Algal Biodiesel - Montana State University

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Feb 22, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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Algal Biodiesel


A Plausible Transportation Fuel


Alec M. De
Groat

Outline


Define Microalgae


Discuss
Triacylglycerides


Outline the Research and Development


View Large
-
Scale Production


Discuss Benefits of Biodiesel from Algae


Plausibility as a Fossil Fuel Replacement

What is Microalgae ?


Eukaryotic


Protists


Photoautotrophs


Freshwater and Marine


Greens and Diatoms


Some Produce Useful Lipids

Triacylglycerides

(TAGs)


It’s a lipid


Found in the membrane and in the
cytoplasm


High energy


Nile Red


Indicates presence of lipids


Rapid test


In
-
situ

lipid observation


Highly soluble in hydrophobic environments


Fluoresces at defined


wavelengths (~570nm)


Research


Sample collection


Cultures


Growth curves


Nile red


DNA sequencing



Research…


Sample collection


Freshwater


Marine



Research…


Culture and Isolation


Is isolation a good?


Research…


Liquid culture

Research…


Growth curve


Nile red


DNA Sequencing

0.01
0.1
1
10
0
50
100
150
200
Series1
Large
-
Scale Production


Methods of large scale cultivating


Raceway ponds


Photobioreactors


Harvesting and Transesterification



Production…


Raceway ponds


Less expensive setup


Large biomass production


Evaporation


Contamination


Land area

Production..


Photobioreactors


More controlled


Limited contamination


High biomass concentration


Less land area


Expensive setup


Comparison of Photobioreactor
and Raceway Pond Production

Production…


Cell
lysing

and
transesterification


Methanol


Production…



Oil yield


Crop

Oil Yield

(L/ha/year)

Biodiesel
Productivity
(Kg/ha/year)

Crop

Oil Yield

(L/ha/year)

Biodiesel
Productivity
(Kg/ha/year)

Rapeseed

1190

962

Sunflower

952

946

Oil Palm

5950

4747

Jatropha

1892

656

Corn

172

152

Microalgae
a

58700

51927

Soybean

446

562

Microalgae
b

136900

121104

a Algae contain 30% oil (/wt) in biomass. b Algae contain 70% oil (/wt) in biomass. Source:

http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_yield.html;
Chisti

(2007); Mata et al., 2009.

Drawbacks of Aquaculture


Expensive setup and processing


Nutrients such as N and P


Water


Temperature control

Benefits of Algae Farming


Year
-
round production


Fast biomass production


Less land area


Does not compete with food crops


Higher fuel output


Can use brackish water


Carbon neutral

Problems with Other Biofuels


Ethanol


Cash crop vs. food


High burn rate


Pollution


Hydrogen


Under
-
developed


Volatile


Future use



Biodiesel from crops



competition with
food



Lower oil yield



Cannot meet
demand

Plausibility as a Fossil Fuel
Replacement


Algae derived biodiesel could replace fossil fuel based
diesel fuel


530 million m
3

of biodiesel annually for the United
States


1 to 3% of total U.S. cropping land area can produce
50% of diesel fuel needs


24% of total land using other oil crops


Oil content of algae can exceed 80% of dry mass


Oil prices are high


Should cost about $0.50/L to be competitive with
petroleum diesel, ($80/barrel of oil)


Current unrest in the Middle East

Summary


Algae derived biodiesel is a


plausible transportation fuel


Microalgae produce more oil than crops


Microalgae can be cultivated quickly


Algae do not compete with food sources


Carbon neutral


Too expensive in the past


Methods have been used for 40+ years

Works Cited


Chisti
, Yusuf. (2007) Biodiesel from Microalgae.
Biotechnology Advances

25, p.294
-
306




Deng,
Xiaodong
; Li,
Yajun
;
Fei
,
Xiaowen
. (2009) Microalgae: A Promising Feedstock for Biodiesel.
African Journal of Microbiology Research
vol. 3 p. 1008
-
1014




Duffy, Emmett J.;
Canuel
, Elizabeth A.;
Adey
, Walter; Swaddle, John P (2009) Biofuels: Algae.
Science

vol. 326 no. 5958 p. 1345




Elsey
, Danielle; Jameson, David; Raleigh, Barry; Cooney, Michael J. (2007) Fluorescent Measurement of
Microalgal

Neutral Lipids
. Journal of Microbiological Methods

68, p.639
-
642





Greenwell, H.C.; Laurens, L.M.L; Shields, R.J.;
Lovitt
, R.W.; Flynn, K.J. (2009) Placing Microalgae on
the Biofuels Priority List: a Review of the Technological Challenges.
J.R. Soc. Interface
doi
:
10.1098/rsif.2009.0322




Janssen, Marcel; Tramper, Johannes; Mur,
Luuc

R.;
Wijffels
, Rene' H. (2002) Enclosed Outdoor
Photobioreactors: Light Regime, Photosynthetic Efficiency, Scale
-
Up, and Future Prospects.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering

vol

81 issue2




Mitchell, Donald (2008) A Note on Rising Food Prices.
The World Bank Development Prospects Group




Pimentel, David;
Patzek
, Tad W. (2005) Ethanol Production Using Corn,
Switchgrass
, and Wood:
Biodiesel Production Using Soybean and Sunflower.
Natural Resources Research

vol.14 no.1 p.65
-
78