Ethanol yield from fruit peels and adsorption of - aos-hci-2012 ...

shamebagBiotechnology

Feb 22, 2013 (4 years and 3 months ago)

211 views

Aman

Mangalmurti


Kara Newman

Leong Qi Dong

Soh Han
Wei

Depletion of non
-
renewable
fossil fuels
due to excessive
consumption as a
source of energy

Possible extinction
of
bananas due to various
diseases leads to
banana waste

Heavy metal
water
contamination of water
is rampant in many
countries.

Conversion of
renewable sources, e.g.
organic wastes, to fuel
ensures continual
energy supply

Heavy metal ions
accumulate inside
organisms and cause
adverse health effects

Biosorption

in removal
of heavy metal ions by
fruit peel wastes

Bananas are
threatened by various
diseases

To prepare extracts of fruit peel for ethanol
fermentation

To determine which fruit peel gives highest ethanol
yield

To determine which fruit peel waste adsorbs heavy
metal ions best

To determine a protocol which maximizes efficiency of
fruit waste

Preparation of
fruit peel extract,
microbe, heavy
metal solution

Adsorption
of
Ions

Extraction of
sugars

Ethanol
Fermentation

Extraction of
sugars

Ethanol
Fermentation

Residue for
Adsorption
of
Ions

Independent


Fruit peels used (AOS:
banana, HCI: mango)


Heavy metal ions


Order of Procedure

Dependent


Initial concentration of
reducing sugars in fruit
peel extracts


Ratio of ethanol yield to
initial sugar
concentration


Final ethanol yield


Final concentration of
heavy metal ions

Constant


Mass of fruit peel used
for extraction of glucose


Type of microorganism
used


Immobilisation of
microorganism


Fermentation conditions


Initial concentration of
heavy metal ions


Duration of adsorption


Mass of fruit peel
particles used for
adsorption


Procedure

APPARATUS


Centrifuge


Centrifuge tube


Spectrophotometer


Spectrophotometer cuvettes


Glass rod


Dropper


Sieve


Blender


Boiling water bath


Shaking incubator


Fractional
distillatory


Quincy Lab Model 30 GC hot
-
air
oven


Rotary Mill


Sieve: 0.25mm (60 Mesh)


MATERIALS


Zymomonas

mobilis


Glucose
-
yeast medium


Sodium
alginate medium


Calcium
chloride solution


Sodium
Chloride
solution


Fruit
peel


Deionised
water


Dinitrosalicylic

acid


Acidified
potassium chromate
solution


Lead
(II
), Copper
(II
), Zinc
(II) ion
solutions


Lead (II). Copper (II), Zinc (II)
r
eagent kits


ETHANOL FERMENTATION

Growth of
Z. mobilis

Immobilisation of cells

Extraction of sugars from fruit peels

Determination of sugars in extracts

Ethanol fermentation by immobilized
Z. mobilis

cells

Determination of ethanol yield with the
dichromate test

ADSORPTION OF HEAVY
METAL IONS


Adsorption of heavy metal ions

Determination of final ion
concentration


the % ethanol per g of

cells


µmol
of ethanol per ml

reducing
sugar in fruit peels

The ethanol yield
would be
evaluate by
comparing


The ratio of the final concentration
of metal ion to the initial
concentration


The % of heavy metal ions adsorbed

The heavy metal
ion adsorption
efficiency would
be evaluated by
comparing

Cost
-
effective
method of
producing ethanol

Reduces reliance on
non
-
renewable fossil
fuels

Using by
-
product
waste

Viable method in
wastewater
treatment


Anhwange
, T. J. Ugye, T.D. Nyiaatagher (2009). Chemical composition of Musa
sapientum (Banana) peels.
Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and
Food Chemistry, 8,
437
-
442


Retrieved on 29 October 2011 from:

http://ejeafche.uvigo.es/component/option,com_docman/task,doc_view/gid,495



Björklund, G. Burke, J. Foster, S. Rast, W. Vallée, D. Van der Hoek, W. (2009,
February 16). Impacts of water use on water systems and the environment
(United Nations World Water Development Report 3). Retrieved June 6, 2011,

from

www.unesco.org/water/wwap/wwdr/wwdr3/pdf/19_WWDR3_ch_8.pdf


US
Environmental
Protection Agency
(
2011) .Drinking Water Contaminants.
Retrieved June 6, 2011, From

http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/index.cfm




Mark R. Wilkins , Wilbur W. Widmer, Karel Grohmann (2007).
Simultaneous
saccharification and fermentation of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces
cerevisiae to produce ethanol.
Process Biochemistry,
42, 1614

1619.


Retrieved on 29 October 2011 from:

http://ddr.nal.usda.gov/bitstream/10113/16371/1/IND44068998.pdf





Hossain
, A.B.M.S. &
Fazliny
, A.R. (2010). Creation of alternative energy by bio‐ethanol production
from pineapple waste and the usage of its properties for engine. African Journal of Microbiology
Research, 4(9), 813‐819. Retrieved October 27, 2011 from
http
://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr/PDF/Pdf2010/4May/Hossain%20and%20Fazliny.pdf


Mishra, V.,
Balomajumder
, C. &
Agarwal
, V.K. (2010).
Biosorption

of Zn(II) onto the surface of
non‐living biomasses: a comparative study of adsorbent particle size and removal capacity of
three different biomasses. Water Air Soil Pollution, 211, 489‐500. Retrieved October 27, 2011 from
http://www.springerlink.com/content/2028u2q551416871/fulltext.pdf


Tanaka, K., Hilary, Z.D. &
Ishizaki
, A. (1999). Investigation of the utility of pineapple juice and
pineapple waste material as low‐cost substrate for ethanol fermentation by
Zymomonas

mobilis
.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 87(5), 642‐646.


Ban‐
Koffi
, L. & Han, Y.W. (1990). Alcohol production from pineapple waste. World Journal of
Microbiology and Biotechnology, 6(3), 281‐284.


Reddy, L.V., Reddy, O.V.S. & Wee, Y.‐J. (2011). Production of ethanol from mango (
Mangifera

indica

L.) peel by
Saccharomyces
cerevisiae

CFTRI101. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(20),
4183‐4189. Retrieved October 27, 2011 from
http
://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/pdf2011/16May/Reddy%20et%20al.pdf


Isitua
, C.C. &
Ibeh
, I.N. (2010). Novel method of wine production from banana (
Musa
acuminata
)
and pineapple (
Ananas

comosus
) wastes. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(44), 7521‐7524.


Nigam, J.N. (2000). Continuous ethanol production from pineapple cannery waste using
immobilized yeast cells. Journal of Biotechnology, 80(2), 189‐193.