MANAGING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

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Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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MANAGING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

7
th

EDITION

CHAPTER 6b

MANAGERIAL SUPPORT SYSTEMS


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GROUP SUPPORT SYSTEMS (GSS)


Decision support for group meetings


Goal: more productive meetings



Includes “different time, different place” mode =
virtual teams



Product example:


Group Systems (Purchased by IBM)


Group Systems

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GROUP SUPPORT SYSTEMS


Traditional setup for “same
-
time, same
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place” GSS

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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS


Systems based on manipulation of relationships in space that use
geographic data



Early GIS users
:

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Natural resource management

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Public administration

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NASA and the military

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Urban planning

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Forestry

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Map makers


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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS


Current business uses:

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Determining site locations

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Market analysis and planning

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Logistics and routing

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Environmental engineering

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Geographic pattern analysis



Applications for mobile users: ;

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Logistics (fastest route)

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Location intelligence


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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS


Representation of spatial data:



Raster
-
based GISs


rely on dividing space into small,
uniform cells (rasters) in a grid



Vector
-
based GISs


associate features in the landscape
with a point, line, or polygon



“Coverage” data model


different layers represent similar
types of geographic features in the same area and are
stacked on top of one another


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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

“Coverage” data model

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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS


Organizations can buy off
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the
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shelf technologies and spatial
data:

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Base maps, zip code maps, street networks, and advertising
media market maps



Other data sources may be spread throughout the organization
in different internal databases


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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS


Environmental Research Institute (ESRI)


Pitney Bowes ( with its MapInfo products)


Autodesk


Tactician Corp.


Intergraph Corp.

GIS Vendors

ESRI

MapInfo


Tactician

Intergraph


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Executive Information Systems (EIS)/

Business Intelligence Systems


Hands
-
on tool that focuses, filters, and organizes information so
that an executive can make more effective use of it



User base for
EISs
has expanded to encompass all levels of
management



Today also called
performance management software



Focus on competitive information…



today referred to as
business intelligence systems




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Executive Information Systems/

Business Intelligence Systems

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Delivers online current information about business conditions in
aggregate form

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Filtered and summarized transaction data


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Competitive information, assessments and insights



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Easily accessible to senior executives and other managers


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Designed to be used without intermediary assistance


-

Uses state
-
of
-
the
-
art graphics, communications and data storage
methods


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Executive Information Systems/

Business Intelligence Systems


Executive Dashboard from Qualitech Solutions


Oracle Enterprise performance Management Systems


SAP Business Objects Strategy Management


SAS/EIS


Symphony RPM from Symphony Metreo


IBM Cognos Business Intelligence


MicroStrategy Intelligence Server


Oracle Business Intelligence Suite


SAP Business Objects BI solutions


SAS Business Intelligence


Infor PM

Commercial EIS software



Executive Dashboard

SAP Business Objects

SAS/EIS


Symphony Metreo

Infor PM



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Executive Information Systems/

Business Intelligence Systems



Dashboard” layout for data representation:

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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

What is Knowledge management (KM)?



Practices to manage Organizational knowledge



Strategies and processes for identifying, creating,
capturing, organizing, transferring, and leveraging
knowledge held by individuals and the firm

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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS


What is a Knowledge management
system
(KMS)?



System to help manage organizational knowledge



Technologies that facilitate the sharing and transferring of
knowledge so that it can be reused



Enables people and organizations to learn from others to
improve performance of individuals, groups and the organization
as a whole

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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS


Potential benefits of a corporate KMS:



Operational improvements

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Faster and better dissemination of knowledge

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Efficient processes

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Change management processes

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Knowledge reuse



Market improvements

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Increased sales

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Lower cost of products and services

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Customer satisfaction

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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

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KM team formed to develop organization
-
wide KMS


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Coordinators within communities of practice (COP)
responsible for overseeing knowledge in the community


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Portal software provides tools, including discussion forums


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Any member of the community can post a question or tip



