permanent

formwork

for façade

Repetitive elements


fast construction

Grd floor by Nervi


Frame

(slide 19)

Horizon
Apartment
Building


Sydney


199
0
-
8

Harry Seidler

43 storeys



shaped to catch views of harbour

Prestressed conc structure


MLC Building


Sydney


197
2
-
75

Harry Seidler

67 floors

Precast concrete structure with white quartz exterior

8 massive columns


change shape bottom to top





Frame

(slide 20)

Hong Kong Central / Hong Kong Club


Hong Kong


1980
-
84

Harry Seidler

34m span prestressed concrete facad
e

17m internal spans

no internal columns


Frame

(slide 21
)

Century Tower
-

Tokyo


1991


Foster & Partners, Ove Arup


Grande Arche
-

La Defense , Paris


1982
-
90

rises 110m

on axis with Arc de Triomphe and Champs Elysees


Frame (slide 22)

World Trade Centre


NY (demolished)


19
84
-
7



demolished Sept 11 2001

steel frame, concrete slabs on steel truss joists

columns at 99cms crs, truss joists 84cms deep spanning 18.3m to core.


Frame (slide 23)

Walt Disney Concert Hall
-

LA

1988
-
2002

Frank Gehry

Steel frame st
ructure


sheet metal
façade


Tension Structure (slide 24)

Westcoast Transmission Tower

-

Vancouver

1969

pairs of high
-
strength steel cables


very thin

coated with layer of fireproofing material

enclosed within outer skin of building


Federal Reserve Bank

-

Minneapolis

Floors carried across 82m span by parabolic cables

Floor beams above supported by columns, those below by hangers

Stiffening trusses at top


resist inward component of forces





Shells (slide 25)

Tenerife
Opera House



Santa Cruz, Tenerife

2003


Calatrava

seats 1668 + 410

58m high

curved white concrete



Shells (slide 26)

Putraja
ya

Convention Centre
-

Mala
y
sia

2001
-
3

Largest hall can seat 2800

Roof looks like folded origami

Thin
-
shell structure

large overhangs shade glass


TWA Terminal


Kennedy Airport NY

1962

Eero Saarinen

67m wide, 96m long 15m high


Shells (slide 27)

Los Manatiales
R
estaurant
-

Mexico

1958

Felix Candela

Thin
-
shell


hyperbolic paraboloid

31.8m span, 6.74m high at centre

17
-
34
mm thick shell


Geodesic Domes (slide 28)

Biosphere
-

Montreal

Expo 1967

-

Buckminster Fuller

76m diam, 61m high

standardized steel members


quick erection


Eden Project
-

Cornwall

2001

‘Greenhouse’


ecological park

Max height 50m


23,000 sq m covered area

Steel members, ETFE foil


Cantilever
(slide 29)

Lovett Vacation House


Washington


Cantilever (slide 30)

Harry Seidler House
-

Killara