explanation of the Wall written in

shawlaskewvilleUrban and Civil

Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

56 views

‘The
Americans use West Berlin as a
base for recruiting spies, sabotage
and starting riots.

The
wall will keep
East Germany safe
.’


The Russian
government’s
explanation
of the
Wall written in
1961.

It was printed in newspapers
for East Germans to read.

‘The wall is the most obvious and vivid
demonstration of the failures of the communist
system, all the world can see, and we take no
satisfaction in it. For it is an offense not only
against humanity, separating families, dividing
husbands and wives and brothers and sisters and
dividing a people who wished to be joined
together!’


A
n extract from John F.
K
ennedy’s speech in 1963.
It was delivered in Berlin and broadcast around
the world.

Causes


1.
Growing tension due to Kennedy’s actions


Kennedy tried to get tough on Communism.


He financed the forces fighting the Communists in Vietnam and Laos,


In 1961 he helped an invasion of Cuba to try and get rid of the Communist
government there .


2.
Refugees



East Germany was poor and under strict rule.



West Berlin was wealthy and free. Many East Germans worked in West Berlin, and
saw this.


By 1961, 3 million had fled to the west through Berlin. As the Cold War tension
grew, more left, fearing that the border would be closed


by August 1961, the flow
was 1,800 a day.



This was an embarrassment to Russia, which claimed that Communism was better.



Also, many who left were skilled workers.


3.
Spying and Sabotage

The Russians claimed that the Americans used West Berlin for spying and sabotage.

Results of the Berlin Wall:


∙ Berlin was split in two. Hundreds of East Berliners died trying to
cross it.


∙ America complained, but did not try to take it down


it was not
worth a war.


∙ Tension grew: both sides started nuclear testing in the years
after the wall was built.


∙ The West became more openly anti
-
communist
-

the US
President Kennedy openly made speeches criticising the building
of the wall.


∙ The Wall became a symbol in the West of Communist tyranny.

Berlin, 1961. Berlin Wall at
Zimmerstrasse
/
Markgrafenstrasse

West Berliners watching over the Wall to the East

A British cartoon from the
Daily Sketch

paper from 1961. It shows the two sides as not
really wanting to fight.

A British cartoon from the
Evening Standard
newspaper from 1961. It shows Kennedy,
The US president, on the left blocked from entering Berlin whilst
Khruschev
, the Soviet
leader, watches on the right hand side.

A British cartoon from the
Daily Mail

newspaper from 1961. It shows the two sides at
Checkpoint Charlie, a crossing point between the two sides. It is trying to demonstrate
how quickly things could turn into near war.

The figure in the
centre is saying ‘I’m
Charlie
-

I was only
looking.’


(This is a joke as
Charlie was the
name of the
Checkpoint)

Causes


1.
Growing tension due to Kennedy’s actions


Kennedy tried to get tough on Communism.


He financed the forces fighting the Communists in Vietnam and
Laos,


In 1961 he helped an invasion of Cuba to try and get rid of the
Communist government there .


2.
Refugees



East Germany was poor and under strict rule.



West Berlin was wealthy and free. Many East Germans worked
in West Berlin, and saw this.


By 1961, 3 million had fled to the west through Berlin. As the
Cold War tension grew, more left, fearing that the border would
be closed


by August 1961, the flow was 1,800 a day.



This was an embarrassment to Russia, which claimed that
Communism was better.



Also, many who left were skilled workers.


3.
Spying and Sabotage

The Russians claimed that the Americans used West Berlin for spying
and sabotage.

Results of the Berlin Wall:


∙ Berlin was split in two. Hundreds of East Berliners died trying
to cross it.


∙ America complained, but did not try to take it down


it was
not worth a war.


∙ Tension grew: both sides started nuclear testing in the years
after the wall was built.


∙ The West became more openly anti
-
communist
-

the US
President Kennedy openly made speeches criticising the building
of the wall.


∙ The Wall became a symbol in the West of Communist tyranny.

Berlin, 1961. Berlin Wall
at
Zimmerstrasse
/

Markgrafenstrasse

West Berliners watching
over the Wall to the
East

EVIDENCE

‘The
Americans use West Berlin as a base for recruiting
spies, sabotage and starting riots.

The
wall will keep East
Germany safe
.’

The Russian
government’s explanation
of the
Wall written in
1961.

It was printed in newspapers for East Germans to
read.

A British cartoon from the
Daily Sketch

paper from 1961. It shows the
two sides as not really wanting to fight.

A British cartoon from the
Evening Standard
newspaper from
1961. It shows Kennedy, The US president, on the left
blocked from entering Berlin whilst
Khruschev
, the Soviet
leader, watches on the right hand side.

The figure in the
centre is saying ‘I’m
Charlie
-

I was only
looking.’


(This is a joke as
Charlie was the
name of the
Checkpoint)

A British cartoon from the
Daily Mail

newspaper from 1961. It shows
the two sides at Checkpoint Charlie, a crossing point between the two
sides. It is trying to demonstrate how quickly things could turn into
near war.

‘The wall is the most obvious and vivid demonstration of
the failures of the communist system, all the world can see,
and we take no satisfaction in it. For it is an offense not only
against humanity, separating families, dividing husbands
and wives and brothers and sisters and dividing a people
who wished to be joined together!’

A
n extract from John F.
K
ennedy’s speech in 1963. It was
delivered in Berlin and broadcast around the world.

SOURCES