Example:
Corporate KMS in a Pharmaceutical Firm

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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS


Field sales KMS

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KM team formed to build both content and structure of
KMS for field sales

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Taxonomy developed so that knowledge would be
organized separately

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KM team formats documents and enters into KMS

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Tips and advice required to go through validation and
approval process




Example continued:
Corporate KMS

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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS


Knowledge Contribution (Supply Side)

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Leadership commitment

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Manager and peer support for KM initiatives

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Knowledge quality control



Knowledge Reuse (Demand Side)

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Incentives and reward systems

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Relevance of knowledge

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Ease of using the KMS

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Satisfaction with the use of the KMS



KMS Success Factors:

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE


The study of how to make computers do things that are
currently done better by people



Natural languages:
systems that translate ordinary human
instructions into a language that computers can understand and
execute


Perceptive systems:
machines possessing a visual and/or aural
perceptual ability that affects their physical behavior


Genetic programming/ evolutionary design
: problems are
divided into segments, and solutions to these segments are
linked together breeding new solutions


Expert systems


Neural networks



Most relevant for
Managerial Support

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EXPERT SYSTEMS

Expert Systems


Captures the expertise of humans for a particular domain in a
computer program




Knowledge Engineer
:

-

A specially trained systems analyst who works closely with one
or more experts in the area of study

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Learns from experts how they make decisions

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Loads decision information from experts (“rules”) into module
called knowledge base



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EXPERT SYSTEMS


Major components of an Expert System:


Knowledge base:
contains the inference rules that are followed in
decision making and the parameters, or facts, relevant to the decision


Inference engine:
a logical framework that automatically executes a
line of reasoning when supplied with the inference rules and
parameters involved in the decision


User interface:
the module used by the end user



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EXPERT SYSTEMS


Buy a fully developed system created for a specific application



Develop a system using a purchased expert system
shell

(basic framework) and user
-
friendly special language



Custom build system by knowledge engineers using a special
-
purpose language (such as Prolog or Lisp)



Options for obtaining an Expert System:

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EXPERT SYSTEMS

Examples of Expert Systems



Stanford University’s
MYCIN

Diagnoses and prescribes treatment
for meningitis and blood diseases



General Electric’s
CATS
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1

Diagnoses mechanical problems in
diesel locomotives



AT&T’s ACE

Locates faults in telephone cables



Market Surveillance

Detects insider trading



FAST

Used by banking industry for credit
analysis



IDP Goal Advisor

Assists in setting short
-

and long
-
range employee career goals



Nestlé Foods

Provides employees information on
pension fund status



USDA’s EXNUT

Helps peanut farmers manage
irrigated peanut production

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NEURAL NETWORKS

Neural Networks



Systems designed to tease out meaningful patterns from vast amounts of
data that humans would find difficult to analyze without computer support



How it works:

1.
Program given set of data

2.
Program analyzes data, works out correlations, selects variables to
create patterns

3.
Pattern used to predict outcomes, then results compared to known
results

4.
Program changes pattern by adjusting variable weights or variables
themselves

5.
Repeats process over and over to adjust pattern

6.
When no further adjustment identified, ready to be used to make
predictions for future cases



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NEURAL NETWORKS

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VIRTUAL REALITY (VR)

Virtual Reality



Use of a computer
-
based system to create an environment that
seems “real” to one or more of the human senses



Non
-
entertainment uses of VR:

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Training

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Design

-

Marketing

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Meetings

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Social Collaborations


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VIRTUAL REALITY (VR)

Example Uses

of VR

Training

U.S. Army to train tank crews

Amoco for training its drivers

Duracell for training factory workers on using new
equipment

Design

Design of automobiles

Walk
-
throughs

of air conditioning/ furnace units

Marketing

Interactive 3
-
D images of products (used on the Web)

Virtual tours used by real estate companies or resort
hotels

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VIRTUAL REALITY (VR)

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COPYRIGHT

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the
publisher. Printed in the United States of America.


Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


Publishing as Prentice Hall